Le Cercle

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"Le Cercle is a biannual deep state milieu. More secretive than the Bilderberg, it is attended especially by spooks, deep politicians, editors and idealogues. Members promote their hawkish agenda by brokering weapons deals, arranging false flag attacks and otherwise subverting the democratic process. Their warmaking is also ideological - distributing propaganda to stoke fear of communism, promote the "war on terror" etc." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.
Group.png Le Cercle  
(Deep state milieuPowerbase Sourcewatch Average Rating: 5 5 from 1 reviews
Le Cercle.png
Early Cercle members representing the Paneuropean Union, the European Coal and Steel Community, France, Germany, Italy & the CIA.
Formation 1953
Founder Jean Violet
Type • secret society
• international
• think tank
Leader

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}}]]}}
Michael Ancram.jpg
Incumbent: Michael Ancram
Since 2008
Membership

• James Alan Abrahamson
• Konrad Adenauer
• Jonathan Aitken
• Georges Albertini
• Alfredo Alcaino
• Rupert Allason
• Richard Allen
• Julian Amery
• Hooshang Amirahmadi
• Michael Ancram
• Bruce Anderson
• Robert Anderson
• Giulio Andreotti
• Kaulza de Arriaga
• Nadhmi Auchi
• Franz Josef Bach
• Norman Bailey
• Pat Balestreri
• John Barron
• Margaret Beckett
• Alfredo Sánchez Bella
• Erik Bennett
• Jeff Bergner
• Wayne Lee Berman
• John Biggs-Davison
• Crispin Blunt
• Benoît de Bonvoisin
• Cornelis Bossers
• Colonel Botta
• Raymond Bourgine
• Maurice Brebart
• Paul Bremer
• John Browne
• Monsignor Brunello
• Zbigniew Brzezinski
• Francisco Bulnes
• David Burnside
• Mario Buschemi
• Ian Butterfield
• Peter van der Byl
• Umberto Cappuzzo
• John Carbaugh
• Margaret Carlisle
• William Casey
• Anthony Cavendish
• Andrew Cavendish
• Paul Channon
• Winston Churchill II
• James W. Cicconi
• Alan Clark
• William P. Clark Jr.
• Marcel Clement
• Robert Close
• William Colby
• Etienne Copel
• Miles Costick
• Percy Cradock
• James Critchfield
• Brian Crozier
• Alexandre Ribeiro da Cunha
• Florimond Damman
• Hans van Dalsen
• Armand de Decker
• Jean-François Deniau
• Paul Dietrich
• Laura Jordan Dietrich
• Alan Duncan
• Lee Edwards
• Iain Elliott
• Nicholas Elliot
• Philipp Vander Elst
• Audna England
• Fritz Ermarth
• Evo Fernandes
• Edwin J. Feulner
• Charles Fincham
• Brand Fourie
• William François
• Charles Alan 'Pop' Fraser
• Charles Freeman
• Pierre Marie Gallois
• Monique Garnier-Lancon
• Jean-Claude Gaudin
• Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
• Rolf Gärtner
• Jeffrey B. Gaynor
• Reinhard Gehlen
• Conrad Gerber
• Frans Alphons Maria Alting von Geusau
• Alberto Giovannetti
• Álvaro Gomez-Hurtado
• Enrique Gomez-Hurtado
• Philip Goodhart
• Rolf Graage
• Ronald Grierson
• Aline Griffith
