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|( 1850s: ) 1858|
August 5: First transatlantic telegraph cable.
- January –
- January 9 – Anson Jones, the last President of the Republic of Texas, commits suicide.
- January 14 – Orsini affair: Felice Orsini and his accomplices fail to assassinate Napoleon III in Paris, but their bombs kill eight and wound 142 people. Because of the involvement of French émigrés living in Britain, there is a brief anti-British feeling in France, but the emperor refuses to support it.
- January 25 – The Wedding March by Felix Mendelssohn becomes a popular wedding recessional, after it is played on this day at the marriage of Queen Victoria's daughter Victoria, Princess Royal, to Prince Friedrich of Prussia in St James's Palace, London.
- February 11 – Lourdes apparitions: Peasant girl Bernadette Soubirous of Lourdes, fourteen, has a vision at the grotto of Massabielle, the first in a series of eighteen events which will come to be regarded as Marian apparitions.
- February 13 – Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke become the first Europeans to discover Lake Tanganyika.
- March 13 – Felice Orsini is executed by guillotine, for the attempted assassination of Napoleon III of France.
- March 21 – Indian Rebellion: British troops retake Lucknow.
- March 30 – Hymen Lipman patents a pencil with an attached eraser in the United States.
- April 16 – The Wernerian Natural History Society, a former Scottish learned society, is wound up.
- April 19 – The United States signs a treaty with the Yankton Sioux Tribe.
- April 28–May 1 – Battle of Grahovac: The Ottomans are decisively defeated by Montenegrin forces.
- May–July – Mahtra War: Peasants in the Governorate of Estonia, Russian Empire revolt against ongoing serfdom, which was officially abolished in 1816.
- May (unknown date) - Japanese trading company, Itochu founded in Toyosato, Shiga Prefecture, Japan.Template:Page needed
- May 11 – Minnesota is admitted as the 32nd U.S. state.
- May 13 – John Ruskin begins a tour of Europe; he considers it a significant turning point in his life.
- May 14 – Dr David Livingstone's 6-year Second Zambesi expedition arrives at the African coast.
- May 19 – The Marais des Cygnes massacre is perpetrated by pro-slavery forces, in Bleeding Kansas.
- June 2 – Comet Donati, the first comet to be photographed, is discovered by Giovanni Battista Donati, and remains visible for several months afterwards.
- June 13–17 – The Treaty of Tientsin is signed, ending the first part of the Second Opium War.
- June 16 – Abraham Lincoln accepts the Republican Party nomination for a seat in the United States Senate, delivering his House Divided speech in Springfield, Illinois.
- June 17 – The Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad opens, operating 95 miles from Goldsboro, North Carolina to New Bern, North Carolina.
- June 19 – A six-minute earthquake destroys much of Mexico City and devastates Texcoco.
- June 20 – Indian Rebellion of 1857: The last rebels surrender in Gwalior.
- June 23 – Police of the Papal States seize Jewish boy Edgardo Mortara, and take him away to be raised as a Catholic.
- July 1 – A joint presentation of papers by Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, announcing a theory of evolution by natural selection, are read at London's Linnean Society.
- July 8 – A peace treaty ends the Indian Rebellion.
- July 12 – The Advertiser, a daily newspaper still in circulation, begins publication in Adelaide, Australia.
- July 17 – The Lutine bell is salvaged, and subsequently hung in Lloyd's of London.
- July 28 – In Bengal, India, British officer William James Herschel uses the hand impression of Rajyadhar Konai, as a contract fingerprint signature.
- July 29 – The United States and Japan sign the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, negotiated by Townsend Harris.
- August – The first aerial photography is carried out by Nadar, from a moored balloon in France.
- August 2
- The Government of India Act, passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, transfers the territories of the British East India Company and their administration to the direct rule of the British Crown, through a Secretary of State for India.
- A bill is passed to create a modern sewage system in London as a result of the Great Stink, when the heat of the summer made the smell from sewage in the Thames unbearable.
- August 5 – Cyrus West Field and others complete the first transatlantic telegraph cable, after several unsuccessful attempts. The service ends on September 1, due to weak current.
- August 7 – A football match, played under an unknown set of rules, is held between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College.
- August 11 – The Eiger is first ascended.
- August 16 – U.S. President James Buchanan inaugurates the new trans-Atlantic telegraph cable, by exchanging greetings with Queen Victoria. However, a weak signal forces a shutdown of the service in a few weeks.
- August 21 – The first of the Lincoln–Douglas debates is held in Illinois.
- September – Cochinchina Campaign: French warships, under Charles Rigault de Genouilly, attack and occupy Da Nang, Vietnam.
- September 11 – Dom, the third highest summit in the Alps, is first ascended.
- October 21 – Jacques Offenbach's operetta Orpheus in the Underworld, featuring music associated with the can-can, is first performed in Paris.
- October 28 – Macy's department store, founded by R. H. Macy, opens for business in New York City.
- November 12 – Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein, succeeds to the throne aged 18; he will rule until his death in 1929, the second-longest in European royal history and the longest precisely documented tenure of any monarch without a regent since antiquity.
- November 16 – The 2,400,000th day of the Epoch of the Julian day is reached.
- December 7 — Mexican unconstitutional interim president Félix María Zuloaga proclaims the Plan of Tacubaya to abolish the Reform Laws, setting off a three-year civil war (1857–1860).
- December 24 — Manuel Robles Pezuela (1817–1862) becomes unconstitutional president of Mexico.
- December 29 – The Northern Railway Company is established in Madrid, Spain, with a purpose to construct the Northern Railway.
- December 30 – Paraguay expedition: Seventeen U.S. Navy warships, under the command of William Shubrick, depart from Uruguay on a mission to demand concessions from Paraguay, and to go to war if necessary.
- The Russian Empire changes its flag.
- William M. Tweed begins his 13-year term as "Boss" of Tammany Hall.
- The haute couture firm of Worth and Bobergh is established in Paris.
- The Miners Association is established in Cornwall, England, UK.
- Feudalism and serfdom in Bulgaria are abolished in the Ottoman Empire (practically in 1880).
- Squibb Pharmacy, as predecessor of Bristol-Myers Squibb, a pharmaceutical brand on worldwide, founded in New York, United States.
|General Medical Council||A public body that controls the official register of medical practitioners in the UK|
|Title||Born||Place of birth||Died||Summary||Description|
|Carter Glass||4 January 1858||Virginia|
|28 May 1946||Politician|
|Patrick Joseph Kennedy||14 January 1858||Boston|
|18 May 1929||Politician|
|Beatrice Webb||22 January 1858||Gloucestershire|
|30 April 1943||Activist|
|Frederick Lugard||22 January 1858||India|
|11 April 1945||Soldier|
Deep state operative
|Harry Johnston||12 June 1858||31 July 1927||Explorer|
Deep state operative
|Edward Mandell House||26 July 1858||Texas|
|28 March 1938||Diplomat|
Deep state operative
|Edith Nesbit||15 August 1858||Surrey|
|4 May 1924||Author||Author and one of the founders of the Fabian Society.|
|Andrew Bonar Law||16 September 1858||Kingston|
Colony of New Brunswick
|30 October 1923||Iron merchant|
|Theodore Roosevelt||27 October 1858||New York||6 January 1919||Author|