| Mikhail Gorbachev |
|Born||Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev|
2 March 1931
Privolnoye, North Caucasus Krai, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Died||30 August 2022 (Age 91)|
|Alma mater||Moscow State University|
|Children||Irina Mikhailovna Virganskaya|
|Founder of||Green Cross International|
|Member of||Club de Madrid, Club of Rome|
|Interests|| • Green Cross International|
• Climate Change Task Force
|Party||Soviet Communist Party, Independent Democratic Party of Russia, Social Democratic Party of Russia, Union of Social Democrats|
Former President of the Soviet Union at 90
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (born 2 March 1931) was a Soviet statesman. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party from 1985 until 1991 when the party was dissolved.
Mikhail Gorbachev served as the country's Head of State from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991 (titled as Chairman of the Praesidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989, as Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1989 to 1990, and as President of the Soviet Union from 1990 to 1991). He was the only general secretary in the history of the Soviet Union to have been born after the 1917 October Revolution.
Mikhail Gorbachev was born in Stavropol Krai into a peasant Ukrainian–Russian family, and in his teens operated combine harvesters on collective farms. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law. While he was at the university, he joined the Communist Party, and soon became very active within it.
In 1970, he was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee, First Secretary to the Supreme Soviet in 1974, and appointed a member of the Politburo in 1979. Within three years of the death of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, following the brief "interregna" of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo in 1985. Before he reached the post, he had occasionally been mentioned in Western newspapers as a likely next leader and a man of the younger generation at the top level.
Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of glasnost ("openness") and perestroika ("restructuring") as well as summit conferences with United States President Ronald Reagan and his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the Cold War, removed the constitutional role of the Communist Party in governing the state, and inadvertently led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in 1989, the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 and the Harvey Prize in 1992, as well as honorary doctorates from various universities.
In September 2008, Mikhail Gorbachev and business oligarch Alexander Lebedev announced they would form the Independent Democratic Party of Russia, and in May 2009 Gorbachev announced that the launch was imminent. This was Gorbachev's third attempt to establish a political party, having started the Social Democratic Party of Russia in 2001 and the Union of Social Democrats in 2007.
In 2014 five lawmakers signed a letter which asked Russia's 'top prosecutor' to investigate "whether the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, should face treason charges over his role in the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union."
- “A little time will pass, and we will figure out why this was really done.”
A Quote by Mikhail Gorbachev
|Chernobyl disaster||“The nuclear meltdown at Chernobyl 20 years ago this month, even more than my launch of Perestroika, was perhaps the real cause of the collapse of the Soviet Union five years later.”||2006|
|NATO||“We had a moment in history, between 1988 and 1991, where we could have worked with Mikhail Gorbachev to make his vision of perestroika succeed. Instead, we allowed him to fail, without any real plan on how we would live with what emerged from the ruins of the Soviet Union. Save for a short period of time during the Second World War where we needed the Soviet Union to defeat Germany and Japan, we have been in a continual state of political conflict with the Soviet Union. Even after the Soviet Union collapsed, we viewed the Russian Federation more as a defeated enemy that we needed to keep down, than a friend in need of a helping hand up.”||Scott Ritter||2021|
- "Founder of Green Cross International and Climate Change Task Force"
- "Gorbachev launches political party with Russian billionaire"
- "Mikhail Gorbachev will found new political party"
- "Gorbachev sets up Russia movement"
- "Mikhail Gorbachev tells the BBC: World in ‘colossal danger’"
- "Gorbachev saw a threat to the fate of the United States as a state"
- https://www.interfax.ru/world/744285 Wikipedia