• Eldon Griffiths
• Alain Griotteray
• Francois de Grossouvre
• Otto von Habsburg
• William Hague
• Stefan Halper
• Robert J. Hanks
• Bruno Heck
• Basil E. Hersov
• Dirk W. R. Hertzog
• Franz Heubl
• Alistair Horne
• Alfons Horten
• Samuel Hoskinson
• Michael Howard
• David Howell
• Hans Graf Huyn
• Rosemary Graf Huyn
• [[{{#switch: � |= |? |. |;=Fred Ikl |#default=Fred Iklé }}|{{#switch: � |= |? |. |;=Fred Ikl� |#default=Fred Iklé }}]]
• Ion Iliescu
• Manuel Fraga-Iribarne
• Henry Jackson
• Donald Jameson
• Lisa Jameson
• Tedo Japaridze
• Philipp Jenninger
• Pierre Joannon
• Jacques Jonet
• Peter Jungen
• Alain Juppe
• Alexander Karageorgevitch
• Crosby Kelly
• Nicholas de Kerchove
• John Killick
• Guillermo Kirkpatrick
• Jeane Kirkpatrick
• Henry Kissinger
• Václav Klaus
• Robert H. Knight
• Friedrich König
• Sven Kraemer
• Francis Lacoste
• Norman Lamont
• Stephen Lander
• Timothy Landon
• John Leahy
• Ronald Lehman
• Edward Leigh
• Julian Lewis
• “John Lichowski”
• David Lidington
• Gerhard Lowenthal
• Fred Luchsinger
• James Lucier
• Philippe Malaud
• Alexandre de Marenches
• Werner Marx
• Daniel Mazuera
• Richard McCormack
• Robert McKinney
• Neil McLean
• Pierre Méhaignerie
• Constantin Menges
• Alois Mertes
• Herbert Meyer
• Jean Monnet
• George Montgomery
• Thomas E. Moorer
• Robert Moss
• [[{{#switch: � |= |? |. |;=Federico Silva Muñoz |#default=Federico Silva Muñoz‎ }}|{{#switch: � |= |? |. |;=Federico Silva Muñoz� |#default=Federico Silva Muñoz‎ }}]]
• Chester A. Nagle
• Karl-Heinz Narjes
• John Negroponte
• Richard Nixon
• François d'Orcival
• Frans Otten
• Filippo Maria Pandolfi
• Charles Pasqua
• Richard Perle
• Carlo Pesenti
• Peter Petersen
• Robert Pfaltzgraff
• Jost Pfeiffer
• Antoine Pinay
• Jaime Nogueira Pinto
• Carlos Robles Piquer
• Giulia du Plooy
• Robert du Plooy
• Alain Poher
• Günter Poser
• Charles Powell
• Jean-François Probst
• Jues Pujo
• Sultan Qaboos
• Walter Raymond Jr
• Walter Raymond Sr
• Gavin W. H. Relly
• Henri Renard
• David Rockefeller
• Nelson Rockefeller
• William V. Roth
• Anton Rupert
• Luc Beyer de Rycke
• Hans Rühle
• Jan Sabbe
• Captain Santino
• Turki bin Faisal al-Saud
• Dieter A. Schmidt
• Adolf W. Schmidt
• 'Schmidthuber'
• William Schneider
• Joseph Schuchert
• Gerd Schulte-Hillen
• Franz-Josef Schulze
• Robert Schuman
• Christian Schwarz-Schilling
• Norman Schwarzkopf
• Ted Shackley
• Arkady Shevchenko
• Arnold M. Silver
• Ron Silver
• Marshall Shulman
• Thomas Roy Spencer
• Tim Spicer
• Antonio de Spinola
• Christian Freiherr von Stauffenberg
• Frank Steele
• Richard Stilwell
• Franz Josef Strauss
• Steven Symms
• Frances Stockdale Symms
• Hussein bin Talal
• Geoffrey Tantum
• Peter Tennant
• Hugh Thomas
• [[{{#switch: � |= |? |. |;=Eymen Topba |#default=Eymen Topbaş }}|{{#switch: � |= |? |. |;=Eymen Topba� |#default=Eymen Topbaş

