Le Cercle

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"Le Cercle is a deep state milieu which was set up around the same time as the Bilderberg, but is smaller and more secretive. It is attended especially by idealogues including spooks, deep politicians and editors. Members promote their hawkish agenda by otherwise subverting the democratic process, possibly going as far as brokering weapons deals and setting up false flag attacks. Their warmaking is also ideological - distributing propaganda to stoke fear of communism, promoting the "war on terror" etc." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.
Group.png Le Cercle  
(Deep state milieuISGP Powerbase Sourcewatch 5
Le Cercle.png
Early Cercle members representing the Paneuropean Union, the European Coal and Steel Community, France, Germany, Italy & the CIA.
Formation 1953
Founder Jean Violet
Type • secret society
• international
• think tank
Leader Le Cercle/Chairman (Europe)‎
Michael Ancram.jpg
Incumbent: Michael Ancram
Since 2008
Interests “War on Terror”, “Counter-terrorism”, “National Security”, Strategy of Tension, Deep politics
Interest of Johannes Großmann, Adrian Hänni, Joël van der Reijden, David Teacher
Membership • James Alan Abrahamson
• Konrad Adenauer
• Jonathan Aitken
• Georges Albertini
• Alfredo Alcaino
• Rupert Allason
• Richard Allen
• Julian Amery
• Hooshang Amirahmadi
• Michael Ancram
• Bruce Anderson
• Robert Anderson
• Giulio Andreotti
• Magdeleine Anglade
• Richard Armitage
• Kaulza de Arriaga
• Nadhmi Auchi
• Shaukat Aziz
• Franz Josef Bach
• Norman Bailey
• Pat Balestreri
• John Barron
• Margaret Beckett
• Alfredo Sánchez Bella
• Erik Bennett
• Jeff Bergner
• Wayne Lee Berman
• Benazir Bhutto
• John Biggs-Davison
• Brian Binley
• W. Michael Blumenthal
• Crispin Blunt
• John Bolton
• Benoît de Bonvoisin
• Cornelis Bossers
• Pik Botha
• Colonel Botta
• Raymond Bourgine
• Maurice Brebart
• Paul Bremer
• Harold Brown
• John Browne
• Monsignor Brunello
• Zbigniew Brzezinski
• Francisco Bulnes
• David Burnside
• Mario Buschemi
• Ian Butterfield
• Peter van der Byl
• Umberto Cappuzzo
• John Carbaugh
• Margaret Carlisle
• William Casey
• Anthony Cavendish
• Andrew Cavendish
• Paul Channon
• Winston Churchill II
• James W. Cicconi
• Alan Clark
• William P. Clark Jr.
• Marcel Clement
• Robert Close
• William Colby
• Etienne Copel
• Miles Costick
• Percy Cradock
• James Critchfield
• Brian Crozier
• Alexandre Ribeiro da Cunha
• Florimond Damman
• Hans van Dalsen
• Armand de Decker
• Jean-François Deniau
• Paul Dietrich
• Laura Jordan Dietrich
• Hans-Lothar Domröse
• Alan Duncan
• Lee Edwards
• Iain Elliott
• Nicholas Elliot
• Philipp Vander Elst
• Audna England
• Fritz Ermarth
• Evo Fernandes
• Edwin J. Feulner
• Charles Fincham
• Brand Fourie
• Wyche Fowler
• William François
• Charles Alan 'Pop' Fraser
• Louis Freeh
• Charles Freeman
• Yegor Gaidar
• Pierre Marie Gallois
• Indira Gandhi
• Monique Garnier-Lançon
• Jean-Claude Gaudin
• Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
• Rolf Gärtner
• Jeffrey B. Gaynor
• Reinhard Gehlen
• Conrad Gerber
• Frans Alphons Maria Alting von Geusau
• Alberto Giovannetti
• Álvaro Gomez-Hurtado
• Enrique Gomez-Hurtado
• Philip Goodhart
• Rolf Graage
• Alan Greenspan
• Ronald Grierson
• Aline Griffith
• Eldon Griffiths
• Alain Griotteray
• Francois de Grossouvre
• Otto von Habsburg
• Chuck Hagel
• William Hague
• Stefan Halper
• Robert J. Hanks
• Stephen Hastings
• Tsutomu Hata
• Bruno Heck
• Neil Peter Van Heerden
• Basil E. Hersov
• Dirk W. R. Hertzog
• Franz Heubl
• Alistair Horne
• Alfons Horten
• Samuel Hoskinson
• Michael Howard
• David Howell
• Hans Graf Huyn
• Rosemary Graf Huyn
• Fred Iklé
• Ion Iliescu
• Manuel Fraga-Iribarne
• Henry Jackson
• Donald Jameson
• Lisa Jameson
• Tedo Japaridze
• Philipp Jenninger
• Pierre Joannon
• Jacques Jonet
• Peter Jungen
• Alain Juppe
• Alexander Karageorgevitch
• Crosby Kelly
• Nicholas de Kerchove
• John Killick
• Lane Kirkland
• Guillermo Kirkpatrick
• Jeane Kirkpatrick
