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The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK is a Kurdish militant political organisation and armed guerrilla movement which historically operated throughout Kurdistan but is now primarily based in the mountainous Kurdish-majority regions of southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq. Since 1984, the PKK has utilised asymmetric warfare in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict (with several ceasefires between 1993 and 2013–2015). Although the PKK once sought an independent Kurdish state, in the 1990s its aims shifted toward autonomy and increased rights for Kurds within Turkey.[1]

The Kurdistan Workers' Party is designated as a terrorist organisation by Turkey, the United States, the EU and some other countries; however, the labeling of the PKK as a terrorist organisation is controversial, and some analysts and organisations contend that the PKK no longer engages in organised terrorist activities or systemically targets civilians. Turkey has often viewed the demand for education in Kurdish as supporting terrorist activities by the PKK. Both in 2008 and 2018 the European Court of Justice ruled that the PKK was classified as a terror organisation without due process. Nevertheless, the EU has maintained the designation.[2]


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