COVID-19/Premature death

From Wikispooks
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Concept.png COVID-19/Premature death
(Premature death,  third rail topic)Rdf-entity.pngRdf-icon.png 5
COVID-19 Premature death.jpg
AbbreviationC19/PD
Subpage(s)COVID-19/Premature death/Athletes
Premature deaths due to the COVID-19 event, including vaccine researchers, dissidents and leaders of nations who actively dissented from WHO measures.

Premature death due to COVID-19 can take different forms. This list primarily deals with people who might have died suspicious deaths, like whistleblowers or dissidents, not death from actual disease, neglect, or the many premature deaths from the "vaccines".

Covid Deaths

Notable for claiming the old and very sick, there was from the start a notable trend of iatrogenic treatment (where the cure was worse than the disease) including excessive use of invasive mechanic ventilators and ineffective and expensive Big Pharma drugs like Remdesivir. Combined with a dogmatic refusal from health bureaucracies and politicians to look at treatment protocols developed by groups like the Front-Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance and the many studies showing the efficiency of hydroxychloroquine and especially ivermectin, this led to in effect no real treatment protocol being implemented during 2020. This foot-dragging might have been done on purpose, to increase the uptake of vaccines.

An additional factor was the widespread use of do not resuscitate orders in some countries (Great Britain), where older patients were left to die from hunger or thirst without treatment in an alleged triage, or hastened to their deaths with life-ending drugs.

Lockdown deaths

While the disease is particularly deadly for the old and infirm, the deep politics surrounding the COVID lockdowns and COVID legislation may prove deadly to the young and healthy. Many commentators[Who?] have suggested that the COVID-19 lockdowns may kill far more people than the disease, through delayed health services, increased poverty, worsened nutrition and calorie intake, worsened life quality and suicides etc.

Globally, the lockdowns have caused far more deaths than the disease ever could, through intensified hunger, where by April 2020, "260 million people worldwide 'marching toward starvation'[1]. In addition, billions of people in the Global South have reduced food intake because no work income, and also now unable to afford other life necessities[2].

African Politicians

Since February 2020, several dozen current high-ranking African politicians have died with or from "COVID-19", including two incumbent presidents and three incumbent prime ministers. African leaders die in a significantly higher proportion from/with COVID-19 than the rest of the population; according to some calculations, it kills 17 times more leaders than "regular citizens".[3] Particularly South Africa seems to have a number of unusual deaths.[4][5]

Pierre Nkurunziza, the longest-ruling President of Burundi, expressed deep scepticism about COVID-19, expelling the WHO team in Burundi without giving reasons[6] and refused to impose a Covid lockdown. He died suddenly the next month.[7][8]

A friend of his, John Magufuli, president of Tanzania, supported his stance on Covid, and declared the pandemic in Tanzania officially over. Magnafuli was criticised for this by commercially-controlled media and died in March 2021.[9] Tanzania's Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs Augustine Mahiga[10] and Seif Sharif Hamad, a Tanzanian politician who was the First Vice President of Zanzibar,[11] also are stated to have died from Covid.

Ambrose Dlamini, the Prime Minister of Eswatini died in December 2020. The same did the Minister of Public Service Christian Ntshangase[12], and the Minister of Labour and Social Security Makhosi Vilakati.[13]

South Africa

Many South African Member of Parliaments have (or stated to have) died from the virus; most politicians who have died have been members of the governing ANC. The most mysterious death is probably the case of Jackson Mthembu, a minister who died of COVID. His doctor was killed in a helicopter crash the same day. Mncedisi Filtane, a former MP died 22nd November 2020, he was the brother-in-law of Loyiso Mpumlwana who died 23 December 2020. Other MPs that suddenly died were Pumza Dyantyi, Loyiso Mpumlwana, Nomvuzo Shabalala and Nombulelo Hermans. The provincial spokesperson for the ANC in KwaZulu-Natal province Ricardo Mthembu and Nelson Mandela's daughter, ambassador Zindzi Mandela, both died in July 2020. In January 2021, former minister and political party founder Mluleki George died. Geoff Makhubo, Mayor of Johannesburg died of COVID in July 2021. His replacement Jolidee Matongo was killed in a freak car crash on 18 September 2021.[14] Shockingly, his successor Mpho Moerane was also killed in a car crash in May 2022.[15]

In December 2020, Prime Minister of Eswatini Ambrose Mandvulo Dlamini died in Johannesburg.

