|Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela|
|Leader||President of Venezuela|
|Interest of||William Camacaro, Eva Golinger, Dan Kovalik|
|Venezuela possesses the world's largest oil reserves|
Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2 (353,841 sq mi). The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana.
Fossil fuel reserves
Thatcher encouraged Chávez coup
In the context of the failed coup in Equatorial Guinea in 2004, former British PM Margaret Thatcher was said to have asked whether Simon Mann had yet met a group, led by a man called "Sanchos", who were seeking to remove Hugo Chávez from Venezuela. Mann wrote:
- "No – I hadn't: but, Mark says, we are seeing him next day, in Eaton Place, just next door." He continues with Mrs Thatcher's reply: "'Good. Well, I hope that goes well too.' She looked at me with her imperial gaze. 'We must always look after our friends, Simon … as I'm sure you know.'"
Mann declined to comment.
BBC bias and lies
On 8 February 2019, Venezuela Analysis published an article entitled "The BBC and Venezuela: Bias and Lies", which began:
- The mass media under capitalism is part of the state machine and uses its influence and “prestige” of being “objective” and “independent” to play an important role in the propaganda element. In the UK, the BBC has perfected its skills in preparing the population to accept that any coup that imperialism supports is justified. And this they have done about Venezuela.
- "The BBC programme 'Revolution in Ruins: The Hugo Chavez Story', broadcast on 16 January, sought to prepare viewers to accept and support any moves against President Maduro, as the inheritor of Chavez’s legacy. And within a week, an attempted coup had begun!
In November 2011, President Hugo Chavez ordered the repatriation of 85% of the country's bullion reserves (some 160 tonnes of gold, worth more than $11bn) to protect Venezuela's reserves from global economic turbulence:
- "The gold is returning to where it was always meant to be: the vaults of the Central Bank of Venezuela," Mr Chavez said.
Critics suggested that Mr Chavez was acting out of fears that Venezuela's overseas assets could one day be frozen by sanctions, as happened to his friend and ally, the late Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.
Most of Venezuela's foreign gold reserves are held in London.
- "The holding of this gold is part of the UK’s slavish following of Trump’s support for a coup and possible military intervention."
High Court ruling
On 2 July 2020, the UK High Court ruled against Venezuela's government in a legal battle over access to $1bn (£820m) of gold stored in the Bank of England. Judge Nigel Teare said:
- "Her Majesty's Government does recognise Mr Guaidó in the capacity of the constitutional interim president of Venezuela and, it must follow, does not recognise Mr Maduro as the constitutional interim president of Venezuela."
Lawyers for the Venezuelan Central Bank, which brought the case, said they would appeal against the judgment.
In September 2020, the Maduro Board of the Central Bank of Venezuela successfully appealed to the Court of Appeal:
Question: Does Her Majesty's Government (formally) recognise Juan Guaidó or Nicolás Maduro and, if so, in what capacity, on what basis and from when? Answer: No. While such recognition is conclusive for the purpose of determining who is the de jure President of Venezuela, it leaves open the possibility that HMG may impliedly recognise Mr Maduro as the de facto President of Venezuela.
UK Supreme Court
Independent journalist John McEvoy tweeted:
Ambassadors to Venezuela
|Ambassador to Venezuela|
|UK/Ambassador to Venezuela||1825|
|US/Ambassador to Venezuela||30 June 1835|
|2002 Venezuelan coup attempt||A failed CIA-backed coup attempt against President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez.|
Groups Headquartered Here
|A Group Headquartered Here||Description|
|Andrés Bello Catholic University||Top private university in Venezuela|
|PDVSA||Owned by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela|
Citizens of Venezuela on Wikispooks
|Simón Bolívar||24 July 1783||17 December 1830|
|Hugo Chávez||28 July 1954||5 March 2013||64th President of Venezuela|
|Eva Golinger||19 February 1973||A crusading journalist in the cause of exposing US interference in Venezuela and Latin America generally. She has particular expertise in the circumstances surrounding the death of President Hugo Chavez|
|Gustavo Cisneros||1 June 1945||Venezuelan media mogul|
|Moisés Naím||5 July 1952||One of only a handful of Bilderbergers from outside Europe and North America.|
|Leamsy Salazar||1974||Hugo Chavez bodyguard in the years before his death|
|Document:British military presence near Venezuela ‘extremely concerning’||Article||5 February 2019||Phil Miller||“Britain’s recent history of catastrophic military interventions should rule out any UK participation in Donald Trump’s attempts to destabilise a democratically elected government in Venezuela.”|
