Patrice Lumumba

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Person.png Patrice Lumumba   SourcewatchRdf-icon.png
Patrice Lumumba and Dag Hammarskjold.jpg
Patrice Lumumba and Dag Hammarskjöld at UN headquarters in July 1960
Born Élias Okit'Asombo
2 July 1925
Katakokombe, Belgian Congo
Died 17 January 1961 (Age 35)
Élisabethville, Katanga
Victim of • abduction
• torture
• murder
Party Congolese National Movement
SubpagePatrice Lumumba/Murder
The first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo, abducted, tortured and murdered. Foreign intelligence service involvement is strongly suspected.

Employment.png Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo

In office
24 June 1960 - 14 September 1960

Patrice Lumumba was a Congolese independence leader and the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped win its independence from Belgium in June 1960.[1][2][3] Within twelve weeks, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup during the Congo crisis because of his opposition to the Belgian-backed secession of the mineral-rich Katanga province.[4]

Patrice Lumumba was subsequently imprisoned and tortured by the secessionist Katangan authorities under Joseph-Desiré Mobutu, and executed by firing squad on 17 January 1961. The United States (via the Central Intelligence Agency) long denied involvement[5][6][7] but the UK government was implicated in April 2013 by Lord Lea of Crondall's public claim that fellow peer and former MI6 officer Daphne Park had admitted to him shortly before she died in March 2010 that Britain was involved in Patrice Lumumba's assassination.[8]

On 13 May 2014, former diplomat Patrick Haseldine created four e-petitions each calling on Prime Minister David Cameron to "Open all MI6 files on state sponsored murders" to inform any inquiry into Lumumba's murder:


Early life and career

Lumumba was born to a farmer, François Tolenga Otetshima, and his wife, Julienne Wamato Lomendja, in Onalua in the Katakokombe region of the Kasai province of the Belgian Congo.[9] He was a member of the Tetela ethnic group and was born with the name Élias Okit'Asombo. His original surname means "heir of the cursed" and is derived from the Tetela words okitá/okitɔ́ ('heir, successor')[10] and asombó ('cursed or bewitched people who will die quickly').[11] He had three brothers (Charles Lokolonga, Émile Kalema, and Louis Onema Pene Lumumba) and one half-brother (Tolenga Jean).[9] Raised in a Catholic family, he was educated at a Protestant primary school, a Catholic missionary school, and finally the government post office training school, passing the one-year course with distinction. He subsequently worked in Léopoldville (now Kinshasa) and Stanleyville (now Kisangani) as a postal clerk and as a travelling beer salesman. In 1951, he married Pauline Opangu. In 1955, Lumumba became regional head of the Cercles of Stanleyville and joined the Liberal Party of Belgium, where he worked on editing and distributing party literature. After traveling on a three-week study tour in Belgium, he was arrested in 1955 on charges of embezzlement. His two-year sentence was commuted to twelve months after it was confirmed by Belgian lawyer Jules Chrome that Lumumba had returned the funds, and he was released in July 1956. After his release, he helped found the broad-based Mouvement national congolais (MNC) in 1958, later becoming the MNC's president. Lumumba and his team represented the MNC at the All-African Peoples' Conference in Accra, Ghana, in December 1958. At this international conference, hosted by Pan-African President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Lumumba further solidified his Pan-Africanist beliefs. Lumumba spoke Tetela, French, Lingala, Swahili, and Tshiluba.[9]

Leader of MNC

In late October 1959, MNC leader Lumumba was arrested for inciting an anti-colonial riot in Stanleyville where thirty people were killed; he was sentenced to 69 months in prison. The trial's start date of 18 January 1960, was also the first day of a round-table conference in Brussels to finalise the future of the Congo. Despite Lumumba's imprisonment at the time, the MNC won a convincing majority in the December local elections in the Congo. As a result of strong pressure from delegates upset with Lumumba's trial, he was released and allowed to attend the Brussels conference. The conference culminated on 27 January with a declaration of Congolese independence, setting 30 June 1960, as the independence date with Belgian Congo general election, from 11–25 May 1960. Lumumba and the MNC won this election and the right to form a government, with the announcement on 23 June 1960 of 34-year-old Lumumba as Congo's first prime minister and Joseph Kasa-Vubu as its president. In accordance with the constitution, on 24 June the new government passed a vote of confidence and was ratified by the Congolese Chamber and Senate.