}}]]
• Thomas A. Twetten
• Jean-Francois Vallet
• Giancarlo Elia Valori
• Paul Vankerkhoven
• Jean Violet
• Paul Violet
• Paul Volcker
• Jürgen Warnke
• Philippe de Weck
• Paul M. Weyrich
• John Wilkinson
• William Wilson
• John Wodehouse
• Paul Wolfowitz
• Bernhard Worms
• Ardeshir Zahedi
• Robert Zoelly
Interests “War on Terror”, “Terrorism”, “National Security”, Strategy of Tension, Deep politics
Interest of Johannes Großmann, Adrian Hänni, Joël van der Reijden, David Teacher
SubpageLe Cercle/Chairman (Europe)
Le Cercle/Chairman (USA)
Le Cercle/Meetings
Le Cercle is a biannual deep state milieu. More secretive than the Bilderberg, it is attended especially by spooks, deep politicians, editors and idealogues. Members promote their hawkish agenda by brokering weapons deals, arranging false flag attacks and otherwise subverting the democratic process. Their warmaking is also ideological - distributing propaganda to stoke fear of communism, promote the "war on terror" etc.

Le Cercle (formerly Pinay Circle or the Cercle Pinay)[1] is a deep state milieu set up in the early 1950s. It has members from around 25 countries and has biannual 2-4 day secret meetings on alternate sides of the Atlantic. The group's activities are little known but leaked documents and members' interests would tend to suggest the subversion of the political process - especially using Gladio-style terrorism and assassination under the banner of "anti-communism" - and the clandestine arrangement of fraudulent business transactions, especially arms deals.

Official narrative

In 2000, a single webpage at www.atlanticcircle.com was posted which described Le Cercle as "an informal group of European and American professionals - politicians, retired Ambassadors, former Generals, lawyers and active participants in banking, oil, shipping, publishing and trading companies - who are interested in preserving a positive Atlantic dialogue."[2] To the UK House of Lords, this group has been described as an "informal group meeting to discuss world affairs."[3] William Hague described it as "a political group which organises conferences." In 2007 the Washington Post termed it a "foreign policy think tank established during the Cold War that reportedly included senior politicians, diplomats and intelligence agents worldwide."[4] Inviting the banker Jean-Maxime Leveque in 1983, Monique Garnier-Lançon wrote that at The Cercle "The leaders of the free world can now examine the very grave problems which we face in order to determine together possible solutions and then to try to implement them, each in their respective sphere."[5]

David Teacher, by contrast, writes that "the Cercle complex can be seen to be an international coalition of right-wing intelligence veterans, working internationally to promote top conservative politicians who would shape the world in the 1970s and 1980s."

Konrad Adenauer meets with Antoine Pinay and Jean Violet at a Cercle meeting on 18th August 1958

Origins

Although named after a French prime minister from 1952, the real organizer of this group is believed to have been Jean Violet, a close associate of Pinay's since 1951. The group was originally French- and Euro-centric, but has over time assumed a more international flavour, especially with the involvement of Ted Shackley, under whose influence meetings were held on alternate sides of the Atlantic, with Shackley chairing the US meetings.

Leadership

Full articles: Le Cercle/Chairman (Europe), Le Cercle/Chairman (USA)

The group has separate US and European chairs[6] - one for the Autumn meeting in the USA, one for the Spring meeting in Europe. The identity of the American chairman is unknown. The US chairman is less publicised, so unqualified references to "The Chairman" will very probably be references to the European chairman. European chairs include Brian Crozier (1980-1985), Julian Amery (1985 - early 1990s)[7], Christian Schwarz-Schilling (1 year), Jonathan Aitken (1993-1996), Norman Lamont (over 10 years) and most recently, Michael Ancram. Only two US chairmen are known: Ted Shackley and his successor, Richard T. McCormack.[6]

Geoffrey Tantum was named by The Telegraph as the Cercle's UK secretary.[8]

Meetings

Full article: Stub class article Le Cercle/Meetings

The group meets biannually. Every fall it meets in the USA (usually, perhaps exclusively Washington DC) and earlier in the year it meets in an "overseas" venue, usually in Europe. Meetings last (3-)4 days and there are "about 70"[9] guests.[6] Guests are almost all male, and sometimes bring their wives, though it is unknown to what extent (if any) they are involved in the meetings.[10]

Ideology

Members have a clear hawkish orientation, which could be summarised as 'extreme right wing' and 'anti-communist'. Many have been closely involved in establishing a range of nominally independent institutions to research first "anti-communism" and later "terrorism". These have been used to promote cold war paranoia and lay the ideological groundwork for a "global war on terror".[11]

Attendance

         Full article (courtesy of ISGP) : Le Cercle membership lists
The identity of attendees is much less known than that of other secret society meetings such as the Bilderberg group and was a matter of great conjecture until 2011 when ISGP researcher, Joël van der Reijden obtained and published 5 guest lists for Le Cercle meetings, gleaned from the private papers of French Cercle visitor Monique Garnier-Lançon at Stanford University. They appear genuine and correlate clearly with other sources of information about the group.[12]

These lists included a similar set of deep politicians - i.e. politicians, spooks, bankers, diplomats, deep political actors, military officers, oil experts, editors and publishers who may or may not have retired from their official functions. The participants come almost exclusively from western or western-oriented countries. Many important members tend to be affiliated with the aristocratic circles in London or obscure elements within the Vatican, and accusations of links to fascism and synarchism are anything but uncommon in this milieu.

