Nord Stream is a system of offshore natural gas pipelines from Russia to Germany. It includes two lines running from Vyborg to Greifswald forming original Nord Stream, and two lines under construction running from Ust-Luga to Greifswald termed Nord Stream 2. Nord Stream is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG, whose majority shareholder is the Russian state company Gazprom, and Nord Stream 2 is owned and will be operated by Nord Stream 2 AG, a wholly owned subsidiary of Gazprom.
The first line of Nord Stream (also known as Nord Stream 1), agreed under Chancellor Gerhard Schröder in 2005, was laid by May 2011 and was inaugurated on 8 November 2011. The second line of Nord Stream was laid in 2011–2012 and was inaugurated on 8 October 2012. At 1,222 km (759 mi) in length, Nord Stream is the longest sub-sea pipeline in the world, surpassing the Langeled pipeline.
Nord Stream 2
In 2011, Nord Stream AG started evaluation of an expansion project consisting of two additional lines (later named Nord Stream 2) to increase the overall annual capacity up to 110 billion m3 (3.9 trillion cu ft).
Nord Stream has a total annual capacity of 55 billion cubic metres (1.9×1012 cu ft) of gas, and the addition of Nord Stream 2 is expected to double the capacity to a total of 110 billion cubic metres (3.9×1012 cu ft).
Nord Stream projects have been opposed by the United States as well as several Central and Eastern European countries because of concerns that it would increase Russia's influence in the region. The US resistance of Nord Stream 2 is also influenced by the country's increased production of natural gas, which gives the US Congress economic incentive to resist the Russian supply of gas to the EU, in favour of US shale gas.
On 21 December 2019, the construction company had suspended its Nord Stream 2 pipelay activities, anticipating NDAA of 2020, containing sanctions. A Russian construction vessel continued the pipeline after months.
By the end of March 2021 warships, submarines, planes and fishing ships from different countries were entering the exclusion zone around the construction vessels, which is in effect for safety/security reasons.
|Document:Navalny, Ukraine and the West||article||18 September 2020||'Rhys James'||A tongue-in-cheek, mildly satirical commentary on the latest "Vladimir Putin poisoned my cat" Novichok nonsense emanating from the Westerm media over the September 2020 hospitalisation of Russian 'opposition politician' and Western super-hero Alexei Navalny|
|Document:Novichok, Navalny, Nordstream, Nonsense||blog post||3 September 2020||Craig Murray||The US and Saudi Arabia have every reason to instigate a split between Germany and Russia at this time. Navalny is certainly a victim of international politics. That he is a victim of Putin I tend to doubt.|
- "Russia to go ahead with gas pipe project despite U.S. sanctions"
- "Nord Stream Passes Ships and Bombs"
- "Bill imposing sanctions on companies building Russian gas pipeline heads to White House"
- "Russia's Gazprom to expand Nord Stream gas pipeline with E.ON, Shell, OMV"
- "Nord Stream 2 clears final hurdle – but delays loom"
- "Nord Stream 2 construction in Danish waters under way: contractor"
- "Nord Stream 2: An EU-Russian Gas Pipeline"
- https://www.zerohedge.com/geopolitical/nord-stream-2-warns-security-risks-warships-low-flying-planes saved at Archive.org