• Henry Kissinger
• Václav Klaus
• Robert H. Knight
• Friedrich König
• Sven Kraemer
• Victor Kuvaldin
• Francis Lacoste
• Norman Lamont
• Stephen Lander
• Timothy Landon
• John Leahy
• Ronald Lehman
• Edward Leigh
• Julian Lewis
• “John Lichowski”
• David Lidington
• Gerhard Löwenthal
• Fred Luchsinger
• James Lucier
• Philippe Malaud
• Charles Malik
• Nikolai Malomuzh
• Alexandre de Marenches
• Werner Marx
• Daniel Mazuera
• Richard McCormack
• Robert McKinney
• Neil McLean
• George Meany
• Pierre Méhaignerie
• Constantin Menges
• Dan Meridor
• Alois Mertes
• Herbert Meyer
• George Mitchell
• Jean Monnet
• George Montgomery
• Thomas E. Moorer
• Robert Moss
• Federico Silva Muñoz‎
• Chester A. Nagle
• Karl-Heinz Narjes
• John Negroponte
• Richard Nixon
• François d'Orcival
• Frans Otten
• Urmas Paet
• Filippo Maria Pandolfi
• Charles Pasqua
• Richard Perle
• Carlo Pesenti
• Peter Petersen
• Robert Pfaltzgraff
• Jost Pfeiffer
• Antoine Pinay
• Jaime Nogueira Pinto
• Carlos Robles Piquer
• Giulia du Plooy
• Robert du Plooy
• Alain Poher
• Günter Poser
• Charles Powell
• Jean-François Probst
• Jues Pujo
• Sultan Qaboos
• Walter Raymond Jr
• Walter Raymond Sr
• Gavin W. H. Relly
• Henri Renard
• David Rockefeller
• Nelson Rockefeller
• William V. Roth
• Anton Rupert
• Luc Beyer de Rycke
• Hans Rühle
• Donald Rumsfeld
• Jan Sabbe
• Captain Santino
• Turki bin Faisal al-Saud
• Antonin Scalia
• Dieter A. Schmidt
• Adolf W. Schmidt
• 'Schmidthuber'
• William Schneider
• Joseph Schuchert
• Gerd Schulte-Hillen
• Franz-Josef Schulze
• Robert Schuman
• Christian Schwarz-Schilling
• Norman Schwarzkopf
• Ted Shackley
• Natan Sharansky
• Arkady Shevchenko
• Marshall Shulman
• Arnold M. Silver
• Ron Silver
• Manmohan Singh
• Thomas Roy Spencer
• Tim Spicer
• Antonio de Spinola
• Christian Freiherr von Stauffenberg
• Frank Steele
• Richard Stilwell
• Franz Josef Strauss
• Steven Symms
• Frances Stockdale Symms
• Hussein bin Talal
• Geoffrey Tantum
• H. L. T. Taswell
• Peter Tennant
• Margaret Thatcher
• Hugh Thomas
• Eymen Topbaş
• Thomas A. Twetten
• Jean-Francois Vallet
• Giancarlo Elia Valori
• Paul Vankerkhoven
• Jean Violet
• Paul Violet
• Paul Volcker
• Jürgen Warnke
• Philippe de Weck
• Paul M. Weyrich
• John Wilkinson
• William Wilson
• John Wodehouse
• Paul Wolfowitz
• Bernhard Worms
• Ardeshir Zahedi
• Robert Zoelly
SubpageLe Cercle/1958
Le Cercle/1973 (Washington)
Le Cercle/1977 (South Africa)
Le Cercle/1977 (Washington)
Le Cercle/1978 (Tehran)
Le Cercle/1978 (Washington)
Le Cercle/1979 (Washington)
Le Cercle/1979 (Wildbad Kreuth)
Le Cercle/1980 (Washington)
Le Cercle/1980 (Zurich)
Le Cercle/1982 (Washington)
Le Cercle/1982 (Wildbad Kreuth)
Le Cercle/1983 (Bonn)
Le Cercle/1984 (Bonn)
Le Cercle/1984 (Capetown)
Le Cercle/1985 (Bonn)
Le Cercle/1985 (Washington)
Le Cercle/1986 (Nice)
Le Cercle/1988 (South Africa)
Le Cercle/1990 (Oman)
Le Cercle/1991 (South Africa)
Le Cercle/1996 (Amman)
Le Cercle/1997 (Berlin)
Le Cercle/1998 (Istanbul)
Le Cercle/1999 (London)
Le Cercle/1999 (Washington)
Le Cercle/2000 (Lisbon)
Le Cercle/2000 (Washington)
Le Cercle/2001 (Washington)
Le Cercle/2002 (Morocco)
Le Cercle/2002 (Washington)
Le Cercle/2003 (Salzburg)
Le Cercle/2004 (Belgrade)
Le Cercle/2004 (Washington)
Le Cercle/2005 (Paris)
Le Cercle/2006 (Delhi)
Le Cercle/2007 (Madrid)
Le Cercle/2007 (Washington)
Le Cercle/2008 (Washington)
Le Cercle/2009 (Washington)
Le Cercle/2012 (Morocco)
Le Cercle/Chairman (Europe)
Le Cercle/Chairman (USA)
Le Cercle/Meetings
Le Cercle is a deep state milieu which was set up around the same time as the Bilderberg, but is smaller and more secretive. It is attended especially by idealogues including spooks, deep politicians and editors. Members promote their hawkish agenda by otherwise subverting the democratic process, possibly going as far as brokering weapons deals and setting up false flag attacks. Their warmaking is also ideological - distributing propaganda to stoke fear of communism, promoting the "war on terror" etc.

