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|( 1870s: ) 1870|
- January 10 – John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil.
- February 9 – The U.S. Army Weather Bureau is created within the Army Signal Corps.
- February 12 – Women's suffrage: Women gain the right to vote in Utah Territory.
- February 23 – Military control of Mississippi ends, and it is readmitted to the Union.
- February 26 – In New York City, the first pneumatic subway is opened, Beach Pneumatic Transit.
- February 26 – The German Commerzbank is founded in Hamburg.
- February 27 – The circle of the sun flag of Japan is adopted as the national flag for Japanese merchant ships, by proclamation of the Daijō-kan.
- March – The Mitsubishi Company is established in Japan as a shipping firm, by Iwasaki Yatarō with Thomas Blake Glover.
- March 1 – Battle of Cerro Corá, Paraguay: Marshal Francisco Solano López's last troops are cornered by those of the Triple Alliance. López refuses to surrender and is killed, ending the Paraguayan War.
- March 4 – Red River Rebellion: Thomas Scott is executed by Louis Riel's provisional government, in modern-day Manitoba, Canada.
- March 10 – The Deutsche Bank is founded in Berlin.
- March 18 – Female Infanticide Prevention Act, 1870, passed in British India.
- May 20 – Charles Craufurd Hay becomes acting Governor of the Cape of Good Hope, and High Commissioner for Southern Africa.
- June 8 – The final splice on the first telegraph submarine cable between Great Britain and India is made.
- June 23 The first message by electric telegraph using the Great Britain to India submarine cable is sent from London.
- June 28 – American President Ulysses S. Grant signs an act making the United States Independence Day Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day and New Year's Day federal holidays in the United States.
- July 14 – The Ems Dispatch is published, serving as casus belli for a war between Prussia and France.
- July 15 - Reconstruction Era: Georgia becomes the last former Confederate state to be readmitted to the Union.
- July 18 – Pastor aeternus: Pope Pius IX declares papal infallibility, in matters of faith and morals.
- July 19 – Franco-Prussian War: France declares war on Prussia.
- July 30 – The 'Diggers' Republic' is proclaimed at Klipdrift in South Africa by diamond miners, with Stafford Parker as president.
- August 8 – The Republic of Ploiești, an uprising against Domnitor Carol of Romania, fails.
- August 24 – The Red River Rebellion in Canada ends with the arrival of the Wolseley Expedition and the flight of Louis Riel.
- September 2 – Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Sedan – Prussian forces defeat the French armies, and take Emperor Napoleon III and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner at Sedan.
- September 4 – Emperor Napoleon III of France is deposed, and the Third Republic is declared. Empress Eugénie flees to England with her children.
- September 19 – Franco-Prussian War: The Siege of Paris begins.
- September 20 – With Bersaglieri soldiers entering Rome at Porta Pia, the unification of Italy is completed, ending the last remnant of the Papal States and Papal temporal power.
- October 2 – A plebiscite held in Rome supports, by 133,681 votes to 1,507, the annexation of the city by Italy.
- October 6 – Rome becomes the capital of Italy.
- October 8 – Léon Gambetta escapes besieged Paris in a hot-air balloon.
- October 20 – The First Vatican Council adjourns.
- October 26 – The Chinese leaders of June's Tianjin Massacre of foreigners are executed by the China's Imperial government.
- October 27 – Franco-Prussian War: Siege of Metz – Marshal François Achille Bazaine, commanding the French left wing, is forced by starvation to surrender the fortifications of Metz.
- November 12 – Dresdner Bank is founded in Germany.
- November 16 – The Spanish Cortes Generales proclaims Amadeo de Saboya as King Amadeus I of Spain.
- December 28 – Juan Prim, prime minister of Spain, is shot by unknown assassins on leaving the Cortes, dying two days later.
- December 31
- Japanese yen currency is introduced to supersede the mon.
- Just one of the 916 members of the Indian Civil Service is Indian.
|Georgetown University/Law Center||Military ranks|
|Syracuse University||Private research university|
|Ohio State University||PublicLand grantSea grantSpace grant||With nearly 50,000 undergraduate students and nearly 15,000 graduate students, Ohio State is one of the largest American universities.|
|Stevens Institute of Technology|
|US/DOJ||Law||As a former associate editor of the Wall Street Journal summarised "Justice is something that exists outside the borders of the United States. Never expect to find justice within the United States."|
|Title||Born||Place of birth||Died||Summary||Description|
|Vladimir Lenin||22 April 1870||Russian Empire|
|21 January 1924||Politician|
|Homer Stille Cummings||30 April 1870||United States|
|10 September 1956||Lawyer|
|Pierre Jay||4 May 1870||24 November 1949||Banker|
|Jan Smuts||24 May 1870||Cape Colony|
|11 September 1950||Soldier|
Deep state operative
|UK Deep state operative and twice Prime Minister of South Africa|
|Reginald Hall||28 June 1870||Britford|
|22 October 1943||Spook|
|Bernard Baruch||19 August 1870||Camden|
|20 June 1965|
|Patrick Duncan||21 December 1870||17 July 1943||Deep state operative|