Claimed by both Israelis and Palestinians as their capital
Jerusalem is a city located on a plateau between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea in the Middle East.
Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem as their capital, but neither claim is recognised internationally.
- 1 UNSC emergency meeting
- 1.1 UN: Decision 'undermines' peace efforts
- 1.2 Palestine: Rewarding 'Israel's impunity'
- 1.3 Israel: 'A milestone for peace'
- 1.4 US: UN 'biased' against Israel
- 1.5 Jordan: Religious freedom must be upheld
- 1.6 Egypt: No impact on Jerusalem's legal status
- 1.7 UK: Two-state solution the 'only way'
- 1.8 France: US must explain how decision aligns with law
- 1.9 Sweden: Violation of UN resolutions
- 1.10 Russia: US decision met 'serious concern'
- 1.11 Japan: Jerusalem's status must be decided through talks
- 2 "End of Days" imminent?
- 3 Events
- 4 Groups Headquartered Here
- 5 Related Documents
- 6 References
UNSC emergency meeting
On 8 December 2017, during an emergency meeting, UN Security Council members widely condemned Donald Trump's decision to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, a move that has led to deadly clashes across the occupied Palestinian territories. Eight countries called for the emergency meeting at the UN headquarters in New York on Friday, as Palestinians protested across the occupied West Bank, Jerusalem and Gaza Strip against the US president's decision throughout the day.
President Trump, ignoring warnings from the international community, announced on Wednesday that the US was formally recognising Jerusalem as the Israeli capital and would begin the process of moving its embassy from Tel Aviv to the city.
Palestinians want East Jerusalem as the capital of a future state, while Israel says Jerusalem, which is under Israeli occupation, cannot be divided.
UN: Decision 'undermines' peace efforts
Nickolay Mladenov, the UN's special coordinator for the Middle East peace process, said Jerusalem "is perhaps the most emotionally charged and difficult subject" among the final status issues in the conflict:
- "The United Nations has repeatedly declared that any unilateral decision that seeks to alter the character and status of Jerusalem or that may alter these long-standing principles could seriously undermine current peace efforts and may have repercussions across the region," Mladenov said. He added that he was "particularly concerned about the potential risk of a violent escalation" in response to the US decision.
Mladenov said the world was standing at a "critical moment in the long-running history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict".
Palestine: Rewarding 'Israel's impunity'
Riyad Mansour, the ambassador and permanent observer of Palestine at the UN, said the Trump administration has violated "Jerusalem's legal, political and historic status and the Palestinian peoples' rights and legitimate national aspirations. The extremely regrettable announcement ... has heightened tensions and risks the complete destabilisation of this volatile situation."
Mansour said the US decision "to reward Israel's impunity" should disqualify it from any leadership role in efforts to reach a solution to the conflict.
The US decision does not change the tenets of international law and previous UN resolutions which state that Israel must end its occupation of East Jerusalem, Mansour said:
- "The status of Jerusalem cannot be unilaterally altered or determined by any state and this decision by the US should be reconsidered and rescinded."
He called on the UNSC to condemn the US decision, adding that "there can be no just and lasting solution to the Palestine question without a just solution to the question of Jerusalem. Jerusalem has long been the heart of Palestine and always will be."
Israel: 'A milestone for peace'
Danny Danon, Israel's ambassador to the UN, took a decidedly different tone, saying Trump's decision "marks a milestone for Israel, for peace and for the world":
- "The United States has the courage and true understanding of justice to officially state what has always been known: that Jerusalem has and always will be the capital of Israel. The embassy of the United States belongs in Israel's capital."
Israel took control of West Jerusalem after the state was created in 1948. It occupied East Jerusalem after the 1967 war and annexed the eastern portion of the city in 1980 in a move that remains unrecognised by the international community.
Israel has built several Jewish-only settlements around and inside key parts of East Jerusalem in an effort to cement its control over the entire city. The settlements are illegal under international law.
Despite this, Danon called on all states to "recognise Israel's connection to Jerusalem" and to move their embassies to the city:
- "We are grateful to the United States for its courageous decision. We call on all the nations of the world to join us this year in Jerusalem, the capital of the state of Israel."
US: UN 'biased' against Israel
Nikki Haley, the US ambassador to the UN, roundly rejected the criticism from other countries at the meeting. She said it was "simple common sense that foreign embassies be located" in Jerusalem, which is home to Israel's parliament, several government ministries, and its president and prime minister. She said with its decision, the US has not taken a position on boundaries or borders; it has not advocated for any change in the administration around holy sites in Jerusalem, and it has not predetermined final status issues:
- "We remain committed to achieving a lasting peace agreement. We support a two-state solution if agreed to by the parties."
Haley accused the UN "over many years the United Nations has outrageously been one of the world's foremost centres of hostility towards Israel":
- "The UN has done much more damage to the prospects of Middle East peace than to advance them."
