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|( 1810s: ) 1814|
Russian army enters Paris after winning a battle just outside the city
|Despite heavy fighting, the more than twenty years of war are winding down|
- January 1 – War of the Sixth Coalition – The Royal Prussian Army led by Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher crosses the Rhine.
- January 3 - War of the Sixth Coalition – Siege of Metz (1814): Allied armies lay siege to the French city and fortress of Metz.
- January 5 – Mexican War of Independence – Battle of Puruarán: Spanish Royalists defeat Mexican Rebels.
- January 14
- Treaty of Kiel: Frederick VI of Denmark cedes the Kingdom of Norway into personal union with Sweden, in exchange for west Pomerania. This marks the end of the real union of Denmark-Norway.
- January 27
- War of the Sixth Coalition – Siege of Ragusa: French garrison surrenders to the British and the Austrians.
- War of 1812 – Battle of Calebee Creek: US forces under John Floyd defeat the Red Sticks in Alabama.
- January 31 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas becomes Supreme Director of Argentina.
- February – George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, represents Britain at the Congress of Chatillon.
- February 1
- Mount Mayon in the Philippines erupts the 2nd time; more than 1,200 people die and the Cagsawa Church is destroyed and devastated.
- February 8 – War of the Sixth Coalition – Battle of the Mincio River (1814): French and Italian troops under Viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais fight an Austrian army to a draw.
- February 11
- Norway's independence is proclaimed, marking the ultimate end of the Kalmar Union.
- February 12
- A fire destroys the Custom House in the City of London.
- Venezuelan War of Independence – Battle of La Victoria (1814): Republicans defeat Spanish Royalists.
- February 21 – The Great Stock Exchange Fraud is exposed in London.
- February 27
- March 3 - Chilean War of Independence – First Battle of Talca: Royalists defeat Chilean rebels.
- March 9
- War of the Sixth Coalition – Treaty of Chaumont signed by four Allied powers, deepening their alliance against France.
- American naval schooner USS Enterprise reaches Wilmington, North Carolina, returning from participating in the War of 1812 against the United Kingdom in the Caribbean.
- March 10 – 15: – Argentine War of Independence – Battle of Martín García (1814): The United Provinces of South America defeat the Spanish royalists.
- March 11 – War of the Sixth Coalition – Battle of Mâcon (1814): Austrian Army of the South defeats the French Army of the Rhône.
- March 12 – Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême enters Bordeaux, marking the restoration of the House of Bourbon.
- March 13 – War of the Sixth Coalition – Battle of Reims (1814): Napoleon defeats a combined Russo-Prussian corps.
- March 19 – Chilean War of Independence – Battle of El Quilo: Chilean rebels defeat Spanish royalists.
- March 20
- Chilean War of Independence – Battle of Membrillar: Chilean rebels defeat Spanish royalists.
- March 25
- March 27 – War of 1812 – Battle of Horseshoe Bend: In northern Alabama, United States forces under General Andrew Jackson defeat the Creek Indians.
- March 29 – Chilean War of Independence – First Battle of Cancha Rayada: Spanish royalists defeat Chilean rebels.
- March 30
- War of the Sixth Coalition: The Battle of Paris begins.
- War of 1812 – Battle of Lacolle Mills (1814): British garrison defeats American attack.
- March 31
- War of the Sixth Coalition: Coalition troops occupy Paris.
- April 6 – Napoleonic Wars – Bourbon Restoration: Louis XVIII is invited to occupy the restored French throne.
- April 10
- Napoleonic Wars – Battle of Toulouse: The Duke of Wellington is victorious.
- War of the Sixth Coalition – Siege of Metz is lifted by the Allies.
- April 11 – Napoleonic Wars – Treaty of Fontainebleau: The War of the Sixth Coalition ends, and Napoleon is forced to abdicate unconditionally as Emperor of the French.
- April 12
- The Count of Artois arrives in Paris, acting as Lieutenant General of the realm before the arrival of his brother, Louis XVIII of France.
- The Royal Norwegian Navy is re-established.
- April 14 – Napoleonic Wars – Battle of Bayonne: The Allies defeat a French sortie from Bayonne.
- April 18/19 – Genoa surrenders to the British Royal Navy.
- April 24 – Convention of Mantua: The Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy is returned to provisional Austrian rule.
- April 28
- The Ligurian Republic is revived.
- War of 1812 – Capture of HMS Epervier by the USS Peacock.