German guest #8 of the June 1983 Cercle meeting has a single name 'Schmidthuber' and a designation 'Minister of State of Bavaria'. This may be a reference to Peter Schmidhuber who was in the private office of Franz Josef Strauss, or this may be an alias of Strauss himself, who was indeed Minister President of Bavaria and was a regular of le Cercle.

Secrecy

Le Cercle has operated in almost complete anonymity since its creation with only a handful of articles having been written about it. The first media reference to the group was possibly Time Out magazine's 1975 leak of documents of the Institute for the Study of Conflict which referenced the "Pinay Committee", which was probably a reference to the group. No American commercially-controlled media sources are known to have mentioned the group.[13] Le Cercle was mentioned in the early 1980s by the German magazine Der Spiegel (which also published the first article on the Bilderberg group) as a result of the controversy surrounding Franz Josef Strauss, a regular attendant. In the late 1990s, Le Cercle received some more attention after a scandal broke out involving Jonathan Aitken, who was then European chairman[9]. Members who were contacted by newspapers refused to answer any questions about the group. It has only been briefly mentioned in the commercially-controlled media since then - internet researchers have worked hard to raise the group's profile. The most comprehensive study so far has been done by ISGP researcher, Joël van der Reijden[13], whose work prompted David Teacher to pursue his study of the group and republish an updated edition of his work on the group Rogue Agents. A couple of researchers have published Ph.D. theses on the group which deserve wider publication. As of July 2016, neither Spartacus nor History Commons had a page on this group.

Activities

The 1982 Langemann Papers were the first significant leak to expose the activities of Le Cercle, confirming that the group was actively involved in influencing Western European elections. Evidence of their involvement in other matters such weapons dealing and covert military action remains circumstantial but highly compelling.

Support for Conservative Politicians

David Teacher reports that "throughout the 1970s the Cercle Pinay complex was active [influencing elections in the UK,] France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Belgium." He writes that "the Cercle complex can be seen to be an international coalition of right-wing intelligence veterans, working internationally to promote top conservative politicians who would shape the world in the 1970s and 1980s."

The Langemann Papers (November 1979) quote a planning paper by Brian Crozier about a Cercle complex operation "to affect a change of government in the United Kingdom (accomplished)".[14] This may be a reference to the success of the "Shield" group which Crozier set up in 1976, probably with the express purpose of getting Margaret Thatcher elected, a year after she was invited to the Bilderberg meeting by Labour's Dennis Healey.

Disruption of Left Wing Governments

Le Cercle has also been accused of actively destabilizing governments which opposed a conservative economic agenda, such as Gough Whitlam's Australian government.[15][16] Cercle member Robert Gascoyne-Cecil chaired the conservative Monday Club which prepared a coup against Labour government of Harold Wilson.[17]

Promotion of European Integration

Le Cercle (like the Bilderberg Group, to which it is often compared) is strongly focused on European integration, going back to the efforts of its early members to bring about a Franco-German rapprochement. The significant presence of Paneuropa-affiliated Opus Dei members and Knights of Malta, together with statements of the Vatican and Otto von Habsburg, suggest an agenda of creating a new "Holy Roman Empire" with borders from the Atlantic to the Black Sea and from the Baltic Sea to North Africa.[citation needed] Interestingly, the latest generation of British Cercle members, whose predecessors were keen on joining the European Union, now seem to want to keep Britain out of the emerging European superstate, perhaps having lost faith they can become a significant force within Europe. Their American associates, however, would like for them to continue the effort of breaking into the Franco-German alliance and possibly to establish a new Anglo-German alliance.