Queen Noloyiso Sandile died on 8 July 2020. Her brother King Goodwill Zwelithini of the Zulu nation died on 12 March 2021.

In March 2021, high profile journalist, free speech advocate and former anti-apartheid activist Karima Brown died from COVID at the age of 54.

In August 2021, opposition MP Mthokozisi Nxumalo, who had criticised the governments handling of COVID-19 was killed in a freak car crash. The same month, the chief financial officer at the Gauteng Provincial Government Department of Health Babita Deokaran was assassinated. She had blew the whistle on a corruption scandal involving contractors for COVID-19 PPE procurement when she was shot dead in her car as she returned home.[16]

Chronological list of politicians

List of COVID-19 deaths in South Africa (Note: Most of the deaths on this list were incumbent MPs of the ruling ANC)

  1. Dorah Dunana Dlamini on 13 May 2020
  2. Martha Mmola on 18 July 2020
  3. Zamuxolo Peter on 31 July 2020
  4. Mac Jack on 12 August 2020
  5. Mongameli Bobani on 11 November 2020
  6. Mncedisi Filtane on 22 November 2020
  7. Pumza Dyantyi on 7 December 2020
  8. Loyiso Mpumlwana on 23 December 2020
  9. Nomvuzo Shabalala on 26 December 2020
  10. Bheki Ntuli on 16 January 2021
  11. Marius Swart on 17 January 2021
  12. Nombulelo Hermans on 18 January 2021
  13. Jackson Mthembu on 21 January 2021
  14. Tozama Mantashe on 31 January 2021
  15. Zwelifile Christopher Ntuli on 4 February 2021
  16. Tshoganetso Tongwane on 19th March 2021
  17. Jacqueline Mofokeng on 22nd April 2021
  18. James Jim Skosana on 15 June 2021
  19. Diratsagae Alfred Kganare on 3 July 2021
  20. Cameron Mackenzie on 7 July[17]
  21. Joyce Maluleke on 16 July 2021
  22. Lulama Ntshayisa on 23 July 2021
  23. Jacobus Frederick van Wyk on 31 July 2021
  24. Zanele kaMagwaza-Msibi on 6 September 2021
  25. Maggie Tlou on 3 February 2022

Other African politicians

Malawi's Minister of Transport and Public Works Sidik Mia and Local Government Minister Lingson Berekanyama both died.[18]

Zimbabwe's agriculture minister Perrance Shiri[19]; Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Sibusiso Moyo;and Minister of Transport and Infrastructural Development Joel Matiza all died[20].

Some opposition politicians have died. Guy-Brice Parfait Kolélas the leading opposition candidate in the Congo died on election day.[21]

Iran

At least 17 Iranian politicians and officials had died from (or with) the virus by 25 March, 2020.[22]

Researchers

Several researchers into COVID-19 and the associated vaccines have suddenly died, including Yusen Zhou‎ (May 2020 "mysterious circumstances"[23]), Alexander Kagansky (December 2020, found dead in his underwear after falling 14 stories from his flat with stab wounds), José Baselga (March 2021, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), Zhao Zhendong ("heart attack"), Bing Liu, Frank Plummer and Gita Ramjee.[24]

Vaccine deaths

Reporting by the The Sun, a UK tabloid.
COVID-19 Premature death-TheSun video games.webp

Very early on in the COVID-19 event, when COVID-19/Panic was high, Big Pharma arranged that they would not be legally liable for the consequences of the COVID-19 vaccines they produced. Some test subjects have died due to acute adverse reactions to the vaccine. Vernon Coleman, Sucharit Bhakdi, Luc Montaigner and others strongly suggested that the vaccine may render people's immune systems more vulnerable to mutations of Covid-19 or other coronaviruses.[25]

Since the rollout of the large-scale vaccinations since late 2020, there has been a conspicuous number of premature deaths of people who took the vaccines, in all age groups. An investigation into the data of health insurance providers in Germany found that:[26][27][28]

"Factually, since the first quarter of 2021, we have had more sudden and unexpected deaths in each quarter than in summary form in each of the preceding years. That is, a more than fourfold increase in sudden and unexpected deaths.