Le Cercle (formerly Pinay Group[1], also Pinay Circle[2] or the Cercle Pinay[3]) is a deep state milieu which is about as old as the Bilderberg, but considerably smaller and much more secretive. Members from around 25 countries meet yearly in both Washington DC and Europe. Leaked documents[4] suggest that the group's activities include political subversion - especially using Gladio-style "terrorism" and assassination - and the clandestine arrangement of business transactions, especially arms deals and fraud.

Official narrative

In 2000, a single webpage at www.atlanticcircle.com described Le Cercle as "an informal group of European and American professionals - politicians, retired Ambassadors, former Generals, lawyers and active participants in banking, oil, shipping, publishing and trading companies - who are interested in preserving a positive Atlantic dialogue."[5] To the UK House of Lords, this group has been described as an "informal group meeting to discuss world affairs."[6] William Hague described it as "a political group which organises conferences." In 2007 the Washington Post termed it a "foreign policy think tank established during the Cold War that reportedly included senior politicians, diplomats and intelligence agents worldwide."[7] Inviting the banker Jean-Maxime Leveque in 1983, Monique Garnier-Lançon wrote that at The Cercle "The leaders of the free world can now examine the very grave problems which we face in order to determine together possible solutions and then to try to implement them, each in their respective sphere."[8]

David Teacher, by contrast, writes that "the Cercle complex can be seen to be an international coalition of right-wing intelligence veterans, working internationally to promote top conservative politicians who would shape the world in the 1970s and 1980s."

Konrad Adenauer meets with Antoine Pinay and Jean Violet at a Cercle meeting on 18th August 1958

Origins

Although named after Antoine Pinay (French prime minister in 1952) the group is believed to have been organised by Jean Violet, a close associate of his since 1951. The group arose from a Franco-German alliance an originally its anti-communism had a catholic Christian flavour. In the 1970s, it assumed a transatlantic secular flavour,[9] especially with the involvement of Ted Shackley, under whose influence meetings were held on alternate sides of the Atlantic, with Shackley chairing the US meetings.