Independence Day was celebrated on 30 June in a ceremony attended by many dignitaries including Belgian King Baudouin and the foreign press.[12] Baudouin's speech praised developments under colonialism, his reference to the "genius" of his great-granduncle Léopold II of Belgium glossing over atrocities committed during the Congo Free State.[5] The King continued, "Don't compromise the future with hasty reforms, and don't replace the structures that Belgium hands over to you until you are sure you can do better... Don't be afraid to come to us. We will remain by your side, give you advice."[13] While President Kasa-Vubu thanked the King, Lumumba, who was not scheduled to speak, delivered an impromptu speech which reminded the audience that the independence of the Congo was not granted magnanimously by Belgium:[12][13]

For this independence of the Congo, even as it is celebrated today with Belgium, a friendly country with whom we deal as equal to equal, no Congolese worthy of the name will ever be able to forget that it was by fighting that it has been won, a day-to-day fight, an ardent and idealistic fight, a fight in which we were spared neither privation nor suffering, and for which we gave our strength and our blood. We are proud of this struggle, of tears, of fire, and of blood, to the depths of our being, for it was a noble and just struggle, and indispensable to put an end to the humiliating slavery which was imposed upon us by force.[13]

In contrast to the relatively harmless speech of President Kasa-Vubu, Lumumba's reference to the suffering of the Congolese under Belgian colonialism stirred the crowd while simultaneously humiliating and alienating the King and his entourage. Some media claimed at the time that he ended his speech by ad-libbing, Nous ne sommes plus vos macaques! (We are no longer your monkeys!) — referring to a common slur used against Africans by Belgians, however, these words are neither in his written text nor in radio tapes of his speech.[6][14] Lumumba was later harshly criticised for what many in the Western world — but virtually none in Africa — described as the inappropriate nature of his speech.[15]

Actions as Prime Minister

A few days after Congo gained its independence, Lumumba made the fateful decision to raise the pay of all government employees except for the army. Many units of the army also had strong objections toward the uniformly Belgian officers; General Janssens, the army head, told them their lot would not change after independence, and they rebelled in protest. The rebellions quickly spread throughout the country, leading to a general breakdown in law and order. Although the trouble was highly localised, the country seemed to be overrun by gangs of soldiers and looters, causing a media sensation, particularly over Europeans fleeing the country.[16]

The province of Katanga declared independence under regional premier Moïse Tshombe on 11 July 1960 with support from the Belgian government and mining companies such as Union Minière.[17] Despite the arrival of UN troops, unrest continued. Since the United Nations refused to help suppress the rebellion in Katanga, Lumumba sought Soviet aid in the form of arms, food, medical supplies, trucks, and planes to help move troops to Katanga. Lumumba's decisive actions alarmed his colleagues and President Joseph Kasa-Vubu, who preferred a more moderate political approach.[18]

Deposition and Murder

Full article: Patrice Lumumba/Murder

In September, the President Kasa-Vubu dismissed Lumumba from government. On 14 September, a coup d’état organised by Colonel Mobutu Sese Seko incapacitated both Lumumba and Kasa-Vubu. Lumumba was captured by troops loyal to Mobutu in Port Francqui on 1 December 1960. He was flown to Kinshasa (Léopoldville) and murdered by firing squad by the Katangan authorities. Belgium and the United States actively sought his murder, the 1975 Church Committee finding that Allen Dulles had ordered Lumumba's assassination as "an urgent and prime objective".[19]


"Today, it is impossible to touch down at the (far from modernised) Lubumbashi International Airport in the south of the Democratic Republic of Congo without a shiver of recollection of the haunting photograph taken of Lumumba there shortly before his assassination, and after beatings, torture and a long, long flight in custody across the vast country which had so loved him."