Suspected

The term "short illness" is being used incredibly regularly to describe sudden premature death.

  • Tiffany Dover, an American nurse who fainted on live TV, and then supposedly disappeared.
  • Four British Airways pilots died in June 2021, but all "fact-checkers" have said it is a conspiracy theory that they are linked.
  • Gaia Young, a 25 year old aristocrat from London who died of a headache on 2 July 2021.[29]
  • In October 2021 videos started to emerge which focused on small plane crashes in the US and alleged that these are increasing and in turn linking them to possible vaccine side effects.[30][31] A comparison for the months June, July, August and September of 2019 to 2021 do not show such an increase by number of accidents.[32]
  • Two doctors from the Austrian State Hospital Vienna Neustadt (Landesklinikum Wiener Neustadt) died within four days at the end of August 2021.[33] The demise of Stefan Halper (46) and Keyhan Hariri (52) get's described as: "mysterious deaths".[34] (reports from mid January 2021 say that a third of the hospital staff is already vaccinated,[35] it may be as high as 80% by August 2021[36])

Media coverage

In October 2022, the Daily Mail reported on this third rail topic.[37]

  • Josephine Melville, actress, died backstage after collapsing for unknown reason after performing in a play on 20 October 2022.
  • Julie Powell, food writer, died of a cardiac arrest on 26 October 2022.[38]

Athletes - health complications/deaths

A number of commercially-controlled media reports about young athletes collapsing in 2021 around the globe with heart issues, or other causes.[39][40][41][42] Fans in the stadia do have 'Medical Emergencies' as well.[43][44] In Europe, the Berliner-Zeitung is the first news outlet to report about a number of such cases in Germany and other European countries.[45][46][47]

Full article: Premature death of Athletes

During the Miami Open in early 2022 there were 15 withdrawals/retirements during the games, with several top players not able to finish their sets.[48]


 

