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|( 1880s: ) 1880|
- February – The journal Science is first published in the United States, with financial backing from Thomas Edison.
- February 2 - The first successful shipment of frozen mutton from Australia arrives in London, aboard the SS Strathleven.
- April 18 – 1880 United Kingdom general election: William Ewart Gladstone defeats Benjamin Disraeli, to become Prime Minister for the second time.
- April 19 – The Prime Minister of Sweden, Louis De Geer, resigns over the defeat of a defense reform bill in the country's Riksdag; he is succeeded by Count Arvid Posse (1880–1883).
- June 29 – France annexes Tahiti.
- July 22 – Abdur Rahman Khan becomes Emir of Afghanistan.
- July 27 – Second Anglo-Afghan War – Battle of Maiwand: Afghan troops under Ayub Khan defeat British and Indian forces, under Brigadier General George Burrows.
- October 1 – German company Munich Re is founded in Munich.
- November 2 – U.S. presidential election, 1880: James Garfield defeats Winfield S. Hancock.
- December 30 – The Transvaal becomes a republic, and Paul Kruger becomes its first president.
- Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza signs a treaty of protection with the chief of the large Teke tribe, and begins to establish a French protectorate on the north bank of the Congo River.
|University of Southern California||PrivateSea-grantSpace-grant|
|National Bank of Romania|
|Title||Born||Place of birth||Died||Summary||Description|
|Douglas MacArthur||26 January 1880||Arkansas|
|5 April 1964||Soldier|
|William Clayton||7 February 1880||Mississippi|
|8 February 1966||Businessperson|
|Samuel Hoare||24 February 1880||London|
|7 May 1959||Diplomat|
|Walter Guinness||29 March 1880||6 November 1944||Politician|
|Lord Moyne. An Anglo-Irish politician and businessman. Served as Minister of State in UN Mandate Palestine in 1944 when he was assassinated by members of Lehi|
|Oswald Spengler||29 May 1880||8 May 1936||Historian|
|Robert McCormick||30 July 1880||Chicago|
|1 April 1955||Soldier|
|H.L. Mencken||12 September 1880||29 January 1956||Journalist|
|Ralph Flanders||28 September 1880||Vermont|
|19 February 1970||Politician|
|Chairman of Federal Reserve Bank of Boston who attended two Bilderbergs in the 1950s.|
|George Marshall||31 December 1880||Pennsylvania|
|16 October 1959||Politician|