— Victoria Brittain, The Guardian, 2011


Patrice Lumumba was Prime Minister of The Congo for 81 days, from June 23rd to September 14th, 1960. To his supporters, Lumumba was an altruistic man of strong character. He favoured a unitary Congo and opposed division of the country along ethnic or regional lines.[20][21] Like many other African leaders, he supported pan-Africanism and liberation for colonial territories.[22] He proclaimed his regime one of "positive neutralism,"[23] defined as a return to African values and rejection of any imported ideology, including that of the Soviet Union: "We are not Communists or Catholics. We are African nationalists."[24]

2006 Congolese elections

The image of Patrice Lumumba continues to serve as an inspiration in contemporary Congolese politics. In the 2006 Democratic Republic of the Congo general election, several parties claimed to be motivated by his ideas, including the People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (PPRD), the political party initiated by the incumbent President Joseph Kabila.[25] Antoine Gizenga, who served as Lumumba's Deputy Prime Minister in the post-independence period, was a 2006 Presidential candidate under the Unified Lumumbist Party (Parti Lumumbiste Unifié (PALU))[26] and was named prime minister at the end of the year. Other political parties that directly utilise his name include the Mouvement National Congolais-Lumumba (MNC-L) and the Mouvement lumumbiste (MLP).

Family and politics

Patrice Lumumba's family is actively involved in contemporary Congolese politics. Patrice Lumumba was married to Pauline Lumumba and had five children; François was the eldest followed by Patrice Junior, Julienne, Roland and Guy-Patrice Lumumba. François was 10 years old when Patrice died. Before his imprisonment, Patrice arranged for his wife and children to move into exile in Egypt, where François spent his childhood, then went to Hungary for education (he holds a doctorate in political economics).

Lumumba's youngest son, Guy-Patrice, born six months after his father's death, was an independent presidential candidate in the 2006 elections,[27] but received less than 10% of the vote.


  • In 1966 Patrice Lumumba's image was rehabilitated by the Mobutu Sese Seko regime and he was proclaimed a national hero and martyr in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. By a presidential decree, the Brouwez House, site of Lumumba's brutal torture on the night of his murder, became a place of pilgrimage in the Congo.[28]
  • A major transportation artery in Kinshasa, the Lumumba Boulevard, is named in his honour. The boulevard goes past an interchange with a giant tower, the Tour de l'Echangeur (the main landmark of Kinshasa) commemorating him. On the tower's plaza, the first Laurent Kabila regime erected a tall statue of Lumumba with a raised hand, greeting people coming from N'djili Airport.
  • In Bamako, Mali, Lumumba Square is a large central plaza with a life-size statue of Lumumba, a park with fountains, and a flag display. Around Lumumba Square are various businesses, embassies and Bamako's largest bank.
  • Streets were also named after him in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia, in Budapest, Hungary (between 1961 and 1990); Jakarta (between 1961 to 1967); Gaborone, Botswana; Belgrade, Serbia; Sofia and Plovdiv, Bulgaria (until 1991-2) Skopje, Republic of Macedonia; Bata, Equatorial Guinea and Malabo, Equatorial Guinea; Tehran, Iran; Algiers, Algeria (Rue Patrice Lumumba);[29] Santiago de Cuba, Cuba (since 1960, formerly Avenida de Bélgica); Łódź, Warsaw, Poland; Kiev, Donetsk, Ukraine; Perm, Russia; Rabat, Morocco; Maputo, Mozambique; Enugu, Nigeria; Leipzig, Germany; Lusaka, Zambia ("Lumumba Street"); Kampala, Uganda and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ("Lumumba Avenue"); Tunis, Tunisia; Fort-de-France, Martinique; Montpellier, France; Accra, Ghana; Antananarivo, Madagascar; Rotterdam, Netherlands; Alexandria, Egypt and Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan; Koper, Nabrežje Patricea Lumumbe now renamed to Belveder, Slovenia
  • The Peoples' Friendship University of the USSR was renamed "Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University" in 1961, but it was later renamed "The Peoples' Friendship University of Russia" in the post-Soviet landscape in 1992.[30]
  • In Kampala, Uganda, "Lumumba Hall" of Residence at Makerere University continues to carry his name.
  • "Lumumba" is a popular choice for children's names throughout Africa.[31]
  • In 1964 Malcolm X declared Patrice Lumumba "the greatest black man who ever walked the African continent".[32]