Examples

Page nameDescriptionDiedDeath causeDeath location
Iris AdamsThe first nurse to have the COVID-19/Vaccine at the hospital she worked at. Months later she died from COVID days before retirement.18 September 2021COVID-19South Africa
David AmessBritish parliamentarian and COVID-19 dissident who was fatally stabbed in October 2021. He had criticised Big Pharma, the COVID 19/Lockdowns, mandatory face masks, and vaccine passports.15 October 2021Essex
England
Hamed BakayokoIvorian Prime Minister who died suddenly, some say of poisoning.10 March 2021Poisoning?Germany
Freiburg im Breisgau
Michelle BarlowBritish woman who died from the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19/Vaccine.23 March 2021AZD1222
Blood clots
Royal Albert Edward Infirmary
England
José BaselgaChief cancer researcher at AstraZeneca dies at 61 of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, possibly an effect of the Covid jab.21 March 2021Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Marc Bernier3US conservative radio host who condemned vaccines who dies 'of Covid', in August 2021. 3rd similar death in a short period of time Corporate media gleeful.
Johann BiacsicsLeader of the Austrian Anti-vaxxer movement dies of COVID?11 November 2021COVID-19
Bleach poisoning?
Austria
Marcus Birks"Anti-vaxxer musician" dies of COVID?27 August 2021COVID-19Staffordshire
Royal Stoke University Hospital
England
Mark BoguskiAmerican medical researcher that killed himself in 2021.18 March 2021SuicideUS
John BuchananHe caught the Delta variant of COVID in hospital and later died despite being double jabbed with the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine.3 September 2021COVID-19Texas
Houston
Arne Burkhardt30 May 2023Drowning
Rashid ButtarUS physician targeted for censorship and harassment as one of the "Disinformation Dozen" by the Center for Countering Digital Hate and the US government during the Covid deep event. Died prematurely in 2023, shortly after a CNN interview where he claimed he had been poisoned.18 May 2023Poisoning?
Pierre BuyoyaFormer Burundian president who died allegedly of COVID-19 after rejecting the official narrative about the disease17 December 2020COVID-19?
COVID-19/Medical killingsDuring the COVID-19 deep event, a number of governments implemented policies that drastically increased death numbers
Kali CookA death of a 4 year old girl being used to promote the COVID-19/Vaccine.7 September 2021COVID-19US
Texas
Bacliff
Galveston County
Ambrose DlaminiPrime Minister of Eswatini and one of the conspicuous many African politicians dying of/with Covid.13 December 2020
Tiffany DoverA nurse who fainted during showcase rollout of Pfizer vaccine. The sporadic corporate media "proof of life" efforts since then raises more questions than provides answers.
Pumza DyantyiSouth African health politician stated to have died from Covid-19 in December 2020.7 December 2020COVID-19
Bob EnyartFourth US conservative radio host who condemned vaccines and died 'of Covid', in September 2021. 4th similar death in a short period of time. CCM is delighted, naturally.12 September 2021US
Colorado
Hassan FirouzabadiIranian Armed Forces Chief of Staff (1989 to 2016), died of COVID-193 September 2021COVID-19Iran
Josée Forest-NiesingOntario Senator who died of COVID-19 at the age of 5620 November 2021COVID-19Canada
Ontario
David GraeberAnarchist anthropologist who played a leading role in the Occupy movement. Died suddenly in 2020.2 September 2020Italy
Venice
David GreenhalghThe Leader of Bolton Council who died suddenly after opposing a central government enforced lockdown in his town.29 July 2021UnknownUK