- May 2 – Napoleonic Wars – Declaration of Saint-Ouen: Louis XVIII of France declares his support for representative government while claiming unlimited monarchical sovereignty.
- May 3
- The Duke of Provence, the future Louis XVIII of France, returns to Paris.
- Treaty of Lircay signed between Royalists and Patriots during the Chilean War of Independence.
- May 4
- Ferdinand VII of Spain abolishes the Spanish Constitution of 1812, returning the country to absolute monarchy.
- War of the Sixth Coalition – Siege of Antwerp ends in a French capitulation.
- War of the Sixth Coalition – Siege of Mainz ends as the French leave the fortress.
- May 6 – British-American War (War of 1812) – Battle of Fort Oswego (1814): British forces attack Fort Ontario at Oswego, New York.
- May 14–16 – War of 1812 – American Raid on Port Dover and destruction of property.
- May 16 – William Brown, Irish-born rebel leader and future Admiral of the Navy of Argentina, begins a blockade of Montevideo, the colonial capital of Rio de la Plata.
- May 17
- The Constitution of Norway is signed and the Danish Crown Prince Christian Frederik is elected King of Norway, by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly.
- The occupation of Monaco changes from French to Austrian hands.
- Argentine War of Independence – Battle of Buceo ends in the burning of five Spanish ships and capture of two.
- May 27 – War of the Sixth Coalition – Siege of Hamburg ends in a French capitulation.
- May 28
- War of the Sixth Coalition – Barcelona is restored to Spanish Bourbon rule as the French garrison leaves the city.
- Venezuelan War of Independence – Battle of Carabobo (1814): Republican victory under Simón Bolívar over Spanish Royalists.
- May 29–30 – War of 1812 – Battle of Big Sandy Creek: US forces capture British marines and sailors.
- May 30 – Napoleonic Wars: The First Treaty of Paris is signed, returning France's borders to their 1792 extent. Napoleon is exiled to Elba on the same day.
- June 4 – Charter of 1814: Louis XVIII of France issues the Charter of 1814, a written constitution that retains royal supremacy and will remain in force from 1814 to 1815 and again from 1815 to 1830.
- June 6 – Beginning of the Allied sovereigns' visit to England: Tsar Alexander I of Russia and King Frederick William III of Prussia sail from Boulogne-Sur-Mer to Dover on board the Royal Navy ship HMS Impregnable as guests of George, Prince of Wales, the regent during the incapacity of King George III.
- June 12 – The poem "She Walks in Beauty" is written by Lord Byron.
- June 17 – In London, Alexander, Frederick William and George exchange their ratifications of the Peace Treaty ending the war with France.
- June 21 – The secret Eight Articles of London are signed between the Great Powers, uniting the Low Countries under William I of the Netherlands.
- June 28 – War of 1812 – Sinking of HMS Reindeer by USS Wasp.
- July 3 – War of 1812 – Capture of Fort Erie by the Americans under Major General Jacob Brown.
- July 5 – War of 1812 – Battle of Chippawa: American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.
- July 7 – Walter Scott's Waverley, his first prose fiction and one of the first significant historical novels in English, is published anonymously by Archibald Constable in Edinburgh, selling out in two days.
- July 13 – The Carabinieri (the national military police of Italy) is established by Victor Emmanuel, as the police force of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
- July 19 – 20 – War of 1812 – Siege of Prairie du Chien: British troops and Native Americans besiege and capture the frontier settlement.
- July 19 – War of 1812 – Battle of Rock Island Rapids: British-allied tribes ambush and defeat an American expedition in Illinois.
- July 22 – War of 1812 – The Treaty of Greenville (1814) is signed between the U.S. government and Native American tribes.
- July 25
- George Stephenson tests his first locomotive Blücher successfully in England.
- War of 1812 – Battle of Lundy's Lane: Reinforcements arrive near Niagara Falls, Ontario for General Riall's British and Canadian force, and a bloody, all-night battle with Jacob Brown's Americans commences at 18.00 hours; Americans retreat to Fort Erie.
- July 26 – The Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) begins with a Swedish attack.
- July 28 – The revived Ligurian Republic is dissolved.
- July 29 – Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) – Invasion of Hvaler ends in a Swedish victory.
- July 30 – The Great fire of Tirschenreuth in Bavaria destroys the town and 907 buildings.