In October 1960, Patrice Lumumba was reported to have said:

"Dead, living, free, or in prison on the orders of the colonialists, it is not I who counts. It is the Congo, it is our people for whom independence has been transformed into a cage where we are regarded from the outside… History will one day have its say, but it will not be the history that Brussels, Paris, Washington, or the United Nations will teach, but that which they will teach in the countries emancipated from colonialism and its puppets... a history of glory and dignity."[33]


Related Document

TitleTypePublication dateAuthor(s)Description
Hammarskjold and Kennedy vs. The Power EliteArticle7 August 2016James DiEugenioPresident John F. Kennedy hears of Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba's murder from UN Ambassador Adlai Stevenson. Perhaps no photo from the Kennedy presidency summarises who Kennedy was, and how he differed from what preceded him and what came after him, than this picture.


Writings by Lumumba

  • Congo, My Country (1962) London: Pall Mall Press. ISBN 0-269-16092-2. Foreword and notes by Colin Legum; translated by Graham Heath.
  • Lumumba Speaks: The Speeches and Writings of Patrice Lumumba, 1958–1961 (1972) Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-53650-4. Editor, Jean Van Lierde; translated by Helen R. Lane.

Writings about Lumumba

  • Aimé Césaire, Une Saison au Congo (1966); Eng. trans. by Ralph Manheim, A Season in the Congo (1969). A poetic drama about the career and death of Lumumba.
  • W. A. E. Skurnik, African Political Thought: Lumumba, Nkrumah, Touré (Social Science Foundation and Graduate School of International Studies, University of Denver. Monograph series in world affairs, v. 5, no. 3-4), 1968, Denver: University of Denver, ASIN B0006CNYSW.
  • Ludo De Witte, The Assassination of Lumumba, trans. by Ann Wright and Renée Fenby, 2002 (orig. 2001), London; New York: Verso, ISBN 1859844103.
  • Thomas R. Kanza, Conflict in the Congo: The Rise and Fall of Lumumba (Penguin African library), 1972, New York: Penguin, ISBN 0140410309.
  • Robin McKown, Lumumba: A Biography, 1969, London: Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-07776-9.
  • G. Heinz and H. Donnay (pseudonyms for J. Brassine and J. Gerard-Libois), Lumumba: The Last Fifty Days, 1980, New York: Grove Press, ASIN B0006C07TQ.
  • Panaf, Patrice Lumumba (Panaf Great Lives), 1973, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-901787-31-0.
  • Kwame Nkrumah, Challenge of the Congo, 1967, New York: International Publishers.
  • Bogumil Jewsiewicki, ed., A Congo Chronicle: Patrice Lumumba in Urban Art, 1999, New York: Museum for African Art, ISBN 0-945802-25-0. The catalogue of a travelling exhibition of contemporary Congolese artists who were inspired by the legacy of Lumumba.
  • Barbara Kingsolver's The Poisonwood Bible is a fictional account of an American missionary family in the Congo during the election and assassination of Lumumba. The book is critical of Western governments and their interference in Africa.
  • David W. Doyle, Inside Espionage: A Memoir of True Men and Traitors (2000), tells the story of Lumumba's assassination from the point of view of the United States Central Intelligence Agency.
  • Godfrey Mwakikagile, Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era, Third Edition, New Africa Press, 2006, "Chapter Six: Congo in The 1960s: The Bleeding Heart of Africa", pp. 147–205, ISBN 978-0980253412; Godfrey Mwakikagile, Africa and America in The 1960s: A Decade That Changed The Nation and The Destiny of A Continent, First Edition, New Africa Press, 2006, ISBN 9780980253429.