Hissène HabréThe former CIA backed dictator of Chad. He was victorious over Muammar Gaddafi in the Toyota War.24 August 2021COVID-19Senegal
Dakar
Jan HeckerDies suddenly just 2 weeks after taking up Beijing ambassador post.6 September 2021China
Beijing
Hana HorkaCzech singer who allegedly died from COVID days after getting "infected on purpose".18 January 2022COVID-19Czech Republic
Thomas JendgesHead of a hospital in Chemnitz who died from a fall of his roof.November 2021Falling
Alexander KaganskyRussian COVID-19 Vaccine researcher found deadDecember 2020Stabbing
Falling
Russia
Saint Petersburg
Stephen KaranjaKenyan doctor who loudly said Covid-19 experimental vaccines "should not be given". Reportedly died a month later from "COVID complications".29 April 2021
Franz KleinGerman business leader and vocal lock-down critic21 November 2020
Marcus LambCOVID sceptical televangelist supposedly dies of COVID. after taking Ivermectin.30 November 2021COVID-19US
Texas
Leslie Lawrenson"Anti-vaxxer" dies of COVID?2 July 2021COVID-19Dorset
Bournemouth
England
Luke LetlowLetlow died with COVID within two months of being elected to Congress.29 December 2020Heart attack
COVID-19
US
Louisiana
Bing LiuAn assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, was found dead in his home in an apparent murder-suicideMay 2020GunshotUS
Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh
Pete LopezHe died from COVID after the hospital refused to administer Ivermectin even though he had a prescription.7 September 2021COVID-19Texas
Daniel and Davy MaciasUnvaccinated couple who died of COVID-19.26 August 2021COVID-19US
California
Cameron MackenzieThe 14th South African MP to die from COVID.7 July 2021COVID-19South Africa
John MagufuliPresident of Tanzania who refused to institute a Covid lockdown and rejected WHO advice. Died aged 61 after harsh criticism by western controlled media. A close friend of Pierre Nkurunziza, President of Burundi who took a similar policy and died suddenly in 2020.March 2021
MahalFamous Filipino actress and comedienne who had dwarfism. She died from COVID-19 in August 2021.31 August 2021COVID-19The Philippines
Geoff MakhuboThe Mayor of Johannesburg died suddenly of COVID in July 2021.9 July 2021COVID-19South Africa
Johannesburg
Joyce MalulekeThe 15th South African MP to die from COVID.16 July 2021COVID-19South Africa
Captain Joe Manning"Anti-vaxxer police officer dies of COVID after promoting Ivermectin.25 August 2021COVID-19US
Georgia
Mark McConnaugheyDespite being double jabbed, he died of an "asymptomatic Covid-19 infection"18 August 2021COVID-19US
Iowa
María Teresa Marú MejíaMexican Member of Parliament who reportedly died from COVID.3 August 2021Mexico
Mexico City
Mpho MoeraneThe Mayor of Johannesburg died in a freak car crash in May 2022.18 May 2022Car crashSouth Africa
Johannesburg
Jovenel MoïsePresident of Haiti assassinated in 20217 July 2021Haiti
Jackson MthembuLong running politician from South Africa, dies of Covid. His doctor has a fatal Helicopter crash the same day.21 January 2021COVID-19South Africa
Johannesburg
Kary MullisInventor of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, which he said should not be used as a main diagnostic tool. Died in August 20197 August 2019Pneumonia
Pierre NkurunzizaThe longest-ruling President of Burundi. Died suddenly in 2020 after expelling the WHO team and refusing to impose restrictions as a response to COVID-19.8 June 2020
Ray ObomsawinDr. Obomsawin went from perfectly healthy to dead a few days after sending an important document to RFK Jr. related to the safety of the COVID vaccines.28 December 2021
... further results