- August 2 – Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) – Battle of Lier ends in a Norwegian victory.
- August 4
- War of 1812 – Battle of Mackinac Island (1814) results in a British victory over an American invasion.
- Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) – Battle of Fredrikstad ends in a Swedish victory.
- War of 1812 – British Siege of Fort Erie begins.
- August 5 – Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) – Battle of Matrand ends in a Norwegian victory.
- August 7 – Pope Pius VII decrees the bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum, reestablishing the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) all over the world, after having approved their survival and existence in Russia.
- August 9
- Creek War – The Treaty of Fort Jackson is signed, ending the Creek War.
- Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) – Battle of Langnes ends in a Norwegian victory.
- August 12 – In England, the last hanging under the Black Act is carried out, of William Potter for cutting down an orchard (although the judge petitions for reprieve).
- August 13 – The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 is signed in London, returning most possessions of the Dutch Empire acquired by the United Kingdom since 1803 to the Netherlands, although Britain retains the Cape of Good Hope and the South American settlements of Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice (later consolidated as British Guiana). In addition, the British cede the island of Banca off the island of Sumatra, in exchange for the settlement of Cochin, India.
- August 13 – September 6 – War of 1812 – Engagements on Lake Huron result in British victory.
- August 14
- Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) – The Battle of Kjølberg Bridge ends in Swedish victory.
- Swedish–Norwegian War (1814) – The Convention of Moss is signed, ending the Swedish–Norwegian War.
- August 24 – War of 1812 – Burning of Washington: British troops, after defeating American forces at the Battle of Bladensburg, occupy Washington, D.C., setting numerous buildings on fire, including the Capitol and Presidential Mansion.
- August 26 – Chilean War of Independence – Battle of Las Tres Acequias ends in victory for the forces of Jose Miguel Carrera.
- August 31 – War of 1812 – Battle of Caulk's Field: American militia defeats British landing.
- September 1 – War of 1812 – Sinking of HMS Avon by the USS Wasp.
- September 2 – War of 1812 – Raid on Alexandria ends in a British victory.
- September 3 – War of 1812 – Battle of Hampden ends in a British victory.
- September 11 – War of 1812 – Battle of Lake Champlain: An American squadron under Thomas Macdonough defeats the British squadron, ultimately forcing the invading army to retreat back into Canada.
- September 12 – War of 1812 – Battle of North Point: An American detachment halts the British land advance to Baltimore.
- September 13 – War of 1812: The British bombard Fort McHenry at Baltimore. The British failure at the Battle of Baltimore is a turning point in the war, and the American defense of the fort inspires Francis Scott Key to compose the poem (later set to music as) The Star-Spangled Banner.
- September 21 – War of 1812: – British Siege of Fort Erie fails.
- September 27
- War of 1812: – Battle of Fayal ends in an American victory over the British.
- Hadži-Prodan's rebellion against the Ottoman Empire begins.
- October 17 – London Beer Flood: A large vat full of porter (beer) owned by Meux's Brewery of London bursts, demolishing buildings and killing 8.
- October 19 – War of 1812: – Battle of Cook's Mills: U.S. forces defeat the British in Upper Canada.
- November 1 – The Congress of Vienna formally opens in Austria to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, with the European powers agreeing upon the redrawing of national borders following the victory over France; it will last until June 9, 1815.
- November 4 – King Charles XIII of Sweden becomes King of Norway, as Charles II .
- November 7 – War of 1812: Andrew Jackson seizes Pensacola, Florida.
- December 15 – War of 1812: The Hartford Convention is convened, by members of the American Federalist Party.
- December 24 – War of 1812: The Treaty of Ghent is signed, formally ending the war.
- December 25 – Samuel Marsden of the Church Missionary Society preaches the first sermon in New Zealand, probably in the Māori language, at Oihi.
- The world's first complex machine mass-produced from interchangeable parts, Eli Terry's wooden pillar-and-scroll clock, comes off the production line in Plymouth, Connecticut.
A New Group
|De Nederlandsche Bank||The Dutch central bank.|
|Title||Born||Place of birth||Died||Summary|
|Mikhail Bakunin||30 May 1814||Russia|
|1 July 1876||Author|
- ↑ https://web.archive.org/web/20130430192256/http://www.walterscott.lib.ed.ac.uk/works/novels/waverley.html
- ↑ "Vienna, Congress of", in The Americana: A Universal Reference Library (Scientific American, 1912)