|Document:Canada Rejects Petition to Lift All Sanctions on Venezuela||Article||9 November 2018||Nino Pagliccia||While Canada chooses to speak of the “dire human rights and humanitarian crisis in Venezuela” – where there is none – it ignores, condones and rather endorses Saudi Arabia in the making of one of the worst humanitarian crisis in Yemen. That is the most vicious double standard that a “democratic” country can demonstrate.|
|Document:Canada sanctions 40 Venezuelans with links to political, economic crisis||Article||22 September 2017||Michelle Zilio||Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland, MP for the Toronto district of University-Rosedale, said: "I have some Venezuelan Canadians living in my constituency and they have been really vocal … and have said our family, our friends, they need help and they're counting on Canada to speak up."|
|Document:Coordinating Regime Change in Iran and Venezuela||diplomatic communication||25 August 2010||Trowbridge Ford||Iran and Venezuela, prime candidates for regime change|
|Document:How Chrystia Freeland Organised Donald Trump’s Coup in Venezuela||Article||7 February 2019||Eric Zuesse||That’s what Ukraine, and now Venezuela, and many other US coups and invasions, are - and have been - really about. It’s about the ‘peace’ of the graveyard, NOT any democracy, anywhere at all.|
|Document:In Venezuela, White Supremacy Is a Key Driver of the Coup||Article||7 February 2019||Greg Palast|
|Four centuries of White Supremacy in Venezuela by those who identify their ancestors as European came to an end with the 1998 election of Hugo Chávez, who won with the overwhelming support of the Mestizo majority. This turn away from White Supremacy continues under Nicolás Maduro, Chavez’s chosen successor, who was re-elected in 2018 for a second six-year term.|
|Document:Is Oil Behind Washington’s Venezuela Coup Madness||Article||3 February 2019||William Engdahl||Leaving aside whether or not Maduro is a saint, the decision by President Trump to back the Bolton-Pence call for a US intervention in Venezuela may prove a fatal error for the Trump presidency.|
|Document:Sanctions of Mass Destruction: America’s War on Venezuela||Article||1 February 2019||Garikai Chengu||America’s largest export used to be manufactured goods made proudly in the United States. Today, America’s largest export is the US dollar. Any nation like Venezuela that threatens that export is met with America’s second largest export: weapons, chief amongst which are Sanctions of Mass Destruction.|
|Document:The Lima Group: International Outlaws||Article||4 February 2019||Christopher Black||Canada takes the lead in the aggression against Venezuela on Monday 4 February 2019 when it hosts a meeting in Ottawa of a group of international war crime conspirators, known as the Lima Group, a group of Latin American and Caribbean lackeys of the United States, including Mexico and Canada which was set up by the United States at a meeting in Lima, Peru on 8 August 2017 with the express purpose of overthrowing President Maduro.|
|Document:The Making of Juan Guaidó: How the US Regime Change Laboratory Created Venezuela’s Coup Leader||Article||29 January 2019||Dan Cohen|
|Juan Guaidó is the product of a decade-long project overseen by Washington’s elite regime change trainers. While posing as a champion of democracy, Guaidó has spent years at the forefront of a violent campaign of destabilisation in Venezuela|
|Document:Venezuela critics are just Blairites having a kick at Jeremy Corbyn||Interview||7 August 2017||George Galloway|
|For nineteen years the United States government and its secret agents have been trying to overthrow the Venezuela political process. Why might that be? Well, there are many reasons but the biggest among them has the smallest name: OIL.|
|Document:Venezuela, Iran: Trump And The Deep State||Article||22 May 2019||Thierry Meyssan||Sheikh Hassan Rouhani was the primary contact with the Western powers during the Iran-Contra affair. He knows Elliott Abrams personally and put the US deep state in relation with Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, who became the richest billionaire in Iran thanks to this arms traffic.|
|Document:What’s Not Being Said About the Venezuela Oil War||Article||17 February 2019||William Engdahl||The Venezuela Oil War Is Really About Huge Oil Reserves in the District of Guayana Esequiba|
- "Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela"
- Document:British military presence near Venezuela ‘extremely concerning’
- "List of countries by proven oil reserves"
- "Open Letter to Jagmeet Singh: NDP’s reactionary foreign policy positions must be changed"
- "Margaret Thatcher 'gave her approval' to her son Mark's failed coup attempt in Equatorial Guinea"
- "The BBC and Venezuela: Bias and Lies"
- "Chavez repatriates Venezuela's foreign gold reserves"
- "Give back Venezuela's gold"
- "Venezuela gold: UK High Court rules against Nicolás Maduro"
- "'Maduro Board' of the Central Bank of Venezuela v 'Guaido Board' of the Central Bank of Venezuela" EWCA Civ 1249 (05 October 2020)
- "'Guaido Board' of the Central Bank of Venezuela appeals to the UK Supreme Court"
- "Venezuela's Gold at the UK Supreme Court"