 

COVID-19/Premature death victims on Wikispooks

TitleDescriptionDiedDeath causeDeath location
Kimberley KitchingAustralian Senator who died suddenly10 March 2022Heart attackAustralia
Victoria (Australia)
Strathmore
Alpa TailorBritish woman who died from the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19/Vaccine.22 April 2021AZD1222London
National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery
Vladimir ZhirinovskyLeading Russian politician who died suddenly6 April 2022COVID-19Russia
Moscow

 

Related Documents

TitleTypePublication dateAuthor(s)Description
Document:Excess deaths in 2022 among worst in 50 yearsArticle10 January 2022Rachel Schraer
Robert Cuffe
Why did so many people die in 2022? This remarkable BBC News article doesn't explain why.
Document:The BBC’s vaccine cheerleader Jeremy Vine gets his comeuppanceArticle15 August 2021Kathy GyngellThe BBC and their COVID-19/Vaccine propaganda is getting pushback.


Rating

5star.png 11 November 2021 Terje 
Many thanks to our Patrons who cover ~2/3 of our hosting bill. Please join them if you can.



References

  1. https://www.wfp.org/news/covid-19-will-double-number-people-facing-food-crises-unless-swift-action-taken
  2. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/11/business/covid-hunger-food-insecurity.html
  3. https://vcomevittoria.it/covid-19-il-killer-dei-capi-africani/
  4. https://roundingtheearth.substack.com/p/who-died-during-the-plandemonium-dee
  5. https://nakedemperor.substack.com/p/why-was-covid-so-deadly-for-african?utm_source=substack&utm_campaign=post_embed&utm_medium=web
  6. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-burundi-idUSKBN22Q0XS
  7. https://www.msn.com/en-au/news/coronavirus/burundi-leader-nkurunziza-died-of-covid-19-%E2%80%94-diplomats/ar-BB15lvsx
  8. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/world/article-burundi-president-pierre-nkurunziza-dies-suddenly-after-reports-of/
  9. https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/1411435/John-Magufuli-dead-how-did-president-magufuli-die-cause-of-death-evg
  10. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/news/1840340-5539368-awekks/index.html
  11. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-56096851
  12. https://independentnews.co.sz/local-news/5741/king-commands-state-funeral-for-the-late-minister-christian-ntshangase/
  13. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/eswatini-s-labor-minister-dies-of-covid-19/2121573
  14. https://www.sabcnews.com/sabcnews/breaking-newly-elected-johannesburg-mayor-jolidee-matongo-killed-in-a-car-accident/
  15. https://ewn.co.za/2022/05/18/former-joburg-mayor-mpho-moerane-passes-away-after-accident
  16. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2021-08-28-slain-whistle-blower-babita-deokaran-potentially-unveiled-a-criminal-syndicate-at-the-department-of-health/
  17. https://www.news24.com/news24/southafrica/news/da-mp-cameron-mackenzie-dies-of-covid-19-20210708
  18. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/1/12/covid-19-kills-two-malawi-cabinet-ministers
  19. https://web.archive.org/web/20200730185505/https://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFKCN24U0UY-OZATP
  20. https://web.archive.org/web/20210129151738/https://www.herald.co.zw/obituary-dr-joel-biggie-matiza/
  21. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-56474855
  22. https://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2020/03/25/Coronavirus-in-Iran-At-least-17-regime-officials-dead-and-12-infected
  23. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-9658235/Chinese-scientist-filed-patent-COVID-vaccine-virus-declared-global-pandemic.html
  24. https://darkoutpost.com/conspiracies/growing-list-of-assassinations-of-covid-19-researchers/
  25. https://vernoncoleman.org/videos/covid-19-vaccines-are-weapons-mass-destruction-and-could-wipe-out-human-race
  26. https://odysee.com/@FSchuster:6/Pressekonferenz-zu-Impffolgen1:d - ~ 01:44 minute
  27. https://wikispooks.com/wiki/File:Germany_-_health_insurance_data_-_AFD_meeting.webp
  28. https://tkp.at/2022/12/12/presse-konferenz-ueber-moegliche-impftoten-wird-vom-mainstream-ignoriert/
  29. https://www.standard.co.uk/news/uk/gaia-young-lord-young-labour-dies-25-headache-cycle-b953543.html
  30. EPIDEMIC OF SMALL PLANE CRASHES LINKED TO nRMA' @DontWatchThisFilm-Anunnaki Odysee video channel
  31. EPIDEMIC OF SMALL PLANE CRASHES LINKED TO VACCINE - STRANGER THAN FICTION NEWS
  32. June 2019 - 202, June 2021 - 158 | July 2019 - 194, July 2021 - 183 | August 2019 - 179, August 2021 - 146 | September 2019 - 149, September 2021 - 131 | https://www.ntsb.gov/ - Accident Data - Monthly Lists of Aviation Accidents
  33. https://exxpress.at/was-ist-in-diesem-spital-los-bereits-zwei-aerzte-tot/
  34. https://www.oe24.at/oesterreich/chronik/niederoesterreich/schock-bereits-zweiter-arzt-im-dienst-gestorben/491126618
  35. https://www.noen.at/wr-neustadt/wiener-neustadt-landesklinikum-ein-drittel-der-belegschaft-ist-geimpft-wiener-neustadt-coronavirus-landesklinikum-wiener-neustadt-redaktion-corona-impfung-242414207
  36. https://www.wochenblick.at/tote-aerzte-tote-muetter-warum-fallen-so-viele-menschen-ploetzlich-tot-um/
  37. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-174072/Sudden-death-mystery-healthy-people.html
  38. https://news.yahoo.com/julie-powells-last-tweet-her-110000053.html
  39. https://www.reddit.com/r/conspiracy/comments/pvclez/anyone_notice_a_pattern_yet/ saved via Archive.org saved via Archive.is
  40. Compilation - Athletes Dying After Taking Jab
  41. https://summit.news/2021/11/24/former-pro-calls-for-investigation-after-another-football-player-suddenly-collapses/
  42. https://summit.news/2021/11/29/media-says-rise-in-football-players-suddenly-collapsing-is-a-coincidence/
  43. https://www.zerohedge.com/geopolitical/premier-league-matches-disrupted-fans-having-heart-attacks-stands
  44. https://www.rt.com/sport/541934-watford-chelsea-medical-emergency/
  45. https://www.zerohedge.com/medical/german-newspaper-highlights-unusually-large-number-soccer-players-who-have-collapsed saved at Archive.org
  46. https://summit.news/2021/11/04/24-year-old-hockey-player-dies-after-suffering-cardiac-arrest-during-game/ saved at Archive.org
  47. https://www.berliner-zeitung.de/news/raetselhafte-herzerkrankungen-im-fussball-li.193554 saved at Archive.org saved at Archive.is
  48. https://au.sports.yahoo.com/sports/tennis-2022-viewers-shocked-bizarre-miami-open-carnage-004007552.html saved at Archive.org saved at Archive.is