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|( 1800s: ) 1809|
King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden abdicates after a coup d'etat
- January 5 – The Treaty of the Dardanelles, between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Ottoman Empire, is concluded.
- February 8 – Franz I of Austria declares war on France.
- March 1 – The Embargo Act of 1807 is repealed in the United States; the Non-Intercourse Act replaces it.
- March 4 – James Madison is sworn in as the fourth President of the United States.
- March 13 – A military coup ousts Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden; he is confined in Gripsholm Castle.
- King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden abdicates after the Coup of 1809 and is later exiled.
- April 9 – Tiroleans rise, under the command of Andreas Hofer, against French and Bavarian occupation.
- May 10 – Gustav IV Adolf is officially deposed from the Swedish throne, by the Riksdag of the Estates.
- May 17 – Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French Empire. When he announces that the Pope's secular power has ended, the Pope excommunicates him.
- June 6 – Sweden promulgates a new Instrument of Government, which restores political power to the Riksdag of the Estates, after authoritarian rule since 1772. On the same day, Duke Charles (uncle of the deposed king Gustav IV Adolf) is elected King, under the name Charles XIII.
- June 7 – Shoja Shah of the Durrani Empire signs a treaty with the British; only weeks later, he is succeeded by Mahmud Shah.
- August 8 – Seventy disciples of Vilna Gaon arrive in Palestine.
- August 10 – Ecuador declares independence from Spain.
- September 17 – Finnish War: The Peace of Hamina is signed between Russia and Sweden. The future Grand Principality of Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
- September 21 – British Secretary of War Lord Castlereagh and Foreign Secretary George Canning meet in a duel on Putney Heath, with Castlereagh wounding Canning in the thigh.
- October 8 – Prince Klemens von Metternich becomes foreign minister of the Austrian Empire.
- November 25 – Benjamin Bathurst, a British diplomat, mysteriously disappears (possibly murdered) in Perleberg, west of Berlin.
- British recruits to the British East India Company (and subsequently to the Indian Civil Service) are required to learn at least one Indian language fluently.
|Title||Born||Place of birth||Died||Summary||Description|
|Abraham Lincoln||12 February 1809||Near|
Sinking Spring Farm
|15 April 1865||Politician||A US president who stood up to the US deep state|
|William Gladstone||29 December 1809||Liverpool|
|19 May 1898|