Nord Stream is a system of offshore natural gas pipelines from Russia to Germany. It includes two lines running from Vyborg to Greifswald forming original Nord Stream, and two lines under construction running from Ust-Luga to Greifswald termed Nord Stream 2.
Nord Stream is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG, headquartered in Zug, Switzerland, whose 51% majority shareholder is the Russian state company Gazprom. German energy companies Wintershall Dea AG and PEG Infrastruktur AG, a subsidiary of E.ON Beteiligungen, hold 15.5% each while Dutch N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie and French Engie hold 9% each. Nord Stream 2 is owned and will be operated by Nord Stream 2 AG, a wholly owned subsidiary of Gazprom.
The first line of Nord Stream (also known as Nord Stream 1), agreed under Chancellor Gerhard Schröder in 2005, was laid by May 2011 and was inaugurated on 8 November 2011. The second line of Nord Stream was laid in 2011–2012 and was inaugurated on 8 October 2012. At 1,222 km (759 mi) in length, Nord Stream is the longest sub-sea pipeline in the world, surpassing the Langeled pipeline.
- Full article: Nordstream sabotage
- Full article: Nordstream sabotage
Nord Stream 2
In 2011 the Nord Stream AG started evaluation of an expansion project consisting of two additional lines, later named Nord Stream 2, to double the overall annual capacity to 110 billion m3 (3.9 trillion cu ft). In 2013, when the project was initiated, extensions to Holland  and even to Britain were discussed. Laying Nord Stream 2 was carried out in 2018–2019, and before the imposition of US sanctions which halted the work, it was expected to become operational in mid-2020.
Nord Stream projects have been opposed by the United States as well as several Central and Eastern European countries because of concerns that it would increase Russia's influence in the region. The US resistance of Nord Stream 2 is also influenced by the country's increased production of natural gas, which gives the US Congress economic incentive to resist the Russian supply of gas to the EU, in favour of US shale gas.
On 21 December 2019, the construction company had suspended its Nord Stream 2 pipelaying activities, anticipating NDAA of 2020, containing sanctions. A Russian construction vessel continued the pipeline after months.
By the end of March 2021 warships, submarines, planes and fishing ships from different countries were entering the exclusion zone around the construction vessels, which is in effect for safety/security reasons.
|Jarosław Kaczyński||“You can't constantly support a great power like Russia with billions in payments from the purchase of energy," [...] "This is inadmissible from a political and moral point of view. This must come to an end, and Germany should finally take a clear stance on this,”||Jarosław Kaczyński||3 April 2022|
|Document:How America Took Out The Nord Stream Pipeline||Article||8 February 2023||Seymour Hersh||Under Secretary of State Victoria Nuland told Senator Ted Cruz: “Like you, I am, and I think the Administration is, very gratified to know that Nord Stream 2 is now, as you like to say, a hunk of metal at the bottom of the sea” (Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 26 January 2023).|
|Document:Navalny, Ukraine and the West||article||18 September 2020||'Rhys James'||A tongue-in-cheek, mildly satirical commentary on the latest "Vladimir Putin poisoned my cat" Novichok nonsense emanating from the Westerm media over the September 2020 hospitalisation of Russian 'opposition politician' and Western super-hero Alexei Navalny|
|Document:Nord Stream 2 requires military protection||Article||14 April 2021|
|Document:Novichok, Navalny, Nordstream, Nonsense||blog post||3 September 2020||Craig Murray||The US and Saudi Arabia have every reason to instigate a split between Germany and Russia at this time. Navalny is certainly a victim of international politics. That he is a victim of Putin I tend to doubt.|
|Document:The Time to Negotiate Peace in Ukraine Is NOW||Article||24 October 2022||Richard E. Rubenstein||Are things in Ukraine getting worse? Yes, for both sides. This is precisely the right time to give peace a chance.|
|Document:The dirty secret Europe is hiding at the COP27 climate summit||Article||16 November 2022||Jonathan Cook||Grand declarations at COP27 on tackling the climate emergency are sabotaged by the Energy Charter Treaty from the 1990s that sees European nations held to ransom by the energy companies|
|Document:Would-be German chancellor Scholz jumps the gun on EU expansion eastward, which may provoke more states to follow the UK and exit||Article||15 August 2021||Paul Nuttall||Olaf Scholz is a possible candidate for Chancellor of Germany at the September 2021 German parliamentary election. He has warned Russia to expect further European integration and expansion into Eastern Europe. Will this encourage more countries to follow the UK and leave the European Union?|
- "Russia to go ahead with gas pipe project despite U.S. sanctions"
- "Nord Stream Passes Ships and Bombs"
- "Russia's Gazprom to expand Nord Stream gas pipeline with E.ON, Shell, OMV"
- "Nord Stream 2 clears final hurdle – but delays loom"
- "Nord Stream 2 construction in Danish waters under way: contractor"
- https://jamestown.org/program/russia-plans-massive-expansion-of-nord-stream-pipelines/ saved at Archive.org
- "Bill imposing sanctions on companies building Russian gas pipeline heads to White House"
- "Nord Stream 2: An EU-Russian Gas Pipeline"
- https://www.zerohedge.com/geopolitical/nord-stream-2-warns-security-risks-warships-low-flying-planes saved at Archive.org
- "Nord Stream 2 is insolvent"