Queensland

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Place.png Queensland
(Australian State)
  Rdf-entity.pngRdf-icon.png
Coat of Arms of Queensland.png
Queensland in Australia.png
Large Australian northern state

Queensland is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the third-most populous Australian state.

Overview

It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia, and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and the Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, separating the Australian mainland from Papua New Guinea. With an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres (715,309 sq mi), Queensland is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, and is larger than all but 15 countries. Due to its size, Queensland's geographical features and climates are diverse, including tropical rainforests, rivers, coral reefs, mountain ranges and sandy beaches in its tropical and sub-tropical coastal regions, as well as deserts and savanna in the semi-arid and desert climatic regions of its interior.

Queensland has a population of over 5.2 million,[1] concentrated along the coast and particularly in South East Queensland. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australia's third-largest city. Ten of Australia's thirty largest cities are located in Queensland, with the largest outside Brisbane being the Gold Coast, the Sunshine Coast, Townsville, Cairns and Toowoomba. A high proportion of the state's population is multicultural, with 28.9% of inhabitants being immigrants.[2]

Integrity Commission

In January 2022, Queensland's integrity commissioner Dr Nikola Stepanov quit following concerns about interference with her office. The commissioner, who maintains the state's register of lobbyists and confidentially advises politicians on integrity matters, raised concerns about the Public Service Commission (PSC).[3]

The PSC confiscated Integrity Commission staff mobile phones and laptops, deleted records from those devices, and altered security permissions and access to the commission's offices, News Corp reported in September 2021. Dr Stepanov was "very concerned" about illegal lobbying after a surge in recorded contacts between the state Labor government and lobbyists.[3]

State Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk said "People change jobs all the time ... I don't think it's a problem at all, we'll advertise and have a new integrity commissioner."[3]

Frontier Wars

The frontier wars were particularly bloody and bitter in Queensland, owing to its comparatively large Indigenous population. This point is emphasised in a 2011 study by Ørsted-Jensen, which by use of two different sources calculated that colonial Queensland must have accounted for upwards of one third and close to forty percent of the indigenous population of the pre-contact Australian continent.[4]

Queensland represents the single bloodiest colonial frontier in Australia.[5][6] Thus the records of Queensland document the most frequent reports of shootings and massacres of indigenous people, the three deadliest massacres on white settlers, the most disreputable frontier police force, and the highest number of white victims to frontier violence on record in any Australian colony[4] In 2009 professor Raymond Evans calculated the indigenous fatalities caused by the Queensland Native Police Force alone as no less than 24,000.[7] In July 2014, Evans, in cooperation with the Danish historian Robert Ørsted-Jensen, presented the first-ever attempt to use statistical modelling and a database covering no less than 644 collisions gathered from primary sources, and ended up with total fatalities suffered during Queensland's frontier wars being no less than 66,680—with Aboriginal fatalities alone comprising no less than 65,180[8]—whereas the hitherto commonly accepted minimum overall continental deaths had previously been 20,000.[9][10]The 66,680 covers Native Police and settler-inflicted fatalities on Aboriginal people, but also a calculated estimate for Aboriginal inflicted casualties on the invading forces of whites and their associates. The continental death toll of Europeans and associates has previously been roughly estimated as between 2,000 and 2,500, yet there is now evidence that Queensland alone accounted for an estimated 1,500 of these fatal frontier casualties.[9][10][11]

Queensland's Native Police Force was formed by the Government of New South Wales in 1848, under the well connected Commandant Frederick Walker.[12]

Joh Bjelke-Petersen

Sir Johannes Bjelke-Petersen (13 January 1911-23 April 2005) was an Australian conservative politician. He was the longest-serving and longest-lived Premier of Queensland,[13] holding office from 1968 to 1987, during which time the state underwent considerable economic development.[14] He has become one of the most well-known and controversial figures of 20th-century Australian politics because of his uncompromising conservatism (including his role in the 1975 Australian coup), political longevity, and the institutional corruption and police brutality against opposition that became synonymous with his later leadership.


 

Groups Headquartered Here

GroupStartDescription
Central Queensland University1967Began as the Queensland Institute of Technology
University of Queensland1909University in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia


References

  1. https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/population/national-state-and-territory-population/mar-2021
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20190622052159/https://quickstats.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/3%3Fopendocument
  3. a b c https://www.canberratimes.com.au/story/7591881/qld-integrity-commissioner-resigns/?fbclid=IwAR1jlCJt-Mh6cetG8nBn-LZ2TiKnny4pkkqeltatS2YRy0RJ04cTkkAt5nk
  4. a b Ørsted-Jensen, Robert (2011). Frontier History Revisited – Queensland and the 'History War'. Cooparoo, Brisbane, Qld: Lux Mundi Publishing. 10–11
  5. Loos, Noel (1970), Frontier conflict in the Bowen district 1861–1874, James Cook University of North Queensland, retrieved 11 September 2019
  6. Loos, Noel (1976), Aboriginal-European relations in North Queensland, 1861–1897, retrieved 11 September 2019
  7. Evans, Raymond (October 2011) The country has another past: Queensland and the History Wars, in Passionate Histories: Myth, memory and Indigenous Australia Aboriginal History Monograph 21. Edited by Frances Peters-Little, Ann Curthoys and John Docker (Peters-Little, Curthoys & Docker 2011)
  8. Evans, Raymond & Ørsted–Jensen, Robert: 'I Cannot Say the Numbers that Were Killed': Assessing Violent Mortality on the Queensland Frontier" (paper at AHA 9 July 2014 at University of Queensland) publisher Social Science Research Network
  9. a b Reynolds, Henry (1982). The Other Side of the Frontier: Aboriginal Resistance to the European Invasion of Australia. Ringwood: Penguin Books Australia. ISBN 0140224750. 121–127
  10. a b Reynolds, Henry (1987). Frontier: Aborigines, Settlers and Land. Sydney: Allen and Unwin. ISBN 0-04-994005-8.
  11. Ørsted-Jensen (2011), pp. 16–20 and Appendix A: Listing the Death Toll of the Invader.
  12. Skinner, Leslie E. (1975). Police of the Pastoral Frontier : Native Police, 1849–1859. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 0702209775.
  13. https://web.archive.org/web/20041226004751/http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2004/s1024956.htm
  14. https://web.archive.org/web/20080528185820/http://www.theage.com.au/news/Opinion/Sir-Joh-our-homegrown-banana-republican/2005/04/24/1114281449030.html


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