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|( 1870s: ) 1875|
- January 1 – The Midland Railway of England abolishes the Second Class passenger category, leaving First Class and Third Class. Other British railway companies follow Midland's lead during the rest of the year (Third Class is renamed Second Class in 1956).
- January 12 – Guangxu becomes the 11th Qing Dynasty Emperor of China at the age of 4, in succession to his cousin.
- March 15 – Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York John McCloskey is named the first cardinal in the United States.
- May 7 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg is signed between Japan and Russia.
- May 20 – The Metre Convention is signed in Paris, France.
- July 1 – The General Postal Union is established.
- September 1 – A murder conviction begins to break the power of the violent Irish-American anti-owner coal miners, the "Molly Maguires".
- September 7 – Battle of Agurdat: An Egyptian invasion of Ethiopia fails, when Emperor Yohannes IV defeats an army led by Werner Munzinger.
- October – The Ottoman state declares partial bankruptcy, and places its finances in the hands of European creditors.
- November 16 – Battle of Gundat: Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV defeats another Egyptian army.
- November 26 – The Times newspaper in London reveals that Isma'il Pasha has sold Egypt's 44% share in the Suez Canal to Britain, in a deal secured by Benjamin Disraeli, without the prior sanction of the British Parliament.
- December 4 – Notorious New York City politician Boss Tweed escapes from prison and flees to Cuba, then to Spain.
- December 20 – The ICRM is renamed the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
- The Artisans' and Labourers' Dwellings Improvement Act 1875 is passed in the United Kingdom, to permit slum clearance.
- Widespread nationalist rebellion in the Ottoman Empire results in Turkish repression, Russian intervention and Great Power tensions.
|Queen Margaret University||Public||Hosting the Institute for International Health & Development|
|Aligarh Muslim University||Before 1939, faculty members and students supported an all-India nationalist movement but after 1939, the university came to be a center of the Pakistan Movement.|
|Chernivtsi University||Founded in 1875 as the Austrian-Hungarian Franz-Josephs-Universität|
|Oslo Commerce School||A traditional mercantile high school in "the best part" of Oslo.|
|Brigham Young University||Private not-for-profit space grant||99 percent of the students are Mormons|
|High Court of Justice||First instance with all high value and high importance civil law (non-criminal) cases in England, and also has a supervisory jurisdiction over all subordinate courts and tribunals.|
|Title||Born||Place of birth||Died||Summary||Description|
|Ross Sterling||11 February 1875||Texas|
|25 March 1949|
|Syngman Rhee||26 March 1875||19 July 1965||Politician|
|Owen Roberts||2 May 1875||United States|
|2 May 1955|
|William Leahy||6 May 1875||Iowa|
|20 July 1959|
|George Herbert Walker||11 June 1875||US|
|24 June 1953||Financier|
|John Buchan||26 August 1875||Scotland|
|11 February 1940||Spook|
Deep state operative
|UK deep state operative. Member of the Outer Circle of the Milner Group and Governor General of Canada from 1935-1940.|
|Eric Holt-Wilson||26 August 1875||26 March 1950||Spook|
|Draft The Defence of the Realm Act in 1914, later head of MI5|
|Aleister Crowley||12 October 1875||United Kingdom|
Royal Leamington Spa
|1 December 1947||Author|
|Eugene Meyer||31 October 1875||United States|
|17 July 1959||Spook|
|Friedrich von der Schulenburg||20 November 1875||Germany|
|10 November 1944||Diplomat|