|( 1810s: ) 1816|
1816 was known as the Year Without a Summer, because of low temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere, possibly the result of the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption in Indonesia in 1815, causing severe global cooling, catastrophic in some locations.
- December 25, 1815–January 6 – Tsar Alexander I of Russia signs an order, expelling the Jesuits from St. Petersburg and Moscow.
- March 21 – The Institut de France is reorganized by King Louis XVIII of France into four academies: a revived Académie française; the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres; the Royal Academy of Sciences; and the Royal Academy of Beaux Arts.
- March 29 – April 10 – The Second Bank of the United States obtains its charter.
- April 28 – The French Caisse des dépôts et consignations, a public investment body, is created by Louis XVIII.
- June 14 -Founding of Norges Bank
- June 16 – The Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace is founded in London.
- July 9 – The United Provinces of South America (today Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia and southern Brazil) declares independence from Spain.
- August 27 – Bombardment of Algiers: Various European allied ships force Omar Agha, Dey of Algiers to free Christian slaves.
- September 6 – King Louis XVIII dissolves the Chambre introuvable, the legislature that had been elected, after the Second Bourbon Restoration re-established the old monarchy.
- October 25 – November 6 – 1816 United States presidential election: James Monroe defeats Rufus King.
- December 12 – The thrones of Sicily and Naples are merged into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, under King Ferdinand I.
- December 9–21 – The American Colonization Society is established, to support the emigration of free African Americans to Africa.
- Shaka starts to rule the Zulu Kingdom at about this date.
- Banjul, capital of the Gambia, is founded as a trading post named Bathurst.
- A rail capable of supporting a heavy locomotive is developed.
|University of Warsaw||Public||The largest university in Poland|
|University of Maryland/Law School||the oldest law school in the United States|
|Axa||French multinational insurance firm with Bilderberg contacts|
|Harvard Divinity School||Theological studies||Liberal theological seminary. Its academic programs attempt to balance theology and religious studies—that is, the "believer's" perspective on religion with the "secular" perspective on religion.|
|Oesterreichische Nationalbank||Austrian central bank|
- Darrin M. McMahon, Enemies of the Enlightenment: The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity (Oxford University Press, 2002) p157