Leadership

Full articles: Le Cercle/Chairman (Europe), Le Cercle/Chairman (USA)

The group has had separate US and European chairs for some years[10] - one for the Autumn meeting in the USA, one for the Spring meeting in Europe. The US chairman is less publicised (and is currently unidentified) so unqualified references to "The Chairman" will very probably be references to the European chairman. European chairs include Brian Crozier (1980-1985), Julian Amery (1985 - early 1990s)[11], Christian Schwarz-Schilling (1 year), Jonathan Aitken (1993-1996), Norman Lamont (over 10 years) and most recently, Michael Ancram. Only two US chairmen are known: Ted Shackley and his successor, Richard T. McCormack.[10]

Geoffrey Tantum was named by The Telegraph as the Cercle's UK secretary.[12]

Meetings

Full article: Le Cercle/Meetings

The group currently meets biannually, in Washington DC every Autumn and in Spring across the Atlantic, usually in Europe, although David Rockefeller's autobiography states that it used to meet "thrice yearly".[13] Meetings last (3-)4 days and nowadays there are "about 70"[14] guests, although meetings used to be smaller, perhaps just 35 participants.[10] Guests are almost all male, and sometimes bring their wives, though it is unknown to what extent (if any) they are involved in the meetings.[15] Membership is much less fluid than a milieu such as the Bilderberg.

Ideology

Most Cercle attendees have a hawkish orientation, which could be summarised as 'extreme right wing' and anti-communist. Many have been closely involved in establishing a range of nominally independent institutions to research first "anti-communism" and later "terrorism". These have been used to promote cold war paranoia and lay the ideological groundwork for a "global war on terror".[16]

Attendance

The identity of attendees was largely a matter of conjecture until 2011 when ISGP researcher, Joël van der Reijden obtained and published 5 guest lists for Le Cercle meetings, gleaned from the private papers of French Cercle visitor Monique Garnier-Lançon at Stanford University,[17] which led him to create a list which inspired the list on the right.[18]

These lists detail deep politicians - i.e. politicians, spooks, bankers, diplomats, deep political actors, military officers, oil experts, editors and publishers who may or may not have retired from their official functions. The participants come almost exclusively from western or western-oriented countries. Many important members tend to be affiliated with the aristocratic circles in London or obscure elements within the Vatican, and accusations of links to fascism and synarchism are anything but uncommon in this milieu.

Exposure

The first known print reference to Le Cercle was probably in Time Out magazine's 1975 leaked documents from the Institute for the Study of Conflict, which referenced the "Pinay Committee". No American commercially-controlled media sources are known to have mentioned the group.[19] Le Cercle was mentioned in 1980[20] in Der Spiegel (which also published the first article on the Bilderberg group) as a result of the controversy surrounding Franz Josef Strauss, a regular attendant. In the late 1990s, Le Cercle received more attention after a scandal broke out involving Jonathan Aitken, who was then European chairman[14]. Members who were contacted by newspapers refused to answer any questions about the group.

The Cercle has had minimal attntion from the commercially-controlled media. The most comprehensive study online was carried out by ISGP researcher, Joël van der Reijden, who has been writing about the Cercle since 2005.[21] Van der Reijden's work prompted David Teacher to pursue his study of the group and republish an updated edition of his work on the group Rogue Agents. A couple of researchers have published Ph.D. theses on the group which deserve wider publication. As of June 2017, neither Spartacus nor History Commons had a page on this group. A research proposal by Adrian Hänni noted that "the Cercle is virtually nonexistent in academic research to this day... There are, as of yet, very few studies of the Cercle that are based on primary sources and meet basic academic standards."[9]

South African diplomatic documents relating to the Cercle emerged on the internet in 2017.[22][23][24]

Activities

The 1982 Langemann Papers were the first significant exposure of Le Cercle's activities, confirming that the group was actively involved in influencing Western European elections. Evidence of their involvement in other matters such weapons dealing and covert military action remains circumstantial.

Support for Conservative Politicians

David Teacher reports that "throughout the 1970s the Cercle Pinay complex was active [influencing elections in the UK,] France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Belgium." He writes that "the Cercle complex can be seen to be an international coalition of right-wing intelligence veterans, working internationally to promote top conservative politicians who would shape the world in the 1970s and 1980s."

