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|( 1870s: ) 1873|
- March 3 – Censorship: The United States Congress enacts the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, or lascivious" books through the mail.
- March 4 – Ulysses S. Grant is sworn in for a second term, as President of the United States.
- May – Henry Rose exhibits barbed wire at an Illinois county fair, which is taken up by Joseph Glidden and Jacob Haish, who invent a machine to mass-produce it.
- May 9 – Der Gründerkrach: The Wiener Börse (Vienna stock exchange) crash in Austria-Hungary ends the Gründerzeit, and heralds the global Panic of 1873 and Long Depression.
- May 20 – In Chipping Norton, England, rioters attempt to free the Ascott Martyrs –16 women sentenced to imprisonment, for attempting to dissuade strikebreakers.
- May 23 – The Canadian Parliament establishes the North-West Mounted Police (which is renamed the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1920).
- May 28 – C. Laan brings order to the chaos created by the dockworker riots of Tripoli, Lebanon.
- July – The end of the war between the United Kingdom and Ghana's King Kofi KariKari, who is involved in the trading of slaves, leads to the establishment of the Gold Coast Colony.
- July 5 – New Rush in Griqualand West, South Africa is renamed Kimberley.
- August 12 – A peace treaty is signed between Imperial Russia and the Khanate of Khiva, making the khanate a Russian protectorate.
- September 15 – The International Meteorological Organization (IMO) is established.
- September 16 – German troops leave France, upon completion of payment of indemnity for the Franco-Prussian War.
- September 18 – The New York stock market crash triggers the Panic of 1873, part of the Long Depression.
- October – The Long Depression begins in the United States.
- November 10 – Establishment of the Home Ministry in Japan, introducing police services of the Empire of Japan on the European model.
- November 18–21 – Irish Home Rule movement: The Home Government Association reconstitutes itself as the Home Rule League.
- December 21 – Francis Garnier is attacked outside Hanoi by Black Flag mercenaries fighting for the Vietnamese.
- The League of the Three Emperors is created. It links the conservative monarchs of Austria-Hungary, the German Empire and the Russian Empire in an alliance against radical movements.
- The Swedish arms company Aktiebolaget (AB) Bofors-Gullspång, better known as Bofors, is founded.
- In Mexico, the Veracruz–Mexico City railroad is completed.
|Rio Tinto Group||Commercial|
|William Penn University||Private university||Run by members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)|
|Scottish American Investment Trust|
|Scottish American Investment Company||Long established investment company|
|John Stuart Mill||20 May 1806||7 May 1873|
|Title||Born||Place of birth||Died||Summary||Description|
|William Green||3 March 1873||1952||Union organizer|
|Leon Czolgosz||5 May 1873||29 October 1901||Journalist|
|George Gibbs||6 July 1873||28 October 1931|
|Hugh Sinclair||18 August 1873||Southampton||4 November 1939||Spook|
|Cornelius Vanderbilt III||5 September 1873||New York||1 March 1942|
|Fritz Thyssen||9 November 1873||Germany|
|8 February 1951||Businessperson|
|George N. Peek||19 November 1873||Illinois|
|17 December 1943||Economist|
|Vernon Kell||21 November 1873||Great Yarmouth||27 March 1942||Spook|
|Leo Amery||22 November 1873||India|
|16 September 1955||Politician|
Deep state operative
|UK historian and deep state actor, chief lieutenant of Alfred Milner|
|Al Smith||30 December 1873||New York|
|4 October 1944||Politician|