Al Jazeera's Mike Hanna, reporting from the UN headquarters, said Haley delivered "a very strong criticism of the United Nations, which she claims has historically been biased against Israel. Clearly, the ambassador is feeling that the best form of defence, is attack."
However, Hanna said many of the speakers made it clear "that the US has directly flouted what has been decades of UN position that the final status of Jerusalem must be decided by the parties at the end of a negotiated process" between Israelis and Palestinians.
Jordan: Religious freedom must be upheld
Jordan, which acts as the custodian of Muslim and Christian holy sites in Jerusalem, said it "rejected" the US decision as a violation of international law:
- "The kingdom believes that any unilateral decisions to build a new situation on the ground are null and void," said Sima Bahous, the country's representative at the UN.
Bahous said the decision may exacerbate tension, provoke strong emotions and lead to confrontations between people of different religions in the city. She said it could "even jeopardise the final status outcome" in the conflict.
The status of Jerusalem is a final status issue, Bahous reaffirmed, and East Jerusalem must be recognised as the capital of a Palestinian state:
- "There will be no security or stability without a settlement bringing justice to the Palestinian people. The protection of Jerusalem and its holy places for all religions must be a priority."
Egypt: No impact on Jerusalem's legal status
Amr Abdellatif Aboulatta, Egypt's UN ambassador, said Egypt "denounces" the US decision on Jerusalem, which he said could "ignite [anger among] Muslim and Arab peoples":
- "Such unilateral decisions are a violation of international legitimacy and thus it has no impact on the legal status of the city of Jerusalem since it is a city under occupation. It is not permissible legally to take any action that would alter the status quo in the city."
Aboulatta added the decision sets a "dangerous precedent":
- "Egypt will always uphold its pledge to reach a fair, just and durable peace in the region."
UK: Two-state solution the 'only way'
Matthew Rycroft, the UN ambassador representing the UK, said the British embassy is in Tel Aviv "and we have no plans to move it".
He said the UK sought to reaffirm its "strong support" for peace negotiations between Israelis and Palestinians and the two-state solution. Jerusalem should ultimately be the shared capital of the Israeli and Palestinian states, Rycroft said, and its status must come out of a negotiated settlement between both parties:
- "This is the only way to ensure the long-term security that Israelis deserve and the statehood and end to the occupation that Palestinians are calling out for."
Rycroft called on the US to release detailed proposals for an Israeli-Palestinian settlement.
France: US must explain how decision aligns with law
François Delattre, French ambassador to the UN, said France's position was guided by three elements.
The status of Jerusalem must be determined after a negotiated settlement and "France recognises no sovereignty over Jerusalem", Delattre said.
He said the historic and religious significance of the city makes it "key" to the resolution of the conflict and to regional stability more broadly. "It is critical to duly seek to provide to pretexts for radical movements in the region and on the contrary, to encourage all statesmen and actors for peace."
Jerusalem is to become a capital of two states, Delattre said:
- "There is no alternative to a two-state solution, nor is there a two-state solution without an agreement among the parties on Jerusalem."
Sweden: Violation of UN resolutions
Olof Skoog, Sweden's UN ambassador, said it called the UN meeting "due to the repercussions" that the Trump administration's move will have:
- "We clearly disagree with the recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel."
The decision is fuelling tension and instability in the region, Skoog said, and goes against both international law and UNSC resolutions. Trump's declaration "goes against the plea of many friends of the US and Israel, however, it does not affect the position of Sweden, the European Union or the wider international community" on the status of Jerusalem, said Skoog.
Russia: US decision met 'serious concern'
"In Moscow, the decision announced in Washington was greeted with serious concern," said Vasily Nebenzya, Russia's ambassador to the UN.
He said international law and UN resolutions must serve as the basis of a settlement to the long-standing conflict.
"The sensitive question of Jerusalem", Nebenzya said, must be resolved "through the course of direct Palestinian-Israeli negotiations".
He added that Russia is worried that the US position on Jerusalem may further complicate relations between Israelis and Palestinians, as well as affect the wider region:
- "We call on all parties involved to exercise restraint and to refrain from actions that may have dangerous consequences."
Japan: Jerusalem's status must be decided through talks
"Japan's position remains unchanged," said Koro Bessho, the UN ambassador, in that it supports a two-state solution to the conflict based on international law and UN resolutions.
The status of Jerusalem should be resolved through negotiations, he said.
Bessho said he welcomes the US statement that it still supports the two-state solution:
- "Japan is deeply worried by the heightening tension on the ground."
"End of Days" imminent?
According to The Independent newspaper, the real reason Trump declared Jerusalem the capital of Israel was because he feared losing his evangelical voter base. There are no fewer than 50 million evangelicals in America who, according to research, are convinced of the literal truth of Biblical prophecy. A recent survey found that 82 per cent of white evangelicals believe that God gave Israel to the Jewish people; a conviction shared by just 40 per cent of American Jews. Among these evangelicals there are those who believe in the prophecy of the “End of Days” foretelling Jewish control of all Jerusalem, a war of civilisations, and a choice of Jews to either embrace Christianity or die in the wrath of God.