The Langemann Papers (November 1979) quote a planning paper by Brian Crozier about a Cercle complex operation "to affect a change of government in the United Kingdom (accomplished)".[25] This may be a reference to the success of the "Shield" group which Crozier set up in 1976, probably with the express purpose of getting Margaret Thatcher elected, a year after she was invited to the Bilderberg meeting by Labour's Dennis Healey.

Disruption of Left Wing Governments

Le Cercle has also been accused of actively destabilizing governments which opposed a conservative economic agenda, such as Gough Whitlam's Australian government.[26][27] Cercle member Robert Gascoyne-Cecil chaired the conservative Monday Club which prepared a coup against Labour government of Harold Wilson.[28]

Promotion of European Integration

Le Cercle (like the Bilderberg Group, to which it is often compared) is strongly focused on European integration, going back to the efforts of its early members to bring about a Franco-German rapprochement. The significant presence of Paneuropa-affiliated Opus Dei members and Knights of Malta, together with statements of the Vatican and Otto von Habsburg, suggest an agenda of creating a new "Holy Roman Empire" with borders from the Atlantic to the Black Sea and from the Baltic Sea to North Africa.[citation needed] Interestingly, the latest generation of British Cercle members, whose predecessors were keen on joining the European Union, now seem to want to keep Britain out of the emerging European superstate, perhaps having lost faith they can become a significant force within Europe. Their American associates, however, would like for them to continue the effort of breaking into the Franco-German alliance and possibly to establish a new Anglo-German alliance.

"War on Terror"

Full article: Rated 4/5 “War on Terror”

The group's interest in "counter-terrorism" and arms dealing suggests that it may have been important in devising the "War on Terror" narrative, as does the fact that at least three members of this group (Brian Crozier, Robert Moss, Gerhard Lowenthal) gave presentations at the seminal 1979 Jerusalem Conference on International Terrorism. Some of the other speakers were connected to known members and may themselves have attended meetings of Le Cercle. Many members set up "terrorism research" organisations, which sheds new light on the "anti-communist" think tanks they also set up, such as Interdoc. Joël van der Reijden infers that Le Cercle may be connected to the Strategy of Tension. Noting the presence of Baron Benoit de Bonvoisin in the group, he remarks that "That's major news, because Baron de Bonvoisin, besides a key Belgian figure in the Strategy of Tension, is the most key name in the Belgian X-Dossiers."

Covert Military Intervention

Following a Nasserite coup in Yemen in September 1962, Julian Amery (later Cercle chairman) met with King Hussein of Jordan and agreed to send Cercle attendee Neil McLean to report on the situation[29] after which Amery met with McLean, David Stirling, Col Brian Franks and UK Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home to organise an unofficial mercenary operation.[30]

Weapons dealing

Full articles: “Iran-Contra”, Arms-to-Iraq, Al-Yamamah arms deal

Cercle visitor John Carbaugh worked for GeoMiliTech Consultants Corporation, an arms dealing group directly involved in Iran-Contra.[31] Others such as Margaret Carlisle were aides to Iran-Contra insiders. Cercle members Paul Channon and Alan Clark are connected through their involvement in the Arms-to-Iraq affair, also to the later chairman Jonathan Aitken, who himself was involved in the Al-Yamamah arms deal as well, as was another later chairman, Norman Lamont.[32] Nadhmi Auchi is widely reported as having made a lot of money from arms deals to Saddam Hussein, amongst others.[33][34]

Other activities

Lacking documents or testimony from Cercle members, inferences about Cercle activities remain unconfirmed. Ted Shackley was involved in oil deals after he left the CIA in 1979, facilitated by his close friend and fellow Cercle member, Conrad Gerber and oil smuggler John Deuss. Joël van der Reijden has suggested that Le Cercle was important in the organization of the 9/11 attacks.[35]

Funding

The group states simply that it is "privately funded". Funding for the group has changed over the years. Multinational companies including Philips and Standard Elektrik Lorenz have given the group money.[9] In 1971, Shell contributed a lump sum of £30,000. The Ford Foundation also donated £20,000 over three years[When?].[36] In the 1980s, the South African government was a major source of funds.[9]

In 1997, the Independent suggested that the group is CIA funded.[37] Robin Ramsay, editor of Lobster Magazine, John E Lewis author of The Mammoth Book of Cover-Ups[38] and Alan Clark, whose claims as much in his diaries.  

