Omar al-Bashir

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Person.png Omar al-Bashir  Rdf-icon.png
(politician)
Omar al-Bashir.jpg
Born1 January 1944

Employment.png President of Sudan Wikipedia-icon.png

In office
30 June 1989 - 11 April 2019

Omar al-Bashir [1] is a Sudanese politician who served as the seventh President of Sudan from 1989 to 2019 and founder of the National Congress Party. He came to power in 1989 when, as a brigadier in the Sudanese Army, he led a group of officers in a military coup that ousted the democratically elected government of prime minister Sadiq al-Mahdi after it began negotiations with rebels in the south.[2] Since then, he has been elected three times as President in elections that have been under scrutiny for electoral fraud.[3] In March 2009, al-Bashir became the first sitting president to be indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC), for allegedly directing a campaign of mass killing, rape, and pillage against civilians in Darfur.[4]

Civil war

In October 2005, Omar al-Bashir's government negotiated an end to the Second Sudanese Civil War,[5] leading to a referendum in the South, resulting in the separation of the south as the country of South Sudan. In the Darfur region, he oversaw the war in Darfur that has resulted in death tolls that are about 10,000 according to the Sudanese Government,[6] but most sources suggest between 200,000[7] and 400,000.[8][9][10] During his presidency, there have been several violent struggles between the Janjaweed militia and rebel groups such as the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in the form of guerrilla warfare in the Darfur region. The civil war has displaced[11] over 2.5 million people out of a total population of 6.2 million in Darfur[12] and has created a crisis in the diplomatic relations between Sudan and Chad.[13] The rebels in Darfur lost the support from Libya after the death of Muammar Gaddafi and the collapse of his regime in 2011.[14][15][16]

War crimes

In July 2008, the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Luis Moreno Ocampo, accused al-Bashir of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in Darfur.[17] The court issued an arrest warrant for al-Bashir on 4 March 2009 on counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, but ruled that there was insufficient evidence to prosecute him for genocide.[18][19] However, on 12 July 2010, the Court issued a second warrant containing three separate counts of genocide. The new warrant, like the first, was delivered to the Sudanese government, which did not recognize either the warrant or the ICC.[19] The indictments do not allege that Bashir personally took part in such activities; instead, they say that he is "suspected of being criminally responsible, as an indirect co-perpetrator".[20] Some international experts think it is unlikely that Ocampo has enough evidence to prove the allegations.[21] The court's decision is opposed by the African Union, League of Arab States and Non-Aligned Movement as well as the governments of Russia and China.[22][23]

Military coup

From December 2018 onwards, Bashir faced large-scale protests which demanded his removal from power. On 11 April 2019, Bashir was ousted in a military coup d'état. This was confirmed by the Sudanese Armed Forces in an "important announcement" on state television.[24]

1 January 1944| 

Related Document

TitleTypePublication dateAuthor(s)Description
Document:A Brief History of the CIA’s Dirty War in South SudanArticle31 July 2019Ryan DawsonThe CIA are now almost completely out of the picture in South Sudan though one should never underestimate the Agency’s capacity for evil. It's in the US national interest to deny China access to African oil so it will always continue to be US vs China in South Sudan, as part of Pax Americana’s designs for Africa as a whole.


References

  1. "Sudan's Omar Al-Bashir attends Mid-East's Largest Arms Fair". BBC News. 1 March 2015 – via YouTube.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  2. "FACTBOX – Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir". Reuters. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2008.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  3. "Dream election result for Sudan's President Bashir". BBC News. Retrieved 17 December 2014.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  4. "Genocide in Darfur". United Human Rights Council. Retrieved 17 December 2014.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  5. "South Sudan profile". BBC News. Retrieved 14 March 2013.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  6. "Death toll disputed in Darfur". NBC News. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2013.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  7. "Q&A: Sudan's Darfur conflict". BBC News. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  8. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/su.html>]
  9. "Darfur peace talks to resume in Abuja on Tuesday: AU". People's Daily Online. Retrieved 4 March 2016.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  10. "Hundreds Killed in Attacks in Eastern Chad". The Washington Post. 11 April 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2010.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  11. Alfred de Montesquiou (16 October 2006). "AUF Ineffective, Complain Refugees in Darfur". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 March 2009.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  12. Darfur – overview, unicef.org.
  13. "Sudan cuts Chad ties over attack". BBC News. 11 May 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2010.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  14. Copnall, James (26 November 2011). "Sudan armed Libyan rebels, says President Bashir". BBC News. Retrieved 30 October 2013.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  15. "Libya leader thanks Sudan for weapons that helped former rebels oust Gadhafi". Haaretz. Reuters. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2013.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  16. "Sudan: Country Studies". Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2013.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  17. International Criminal Court (14 July 2008). "ICC Prosecutor presents case against Sudanese President, Hassan Ahmad AL BASHIR, for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur". Archived from the original on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  18. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ICC-warrant
  19. a b "Warrant issued for Sudan's Bashir". BBC News. 4 March 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2009.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  20. Simon Tisdall (20 April 2011). "Omar al-Bashir: genocidal mastermind or bringer of peace?". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 November 2013.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  21. "Moreno Ocampo slammed for abuse of power; chief ICC prosecutor denies allegations". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 22 July 2009. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  22. HENRY OWUOR in Khartoum (5 March 2009). "After Bashir warrant, Sudan united in protest". Retrieved 4 March 2016.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  23. "International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues" (PDF). Retrieved 25 May 2018.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
  24. "Sudan's Bashir Forced to Step Down". Reuters. Retrieved April 11, 2019.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "plain text").
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