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|( 1810s: ) 1813|
With British money and Russian troops, this year the coalition forces France to a strategic retreat, here from the battle of Leipzig.
- March 4 - James Madison is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States.
- March 17 – Napoleonic Wars: Prussia declares war on France, and introduces the Iron Cross military award (backdated to March 10).
- March 28 – 1813–1814 Malta plague epidemic spreads from Egypt.
- June 6 - Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Wentworth succeed in crossing the Blue Mountains (New South Wales) and return home, opening up the vast pastoral plains that will found Australia's fortune.
- July 13 - The Carabinieri, the national military police of Italy, are founded by Victor Emmanuel I as the police force of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
- July 23 – Sir Thomas Maitland is appointed as the first Governor of Malta, transforming the island from a British protectorate to a de facto colony.
- October 14 – After a ceremony in Caracas, Venezuela, the municipality gives Simón Bolívar the title of El Libertador.
- October 16–19 – Napoleonic Wars – Battle of Leipzig: Napoleon is defeated by the forces of the Sixth Coalition. More than 600,000 troops are in the field, with well over 10% killed, wounded or missing. Many of the German states forming the Confederation of the Rhine defect from Napoleon to the Coalition, as a result of the battle.
- October 24 – November 5 – Persia and Russia sign the Treaty of Gulistan at the end of the Russo-Persian War, by which Persia loses modern-day Georgia, Dagestan and most of Azerbaijan to Russia.
- November 21 – An independent government is restored in the Netherlands.
- Mathieu Orfila publishes his groundbreaking Traité des poisons, formalizing the field of toxicology.
- In freemasonry, the Supreme Council for the Northern Jurisdiction of the United States of America is founded.
|Netherlands/Ministry of Defence||Military||Eager and successful partner of the US and NATO in War on Terror but can't control its own national war on drugs. Implicated in war crimes in Indonesia, Bosnia & Iraq.|
|Richard Wagner||22 May 1813||13 February 1883||Songwriter||German composer, theater director, polemicist, and conductor, with large cultural influence|