An event carried out

Use the Up/Dn symbols to sort

EventDateLocation
1975 Australian coup15 October 1975 - 11 November 1975Canberra
Australia
 

Related Documents

TitleTypePublication dateAuthor(s)Description
Circle of Powerarticle1999David Guyatt
File:Rogue Agents (3rd edition, 2011, full).pdfWikiSpooks Page2011David TeacherA book about the activities of the covert European groupings responsible for the realisation of the European Union between the end of World War II and the mid 1990's.
File:Rogue Agents (4th edition, 2015, full).pdfbook2014David TeacherA book about the activities of the covert European groupings responsible for the realisation of the European Union between the end of World War II and the mid 1990's
The Pinay Circlearticle1989David Teacher
== Rating ==
5star.png 10 April 2016 Robin  A good summary of a hugely under-reported deep state milieu.
Le Cercle is a good deal more secretive than the Bilderberg, and is still very little known. This page showcases the excellent work of Joël van der Reijden in exposing this group.


References

  1. https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973LISBON04406_b.html
  2. Document:The Pinay Circle
  3. A 2003 obituary in the Observer established this equivalence
  4. Most notably, the Langemann Papers
  5. http://web.archive.org/web/20001017205434/http://atlanticcircle.com/
  6. http://www.parliament.uk/mps-lords-and-offices/standards-and-interests/register-of-lords-interests/register-of-interests-of-lords-members-staff/?letter=L
  7. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/10/AR2007091002436.html
  8. Adrian Hänni's Ph.D.
  9. a b c d Document:Transnational History of the Cercle Pinay - Research Plan
  10. a b c http://www.adst.org/OH%20TOCs/McCORMACK,%20Richard%20T.toc.pdf p.112
  11. https://isgp-studies.com/2010_Le_Cercle_update
  12. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/aitken-dropped-by-the-rights-secret-club-1258522.html
  13. http://visupview.blogspot.co.uk/2016/04/le-cercle-clerical-fascism-and.html
  14. a b Aitken dropped by the Right's secret club
  15. https://isgp-studies.com/Le_Cercle_membership_list
  16. Note, for example the connections to the 1979 JCIT; at least 3 Cercle members gave presentations and many started groups focusing on "terrorism research".
  17. https://isgp-studies.com/2011-10-26-first-ever-documents-on-le-cercle-pinay
  18. https://isgp-studies.com/Le_Cercle_membership_list
  19. https://isgp-studies.com/le-cercle-pinay
  20. http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-14351703.html
  21. https://isgp-studies.com/2010-06-20-ted-shackley-and-atlantic-cercle-inc
  22. https://www.scribd.com/document/362409317/3-1984-Le-Cercle-Meeting-in-Stellenbosch
  23. https://www.scribd.com/document/362409160/2-Madrid-Embassy-Le-Cercle-Meeting-to-Access-Reagan
  24. https://www.scribd.com/document/362408855/1-Taswell-Report-on-1977-Le-Cercle-Meeting
  25. http://www.cryptome.org/2012/01/cercle-pinay-6i.pdf
  26. Document:The Pinay Circle
  27. http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sociopol_lecercle04.htm
  28. https://www.opendemocracy.net/ourkingdom/edward-wilson/from-reactionary-revolution-to-consolidation-11-february-1975-to-7-may-2015
  29. Stephen Dorril, MI6, Touchstone 2002, p.679.
  30. Stephen Dorril, MI6, Touchstone 2002, p.684.
  31. http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=geomilitech_consultants_corporation
  32. http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/mar/06/uk.iraq