  • El Congo 1961 – As himself in a documentary.
  • Seduto alla sua destra (1968) – A fictional film by writer-director Valerio Zurlini starring Woody Strode as a thinly disguised Lumumba. It was released in the US as Black Jesus.
  • Lumumba (2000). Dramatised biography directed by Raoul Peck with Eriq Ebouaney as Lumumba.
  • Lumumba: Death of a Prophet (1992). Documentary distributed by California Newsreel.
  • Lumumba: Un crime d'Etat (in English Lumumba: A state crime)
  • Independence Cha-Cha – The Story of Patrice Lumumba (2009). Documentary produced by Kadi Kabeya.

Archive video and audio


  • In 1969 students from the Black Student Council and Mexican-American Youth Association of the University of California, San Diego proposed the name Lumumba-Zapata College, for what is now known as Thurgood Marshall College.
  • In Viennese coffee houses, Lumumba is a hot chocolate with rum, Lumumba Coffee a black coffee with rum and whipped cream. Both beverages originate from northern Germany, where they are called Tote Tante (dead aunt, with cocoa) and Pharisäer (Pharisee, with coffee; see Nordstrand, Germany) respectively.[34]
  • The rapper Nas dedicates his song "My Country" to Lumumba at the end of the song.
  • American stand-up comedian Patrice O'Neal was named after Lumumba.
  • An Argentinian reggae band was named Lumumba.
  • Colombian salsa musician Yuri Buenaventura composed a song, "Patrice Lumumba", in his honour.
  • American songwriter Neil Diamond lists Patrice Lumumba in his song "Done Too Soon".[35]
  • In the 1961 song "Top Forty, News, Weather And Sports" by Mark Dinning, the verse "I had Lumumba doing the rumba..." was removed after his death a few weeks after the release of the record. Records in stores were recalled, and new ones without the verse were distributed. Some of the original records survive. The verse can be heard in versions of the song available today.


Related Document

TitleTypePublication dateAuthor(s)Description
Hammarskjold and Kennedy vs. The Power EliteArticle7 August 2016James DiEugenioPresident John F. Kennedy hears of Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba's murder from UN Ambassador Adlai Stevenson. Perhaps no photo from the Kennedy presidency summarises who Kennedy was, and how he differed from what preceded him and what came after him, than this picture.