"War on Terror"

Full article: Rated 4/5 “War on Terror”

The group's interest in terrorism and arms dealing lends support to the suggestion that it may have been important in inventing the War on terror narrative. It is surely no coincidence that at least three members of this group (Brian Crozier, Robert Moss, Gerhard Lowenthal) gave presentations at the 1979 Jerusalem Conference on International Terrorism - Nafeez Ahmed names as being the seminal event in the development of the establishment's "War on Terror" narrative. Many of the other speakers are closely connected to known members and may well have attended Le Cercle meetings, perhaps regularly. Many members set up "terrorism research" organisations, which sheds new light on the "anti-communist" think tanks they set up, such as Interdoc. Joël van der Reijden infers that Le Cercle may be connected to the Strategy of Tension. Noting the presence of Baron Benoit de Bonvoisin in the group, he remarks that "That's major news, because Baron de Bonvoisin, besides a key Belgian figure in the Strategy of Tension, is the most key name in the Belgian X-Dossiers."

Covert Military Intervention

Following a Nasserite coup in Yemen in September 1962, Julian Amery (later Cercle chairman) met with King Hussein of Jordan and agreed to send Cercle attendee Neil McLean to report on the situation[18] after which Amery met with McLean, David Stirling, Col Brian Franks and UK Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home to organise an unofficial mercenary operation.[19]

Weapons dealing

Full articles: “Iran-Contra”, Arms-to-Iraq, Al-Yamamah arms deal

Cercle visitor John Carbaugh worked for GeoMiliTech Consultants Corporation, an arms dealing group directly involved in Iran-Contra.[20] Others such as Margaret Carlisle were aides to Iran-Contra insiders. Cercle members Paul Channon and Alan Clark are connected through their involvement in the Arms-to-Iraq affair, also to the later chairman Jonathan Aitken, who himself was involved in the Al-Yamamah arms deal as well, as was another later chairman, Norman Lamont.[21] Nadhmi Auchi is widely reported as having made a lot of money from arms deals to Saddam Hussein, amongst others.[22][23]

Other activities

Lacking documents or testimony from Cercle members, inferences about Cercle activities remain unconfirmed. Ted Shackley was involved in oil deals after he left the CIA in 1979, facilitated by his close friend and fellow Cercle member, Conrad Gerber and oil smuggler John Deuss. Joël van der Reijden has suggested that Le Cercle was important in the organization of the 9/11 attacks.[24]

Funding

The group states that it is "privately funded". In 1971, Shell contributed a lump sum of £30,000. The Ford Foundation also donated £20,000 over three years[When?].[25] Robin Ramsay, editor of Lobster Magazine believes the CIA funds the group, a claim that Alan Clark also makes in his diaries. Transactions such as the Al-Yamamah arms deal‎ suggest that the group could easily be self-funded.  

Related Documents

TitleTypePublication dateAuthor(s)Description
Circle of Powerarticle1999David Guyatt
File:Rogue Agents (4th edition, 2015, full).pdfbook2014David TeacherA book about the activities of the covert European groupings responsible for the realisation of the European Union between the end of World War II and the mid 1990's
The Pinay Circlearticle1989David Teacher
== Rating ==
5star.png 10 April 2016 Robin  A good summary of a hugely under-reported deep state milieu.
Le Cercle is a good deal more secretive than the Bilderberg, and is still very little known. This page showcases the excellent work of Joël van der Reijden in exposing this group.


References

  1. A 2003 obituary in the Observer established this equivalence
  2. http://web.archive.org/web/20001017205434/http://atlanticcircle.com/
  3. http://www.parliament.uk/mps-lords-and-offices/standards-and-interests/register-of-lords-interests/register-of-interests-of-lords-members-staff/?letter=L
  4. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/10/AR2007091002436.html
  5. Adrian Hänni's Ph.D.
  6. a b c http://www.adst.org/OH%20TOCs/McCORMACK,%20Richard%20T.toc.pdf p.112
  7. https://isgp-studies.com/2010_Le_Cercle_update
  8. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/aitken-dropped-by-the-rights-secret-club-1258522.html
  9. a b Aitken dropped by the Right's secret club
  10. https://isgp-studies.com/Le_Cercle_membership_list
  11. Note, for example the connections to the 1979 JCIT; at least 3 Cercle members gave presentations and many started groups focusing on "terrorism research".
  12. https://isgp-studies.com/2011-10-26-first-ever-documents-on-le-cercle-pinay
  13. a b https://isgp-studies.com/le-cercle-pinay
  14. http://www.cryptome.org/2012/01/cercle-pinay-6i.pdf
  15. Document:The Pinay Circle
  16. http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sociopol_lecercle04.htm
  17. https://www.opendemocracy.net/ourkingdom/edward-wilson/from-reactionary-revolution-to-consolidation-11-february-1975-to-7-may-2015
  18. Stephen Dorril, MI6, Touchstone 2002, p.679.
  19. Stephen Dorril, MI6, Touchstone 2002, p.684.
  20. http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=geomilitech_consultants_corporation
  21. http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/mar/06/uk.iraq
  22. https://wikileaks.org/wiki/Nadhmi_Auchi
  23. April 6, 2003, The Observer, 'So, Norman, any regrets this time?';
  24. https://isgp-studies.com/911-supranational-suspects
  25. Teacher, David (2008-01-06). Rogue Agents: The Cercle Pinay complex 1951-1991. p. 233. 