  33. https://wikileaks.org/wiki/Nadhmi_Auchi
  34. April 6, 2003, The Observer, 'So, Norman, any regrets this time?';
  35. https://isgp-studies.com/911-supranational-suspects
  36. Teacher, David (2008-01-06). Rogue Agents: The Cercle Pinay complex 1951-1991. p. 233. 
  37. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/aitken-dropped-by-the-rights-secret-club-1258522.html
  38. https://rightedition.com/2017/09/05/le-cercle-meet-secret-cia-funded-group-behind-war-terror/
Facts about "Le Cercle"
ConstitutesDeep state milieu +
Display date1953 - Present +
Display docTypeWikiSpooks Page +
Display imageFile:Le Cercle.png +
Display image2File:Le Cercle.png +
Has averageRating5 +
Has founderJean Violet +
Has fullPageNameLe Cercle +
Has fullPageNameeLe_Cercle +
Has groupTypeSecret society +, International + and Think tank +
Has imageFile:Le Cercle.png +
Has image2File:Le Cercle.png +
Has interestWar on Terror +, National security +, Strategy of tension +, Deep politics + and Counter-terrorism +
Has isgphttps://isgp-studies.com/le-cercle-pinay +
Has leaderLe Cercle/Chairman (Europe) +
Has memberJames A. Abrahamson +, Jonathan Aitken +, Alfredo Alcaino +, Julian Amery +, Giulio Andreotti +, Franz Josef Bach +, Norman Bailey +, Pat Balestreri +, John Barron +, Jeff Bergner +, John Biggs-Davison +, Benoît de Bonvoisin +, Colonel Botta +, Raymond Bourgine +, John Browne +, Francisco Bulnes +, David Burnside +, Mario Buscemi +, Ian Butterfield +, Umberto Cappuzzo +, Margaret Carlisle +, William J. Casey +, Anthony Cavendish +, Paul Channon +, Alan Clark +, Robert Close +, William Colby +, Etienne Copel +, Miles Costick +, Percy Cradock +, Brian Crozier +, Armand de Decker +, Alan Duncan +, Lee Edwards +, Nicholas Elliott +, Philipp Vander Elst +, Edwin J. Feulner +, Charles Fincham +, Brand Fourie +, William François +, Charles Alan 'Pop' Fraser +, Monique Garnier-Lançon +, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil +, Rolf Gärtner +, Dirk W. R. Hertzog +, Franz Heubl +, Enrique Gomez-Hurtado +, Rolf Graage +, Robert J. Hanks +, Bruno Heck +, Alfons Horten +, Hans Graf Huyn +, Rosemary Graf Huyn +, Fred C. Iklé +, Manuel Fraga Iribarne +, Donald Jameson +, Philipp Jenninger +, Pierre Joannon +, Jacques Jonet +, Peter Jungen +, Nicholas de Kerchove +, John Killick +, Guillermo Kirkpatrick +, Robert H. Knight +, Friedrich König +, Sven Kraemer +, Norman Lamont +, Edward Leigh +, Julian Lewis +, Gerhard Löwenthal +, James Lucier +, Alexandre de Marenches +, Werner Marx +, Neil McLean +, Richard McCormack +, Robert McKinney +, Constantin Menges +, Alois Mertes +, Herbert Meyer +, Thomas Moorer +, Karl-Heinz Narjes +, Richard Nixon +, François d'Orcival +, Frans Otten +, Filippo Maria Pandolfi +, Charles Pasqua +, Peter Petersen +, Antoine Pinay +, Carlos Robles Piquer +, Jost Pfeiffer +, Giulia du Plooy +, Robert du Plooy +, Jean-François Probst +, Jues Pujo +, Gavin W. H. Relly +, Henri Renard +, Aline Griffith +, William Roth +, Hans Rühle +, Luc Beyer de Rycke +, Captain Santino +, Dieter A. Schmidt +, William Schneider +, Franz-Josef Schulze +, Christian Schwarz-Schilling +, Gerd Schulte-Hillen +, Theodore Shackley +, Arkady Shevchenko +, Arnold Silver +, Christian Freiherr von Stauffenberg +, Richard G. Stilwell +, Frank Steele +, Steven Symms +, Frances Stockdale Symms +, Geoffrey Tantum +, Peter Tennant +, Eymen Topbaş +, Paul Vankerkhoven +, Peter van der Byl +, Otto von Habsburg +, Jean Violet +, Paul Weyrich +, John