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Decade.png 1960s: )    Year.png 1961 Rdf-icon.png
Eisenhower in the Oval Office.jpg
Outgoing US President Eisenhower delivered a fateful warning to the US public that "we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military–industrial complex."

1961 began with a warning by outgoing US President General Eisenhower about the danger of the military–industrial complex gaining power over the US democratic process. The assassination of his successor, John F. Kennedy, less than 3 years later, was to dramatically illustrate how prescient were Eisenhower's words, which are at least as relevant today as when he spoke them back in January 1961.

Eisenhower's warning

Military-industrial-congressional complex.png

Outgoing US President General Eisenhower well understood how the desire of Wall Street for profits-at-all-costs represented a threat to the democratic system. On January 17, 1961, his final televised Address to the Nation addressed the rise of the what he famously referred to as "the military–industrial complex". It went more of less unheeded by the commercially-controlled media.[citation needed] The Defense Intelligence Agency was formed in 1961[Why?], as was Operation 40's Interpen group, intended for assassination Fidel Castro, but which whch played some part in the 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Full article: Stub class article Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs Invasion.jpg

In May 1961, the Bay of Pigs Invasion proved a military disaster for the CIA, due to lack of air cover. In fact, this may not have been accidental. Historians have argued that failure was the planned result, since many of those involved were killed and JFK was blamed for lack of support for the venture. Naturally this angered the Cuban expat community within the CIA. These made up the majority of Operation 40, which was exploited by the deep politicians who organised the JFK assassination.

Arms Race

The Tsar Bomba mushroom cloud seen from a distance of 161 km (100 miles). The crown of the cloud is 56 km (35 miles) high at the time of the picture.

In 1961, the Soviet Union tested a 57 Megaton bomb - equal to 1400 times the bomb dropped on Hiroshima.

Assassination of Patrice Lumumba

Full article: Patrice Lumumba/Murder

A CIA-backed coup in the Congo removed Patrice Lumumba from power. Their expertise in assassinations, gathered abroad, was to be used in USA throughout the [1960s]] so dramatically as to lead to the House Select Committee on Assassinations.

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

Full article: Stub class article Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

In 1961, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs made a number of drugs effectively illegal worldwide, including cocaine. Drafting of the treaty began in 1948.



Tuskegee syphilis experiment
Operation Paperclip
Cold War
Project Ulysses
Operation Midnight Climax
Project MKUltra
Vietnam War
Congolese Operation
Patrice Lumumba/Murder
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Dag Hammarskjöld/Death

New Groups

Amnesty InternationalAmnesty International.jpg1961 - PresentNGO
Alpha 66Alpha 66.png1961 - PresentTerrorist
United States Senate Special Committee on AgingGroup.png1961 - Present
InterdocGroup.png1961 - Present
OECDOECD logo new.svg1961 - PresentIntergovernmental organisation
Hudson InstituteGroup.png1961 - PresentThink tank
InterpenInterpen.jpg1961 - Present
Defense Intelligence AgencyUS Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) seal.png1 October 1961 - PresentIntelligence agency

A Group that was Wound Up

OEECGroup.png1948 - 1961Intergovernmental organisation