Johnnie Moore, who acts as a spokesperson for the Trump’s evangelical advisers stated:
- “The issue was second only to concerns about the judiciary among the evangelical supporters. President Trump has yet again demonstrated to his evangelical supporters that he will do what he says he will do.”
There is also the money in this. Trump’s campaign has received substantial funding from the "Christian Right" and also hardline American Jewish promoters of Israel. They include Sheldon Adelson, the casino billionaire and Republican donor, who had given $20m (£14.9m) to a PAC (political action committee) which supported the Trump campaign and another $1.5m to the organisers of the Republican convention. Adelson has been lobbying the President persistently on the embassy transfer.
Trump is not the only senior member of the administration to cultivate the Christian right. Vice President Mike Pence, who could be seen on TV standing behind Trump as the embassy announcement was made, with a reverent glow to his face, had pressed for a move to Jerusalem. And backing also came from Nikki Haley, the ambassador to the UN who tries her best to match Trump on hawkish rhetoric about smiting America’s enemies. She avidly courted the evangelical vote while Governor of South Carolina.
There were those in the administration who pointed out that the Jerusalem move will inflame passions in the Middle East and the wider Muslim world; make a settlement between the Israelis and the Palestinians even more difficult; make it harder to maintain coalitions against Islamist extremists and may put American lives in danger. They included Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and Defence Secretary James Mattis. Jared Kushner, Trump’s son-in-law who is leading the Israel/Palestine peace initiative had apparently also urged caution initially. But Tillerson may soon be the latest casualty in the Trump administration, to be replaced by the recently appointed CIA director, Mike Pompeo, and Kushner is said to have changed his stance after talks with Adelson.
The evangelists could always site God on their side. For Indiana pastor Paul Begley the embassy move is the beginning of “End of Days”:
- “The Jewish People – I’ve been there, I’m telling you – they believe when the Temple’s built, the Messiah will be revealed to them. Jesus will be revealed to the Jewish people, and they will embrace him.”
Laurie Cardoza-Moore, “founder/president of Proclaiming Justice to The Nations” wrote in the Israeli newspaper Haaretz:
- “Christians recognise the Jews’ biblical connection through King David’s establishment of Jerusalem as the capital of ancient Israel and the location for both the first and second Temples. According to the prophets, Ezekiel, Isaiah and the Apostle John, all Israel awaits the rebuilding of the Third Temple. President Donald Trump may implement one of the most biblically historic initiatives of his presidency by allowing the first step of the 'Jerusalem Embassy Act' to go into effect.“
But, as Cardoza-Moore points out, this was only the first step. It will take several years for the embassy to be moved, construction to start and suitable accommodation found for diplomats and staff. A lot can happen in that time. The whole thing may drift on the next election. Kushner may become the next person in the White House to be arrested in special counsel Robert Mueller’s investigation into the White House’s Russian connections after the charging of former National Security Advisor Michael Flynn. Trump may himself be impeached or indicted.
There is thus always the possibility, one has to accept, that the “End of Days” is not imminent. Armageddon will be put on hold. The Messiah will not appear for the time being and the Jews will not have to convert to Christianity or perish.
|Bombing of the King David Hotel|
|Jerusalem Conference on International Terrorism||The birthplace of the "War on Terror" doctrine, "a major international forum for the movement against détente".|
Groups Headquartered Here
|Israel||14 May 1948||Renewing the Memorandum of Understanding in September 2016, whereby the American taxpayer agreed to pay Israel $38 billion over a 10-year period|
|Rubin Academy of Music||1933||Israeli music academy|
|Document:Jeremy Corbyn's speech to the United Nations in full||Speech||8 December 2017||Jeremy Corbyn||Jeremy Corbyn at the United Nations in Geneva upstages Theresa May at the European Union in Brussels|
|Document:My offer to Owen Jones: A tour of Nazareth||article||3 April 2017||Jonathan Cook||One has to look at what Zionism did when the Labour party was directing it – in Israel’s formative stages and for most of its history. Only then can you understand that what you see in Hebron or Nablus was created in Haifa and Nazareth first. The template was set in Israel, at a time and place where there were no security issues. It was not Palestinian bombs Israel feared from its Palestinian citizens but their wombs.|
|Document:Trump Set to Recognise Israel’s Claim to Occupied Golan Heights and its Sizeable Oil Reserves||Article||26 May 2018||Whitney Webb||Given that Genie Energy’s contract to conduct exploratory drilling in the Golan Heights expires this year, its investors are in urgent need of a way to extract and sell the region’s oil – and a US decision on Israel’s claim to the Golan Heights could be just the answer to the company’s problems.|
- ↑ "Considerations Affecting Certain of the Provisions of the General Assembly Resolution on the "Future Government of Palestine": The City of Jerusalem"
- ↑ "Trump's Jerusalem move roundly condemned at UN"
- ↑ "The real reason Trump declared Jerusalem the capital of Israel was because he feared losing his evangelical voter base"