Facts about "Le Cercle"
ConstitutesDeep state milieu +
Display date1953 - Present +
Display docTypeWikiSpooks Page +
Display imageFile:Le Cercle.png +
Display image2File:Le Cercle.png +
Has averageRating5 +
Has founderJean Violet +
Has fullPageNameLe Cercle +
Has fullPageNameeLe_Cercle +
Has groupTypeSecret society +, International + and Think tank +
Has imageFile:Le Cercle.png +
Has image2File:Le Cercle.png +
Has interestWar on Terror +, Terrorism +, National Security +, Strategy of Tension + and Deep politics +
Has leaderLe Cercle/Chairman (Europe) +
Has memberJames Alan Abrahamson +, Konrad Adenauer +, Jonathan Aitken +, Georges Albertini +, Alfredo Alcaino +, Rupert Allason +, Richard Allen +, Julian Amery +, Hooshang Amirahmadi +, Michael Ancram +, Bruce Anderson +, Robert Anderson +, Giulio Andreotti +, Kaulza de Arriaga +, Nadhmi Auchi +, Franz Josef Bach +, Norman Bailey +, Pat Balestreri +, John Barron +, Margaret Beckett +, Alfredo Sánchez Bella +, Erik Bennett +, Jeff Bergner +, Wayne Lee Berman +, John Biggs-Davison +, Crispin Blunt +, Benoît de Bonvoisin +, Cornelis Bossers +, Colonel Botta +, Raymond Bourgine +, Maurice Brebart +, Paul Bremer +, John Browne +, Monsignor Brunello +, Zbigniew Brzezinski +, Francisco Bulnes +, David Burnside +, Mario Buschemi +, Ian Butterfield +, Peter van der Byl +, Umberto Cappuzzo +, John Carbaugh +, Margaret Carlisle +, William Casey +, Anthony Cavendish +, Andrew Cavendish +, Paul Channon +, Winston Churchill II +, James W. Cicconi +, Alan Clark +, William P. Clark Jr. +, Marcel Clement +, Robert Close +, William Colby +, Etienne Copel +, Miles Costick +, Percy Cradock +, James Critchfield +, Brian Crozier +, Alexandre Ribeiro da Cunha +, Florimond Damman +, Hans van Dalsen +, Armand de Decker +, Jean-François Deniau +, Paul Dietrich +, Laura Jordan Dietrich +, Alan Duncan +, Lee Edwards +, Iain Elliott +, Nicholas Elliot +, Philipp Vander Elst +, Audna England +, Fritz Ermarth +, Evo Fernandes +, Edwin J. Feulner +, Charles Fincham +, Brand Fourie +, William François +, Charles Alan 'Pop' Fraser +, Charles Freeman +, Pierre Marie Gallois +, Monique Garnier-Lancon +, Jean-Claude Gaudin +, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil +, Rolf Gärtner +, Jeffrey B. Gaynor +, Reinhard Gehlen +, Conrad Gerber +, Frans Alphons Maria Alting von Geusau +, Alberto Giovannetti +, Álvaro Gomez-Hurtado +, Enrique Gomez-Hurtado +, Philip Goodhart +, Rolf Graage +, Ronald Grierson +, Aline Griffith +, Eldon Griffiths +, Alain Griotteray +, Francois de Grossouvre +, Otto von Habsburg +, William Hague +, Stefan Halper +, Robert J. Hanks +, Bruno Heck +, Basil E. Hersov +, Dirk W. R. Hertzog +, Franz Heubl +, Alistair Horne +, Alfons Horten +, Samuel Hoskinson +, Michael Howard +, David Howell +, Hans Graf Huyn +, Rosemary Graf Huyn +, Fred Iklé +, Ion Iliescu +, Manuel Fraga-Iribarne +, Henry Jackson +, Donald Jameson +, Lisa Jameson +, Tedo