| Planning exercise|
A planning exercise, or tabletop exercise is a simulated, interactive exercise that tests an organization’s emergency response procedures.
In tabletop exercises, key personnel with emergency management roles and responsibilities gather together to discuss various simulated emergency situations. Because the environment of a TTX is non-threatening (i.e., a “real” emergency is not happening), exercise participants can calmly rehearse their roles, ask questions, and troubleshoot problem areas.
- Full article: FEMA
- Full article: FEMA
An instrument to train for, assess, practice, and improve performance in prevention, protection, response, and recoverycapabilities in a risk-free environment. Exercises can be used for: testing and validating policies, plans, procedures, training, equipment, and interagency agreements; clarifying and training personnel in roles and responsibilities; improving interagency coordination and communications; identifying gaps in resources; improving individual performance; and identifying opportunities for improvement.
Some planning exercises and scenarios therein, like Lockstep, are closely mirrored by real world events a few years after. In case of terrorist attacks, there are several cases in which a preparedness drill for government agencies on the ground is "going live" with an attack happening at the same time.
|A Spreading Plague||Tabletop simulation of a global biological warfare attack predicting an apocalyptic outcome. Included several senior pandemic planners. Held February 2019.|
|Atlantic Storm||A scenario designed to mimic a summit of transatlantic leaders forced to respond to a bioterrorist attack. Recommended militarization, vaccination and stockpiling drugs. Held January 2005.|
|Clade X||A pandemic/biowarfare preparation exercise by Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. Held May 2018.|
|Crimson Contagion||An U.S. nationwide exercise in how to handle an influenza pandemic. Held January to August 2019|
|Event 201||A Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security/World Economic Forum/Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sponsored large scale simulation of a global coronavirus pandemic predicting an apocalyptic outcome. Held October 2019.|
|Exercise Alice||Secret 2016 UK pandemic exercise modelling the impact of a coronavirus outbreak|
|Exercise Cygnus||Simulation exercise to estimate the impact of a hypothetical H2N2 influenza pandemic in the UK. One of the purposes of the scenario prepared by experts from Imperial College London was to overcome Whitehall skepticism of their earlier absolutely wrong epidemic forecasting, and to drill politicians to make certain prepared responses in case of an emergency. Held October 2016.|
|Food Chain Reaction||Set in the 2020 to 2030 period, the exercise focused on problems in the food supply due to population growth and severe weather, triggering social unrest. Held November 2015|
|In the Dark||US Army War College exercise looking into a catastrophic failure of the electrical grid and electronic devices due to EMP or solar storm. Held September 2010.|
|Lock Step||A Rockefeller Foundation sponsored large scale simulation of a global pandemic followed by a world totalitarian outcome. Held October 2010|
|National Level Exercise 2009 (NLE09)||NLE09 was a White House-directed, Congressionally-mandated large scale "terrorism" prevention and preparedness exercise. Held July 2009|
|Operation Blackout||Simulated sabotage of civilian infrastructure - preempting or preplanning? Held November 2019.|
|Operation Dark Winter||An exercise where senior former officials would respond to a bioterrorist induced national security crisis. Uncannily predicted the 2001 anthrax attacks and other narratives. Held June 2001.|
|Preventing Global Catastrophic Biological Risks||Simulation of a global influenza pandemic predicting an apocalyptic outcome. Held February 2020, with a who-is-who of pandemic planners. Held February 2020.|
|SPARS Pandemic 2025-2028||A tabletop pandemic planning exercise that gave advice how to handle "communication challenges" in a vaccination campaign after the public has become aware that it is more damaging than the disease. Held October 2017.|
|TOPOFF||A series of week long "counter-terrorism" exercises|
|Toxic Dagger||The largest chemical warfare exercise in the UK, coinciding with the Skripal Affair. Held February 2018.|