Wilkinson +, John Wodehouse +, Bernhard Worms +, Margaret Beckett +, Crispin Blunt +, David Lidington +, Ron Silver +, Thomas Roy Spencer +, Marshall Shulman +, Tim Spicer +, António de Spínola +, Hooshang Amirahmadi +, Bruce Anderson +, Robert Anderson +, Alain Juppe +, Alexander Karageorgevitch +, Crosby Kelly +, Konrad Adenauer +, Georges Albertini +, Rupert Allason +, Richard Allen +, Kaúlza de Arriaga +, Nadhmi Auchi +, Erik Bennett +, Wayne Lee Berman +, Cornelis Bossers +, Monsignor Brunello +, Zbigniew Brzezinski +, Andrew Cavendish +, Ronald Lehman +, Fred Luchsinger +, Jean Monnet +, George Montgomery +, Robert Moss +, Winston Churchill II +, William P. Clark Jr +, Marcel Clement +, Florimond Damman +, Hans van Dalsen +, Jean-François Deniau +, Paul Dietrich +, Laura Jordan Dietrich +, Audna England +, Fritz Ermarth +, Evo Fernandes +, Charles Freeman +, Jean-Claude Gaudin +, Jeffrey B. Gaynor +, Reinhard Gehlen +, Conrad Gerber +, Alberto Giovannetti +, Ronald Grierson +, Alain Griotteray +, François de Grossouvre +, William Hague +, Stefan Halper +, Basil E. Hersov +, Alistair Horne +, Samuel M. Hoskinson +, Michael Howard +, David Howell +, Ion Iliescu +, Lisa Jameson +, Tedo Japaridze +, Jeane Kirkpatrick +, Henry Kissinger +, Stephen Lander +, Timothy Landon +, John Leahy +, Federico Silva Muñoz +, Chester A. Nagle +, John Negroponte +, Richard Perle +, Carlo Pesenti +, Robert Pfaltzgraff +, Jaime Nogueira Pinto +, Alain Poher +, Qaboos bin Said al Said +, David Rockefeller +, Nelson Rockefeller +, Anton Rupert +, Joseph Schuchert +, Robert Schuman +, Norman Schwarzkopf +, Hussein bin Talal +, Thomas A. Twetten +, Paul Volcker +, William Wilson +, Ardeshir Zahedi +, Robert Zoelly +, Václav Klaus +, Turki bin Faisal al-Saud +, Álvaro Gomez-Hurtado +, Iain Elliot +, Alexandre Ribeiro da Cunha +, John Carbaugh +, Charles Powell +, Michael Ancram +, Eldon Griffiths +, James Critchfield +, Jürgen Warnke +, Paul Wolfowitz +, Francis Lacoste +, Pierre Méhaignerie +, Philippe Malaud +, Günter Poser +, John Lichowski +, Maurice Brebart +, Paul Bremer +, James W. Cicconi +, Alfredo Sánchez Bella +, Henry Jackson +, Daniel Mazuera +, Walter Raymond Jr +, Walter Raymond Sr +, Jan Sabbe +, Adolf W. Schmidt +, Hugh Thomas +, Jean-Francois Vallet +, Giancarlo Elia Valori +, Paul Violet +, Philippe de Weck +, Frans Alphons Maria Alting von Geusau +, Philip Goodhart +, W. Michael Blumenthal +, Harold Brown +, Stephen Hastings +, Lane Kirkland +, George Meany +, Richard Armitage +, Shaukat Aziz +, Benazir Bhutto +, John R. Bolton +, Wyche Fowler +, Louis Freeh +, Yegor Gaidar +, Indira Gandhi +, Alan Greenspan +, Chuck Hagel +, Tsutomu Hata +, Victor Kuvaldin +, Nikolai Malomuzh +, Dan Meridor +, George Mitchell +, Urmas Paet +, Donald Rumsfeld +, Antonin Scalia +, Natan Sharansky +, Manmohan Singh +, Margaret Thatcher +, Pik Botha +, Neil Peter Van Heerden +, Harold Taswell +, Hans-Lothar Domröse +, Charles Malik +, Brian Binley +, Magdeleine Anglade +, Pierre Marie Gallois + and Franz Josef Strauss +
Has noRatings1 +
Has objectClassGroup +
Has objectClass2Group +
Has powerbasehttp://powerbase.info/index.php/Pinay_Circle +
Has revisionSize24,023 +
Has revisionUserRobin +
Has sourcewatchhttp://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Pinay_Cercle +
Has wikipediaPagehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Cercle +
Has wikipediaPage2https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Cercle +
Is not stubtrue +
Start1953 +