Japaridze +, Philipp Jenninger +, Pierre Joannon +, Jacques Jonet +, Peter Jungen +, Alain Juppe +, Alexander Karageorgevitch +, Crosby Kelly +, Nicholas de Kerchove +, John Killick +, Guillermo Kirkpatrick +, Jeane Kirkpatrick +, Henry Kissinger +, Václav Klaus +, Robert H. Knight +, Friedrich König +, Sven Kraemer +, Francis Lacoste +, Norman Lamont +, Stephen Lander +, Timothy Landon +, John Leahy +, Ronald Lehman +, Edward Leigh +, Julian Lewis +, John Lichowski +, David Lidington +, Gerhard Lowenthal +, Fred Luchsinger +, James Lucier +, Philippe Malaud +, Alexandre de Marenches +, Werner Marx +, Daniel Mazuera +, Richard McCormack +, Robert McKinney +, Neil McLean +, Pierre Méhaignerie +, Constantin Menges +, Alois Mertes +, Herbert Meyer +, Jean Monnet +, George Montgomery +, Thomas E. Moorer +, Robert Moss +, Federico Silva Muñoz +, Chester A. Nagle +, Karl-Heinz Narjes +, John Negroponte +, Richard Nixon +, François d'Orcival +, Frans Otten +, Filippo Maria Pandolfi +, Charles Pasqua +, Richard Perle +, Carlo Pesenti +, Peter Petersen +, Robert Pfaltzgraff +, Jost Pfeiffer +, Antoine Pinay +, Jaime Nogueira Pinto +, Carlos Robles Piquer +, Giulia du Plooy +, Robert du Plooy +, Alain Poher +, Günter Poser +, Charles Powell +, Jean-François Probst +, Jues Pujo +, Sultan Qaboos +, Walter Raymond Jr +, Walter Raymond Sr +, Gavin W. H. Relly +, Henri Renard +, David Rockefeller +, Nelson Rockefeller +, William V. Roth +, Anton Rupert +, Luc Beyer de Rycke +, Hans Rühle +, Jan Sabbe +, Captain Santino +, Turki bin Faisal al-Saud +, Dieter A. Schmidt +, Adolf W. Schmidt +, 'Schmidthuber' +, William Schneider +, Joseph Schuchert +, Gerd Schulte-Hillen +, Franz-Josef Schulze +, Robert Schuman +, Christian Schwarz-Schilling +, Norman Schwarzkopf +, Ted Shackley +, Arkady Shevchenko +, Arnold M. Silver +, Ron Silver +, Marshall Shulman +, Thomas Roy Spencer +, Tim Spicer +, Antonio de Spinola +, Christian Freiherr von Stauffenberg +, Frank Steele +, Richard Stilwell +, Franz Josef Strauss +, Steven Symms +, Frances Stockdale Symms +, Hussein bin Talal +, Geoffrey Tantum +, Peter Tennant +, Hugh Thomas +, Eymen Topbaş +, Thomas A. Twetten +, Jean-Francois Vallet +, Giancarlo Elia Valori +, Paul Vankerkhoven +, Jean Violet +, Paul Violet +, Paul Volcker +, Jürgen Warnke +, Philippe de Weck +, Paul M. Weyrich +, John Wilkinson +, William Wilson +, John Wodehouse +, Paul Wolfowitz +, Bernhard Worms +, Ardeshir Zahedi + and Robert Zoelly +
Has noRatings1 +
Has objectClassGroup +
Has objectClass2Group +
Has powerbasehttp://powerbase.info/index.php/Pinay_Circle +
Has revisionSize22,494 +
Has revisionUserRobin +
Has sourcewatchhttp://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Pinay_Cercle +
Has wikipediaPagehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Cercle +
Has wikipediaPage2https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Cercle +
Is not stubtrue +
Start1953 +