  1. Fabian, Johannes (1996). Remembering the Present: Painting and Popular History in Zaire. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0520203761. 
  2. Willame, Jean-Claude (1990). Patrice Lumumba: La crise congolaise revisitée. Paris: Karthala. pp. 22, 23, 25. ISBN 978-2-86537-270-6. 
  3. Kanyarwunga, Jean I N (2006). République démocratique du Congo : Les générations condamnées : Déliquescence d'une société précapitaliste. Paris: Publibook. pp. 76, 502. ISBN 9782748333435. 
  4. Zeilig, Leo (2008). Lumumba: Africa's Lost Leader (Life&Times). Haus Publishing. p. 117. ISBN 978-1-905791-02-6. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Adam Hochschild, King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa, 1999, Mariner Books, ISBN 0-618-00190-5, ISBN 978-0-618-00190-3.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ludo De Witte, The Assassination of Lumumba, Trans. by Ann Wright and Renée Fenby, 2002 (Orig. 2001), London; New York: Verso, ISBN 1-85984-410-3.
  7. "Belgium Confronts Its Heart of Darkness". New York Times. NYT. 21 September 2002. p. 9. 
  8. "MI6 and the death of Patrice Lumumba"
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Kanyarwunga, Jean I N (2006). République démocratique du Congo : Les générations condamnées : Déliquescence d'une société précapitaliste. Paris: Publibook. p. 76. ISBN 9782748333435. 
  10. Hagendorens, MGR J (1975). Dictionnaire ɔtɛtɛla-français. Bandundu: Ceeba Publications. pp. 275–76. 
  11. Hagendorens, MGR J (1975). Dictionnaire ɔtɛtɛla-français. Bandundu: Ceeba Publications. pp. 309, 371. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Independence Day Speech". Africa Within. Retrieved 15 July 2006. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Kamalu, Chukwunyere. The Little African History Book – Black Africa from the Origins of Humanity. page 115.
  14. "Marred: Lumumba's offensive speech in King's presence". London: Guardian Unlimited. 1 July 1960. Retrieved 14 August 2006. 
  15. A History of the Modern World, Johnson P, Weidenfeld, London, (1991)
  16. Larry Devlin, Chief of Station Congo, 2007, Public Affairs, ISBN 1-58648-405-2
  17. Osabu-Kle, Daniel Tetteh (2000). Compatible Cultural Democracy. Broadview Press. p. 254. ISBN 1-55111-289-2. 
  18. Johnson. P, ibid
  19. In Dulles' own words; William Blum, Killing Hope. MBI Publishing Co., 2007: p. 158. ISBN 978-0-7603-2457-8
  20. "Lumumba Facing Separatist Bids". New York Times. AP. 9 August 1960. p. 1. Retrieved 8 November 2010. 
  21. Tanner, Henry (25 August 1960). "Congo Troops Fly To Kasai To Stop Secession Effort; Lumumba Acts to Crush Bid to Create a New State in Area of Tribal Conflict". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 8 November 2010. 
  22. Gilroy, Harry (1 July 1960). "Lumumba Assails Colonialism as Congo Is Freed". New York Times. Retrieved 8 November 2010. 
  23. "Lumumba Stops In Tunisia". New York Times. 3 August 1960. p. 3. Retrieved 8 November 2010. 'We want no part of the cold war,' he [Lumumba] continued.. 'We want Africa to remain African with a policy of positive neutralism.' 
  24. "Lumumba Charts A Neutral Congo; Premier Rejects a Choice of East or West". New York Times. Reuters. 6 July 1960. Retrieved 8 November 2010. 
  25. "Kabila Party formed in DR Congo". BBC News. 2 April 2002. Retrieved 30 July 2006. 
  26. "Profile: Congo opposition candidates". BBC News. 25 July 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2006. 
  27. "Key Figures in Congo's Electoral Process". United Nations Integrated Regional Information Networks. Archived from the original on 25 July 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2006. 
  28. Ludo De Witte, The Assassination of Lumumba, Trans. Wright A and Fenby R, 2002 (Orig. 2001), London; New York: Verso, ISBN 1-85984-410-3, pp. 165.
  29. "AFRICA|More killings in Algeria". BBC News. 6 February 1998. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  30. "From Marxism 101 to Capitalism 101". CNN. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  31. "Naming children for a head start in Africa". BBC News. 15 December 2003. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  32. X, Malcolm (1970). By Any Means Necessary: Speeches, Interviews and a Letter by Malcolm X. Pathfinder Press. ISBN 0-87348-145-3.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  33. "Africa: A Continent Drenched in the Blood of Revolutionary Heroes" by Victoria Brittain, The Guardian, January 17, 2011
  34. "Cocktail-Rezept: Lumumba". Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  35. "Done Too Soon" lyrics
  • Mahoney, Richard D. JFK: Ordeal in Africa. Oxford University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-19-503341-8

External links

Wikipedia.png This page imported content from Wikipedia on 4 December 2013.
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Facts about "Patrice Lumumba"
Born on2 July 1925 +
DescriptionThe first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo, abducted, tortured and murdered. Foreign intelligence service involvement is strongly suspected. +
Died on17 January 1961 +
Display born on2 July 1925 +
Display died on17 January 1961 +
Display docTypeWikispooks Page +
Display imageFile:Patrice_Lumumba_and_Dag_Hammarskjold.jpg +
Display image2File:Patrice Lumumba and Dag Hammarskjold.jpg +
Display lifespan2 July 1925 - 17 January 1961 +
Has bilderbergCount0 +
Has birthPlaceKatakokombe + and Belgian Congo +
Has cercleCount 0 +
Has deathPlaceÉlisabethville + and Katanga +
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Has postingPrime Minister of the Republic of the Congo +
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