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|( 1770s: ) 1779|
The spinning mule is perfected by Lancashire inventor Samuel Crompton
- January 11 – British troops surrender to the Marathas in Wadgaon, India, and are forced to return all territories acquired since 1773.
- January 11 – Ching-Thang Khomba is crowned King of Manipur.
- January 22 – American Revolutionary War – Claudius Smith is hanged at Goshen, Orange County, New York for supposed acts of terrorism upon the people of the surrounding communities.
- February 12 – Lieutenant Colonel Francisco Bouligny arrives with Malagueño colonists at Bayou Teche, to establish the city of New Iberia, Louisiana.
- February 14 – Captain James Cook is killed on the Sandwich Islands, on his third voyage.
- March 10 – The Treaty of Aynalıkavak is signed between Ottoman Turkey and the Russian Empire, regarding the Crimean Khanate.
- April 12 – Spain and France secretly sign the Convention of Aranjuez, with Spain joining an alliance against Great Britain in return for France's pledge to recover all Spanish territory lost to the British.
- May 13 – War of the Bavarian Succession – Russian and French mediators at the Congress of Teschen negotiate an end to the war. In the agreement Austria receives a part of the Bavarian territory (the Innviertel), and relinquishes the rest.
- June 1 – American Revolutionary War – Benedict Arnold is court-martialed for malfeasance, in his treatment of government property.
- June 16 – American Revolutionary War – In support of the U.S., Spain declares war on Britain.
- June 21 – King Charles III of Spain issues a declaration of war against Great Britain.
- July 16 – American Revolutionary War – United States forces, led by General Anthony Wayne, capture Stony Point, New York from British troops.
- July 16 – Declaratory Rescript of the Illyrian Nation issued in order to regulate organization of Eastern Orthodox Church in Habsburg Monarchy.
- July 20 – Tekle Giyorgis I begins the first of his five reigns as Emperor of Ethiopia.
- July 22 – Battle of Minisink: The Goshen Militia is destroyed by Joseph Brant's forces.
- July 24 – American Revolutionary War – American forces, led by Commodore Dudley Saltonstall, launch the Penobscot Expedition in what is now Castine, Maine, resulting in the worst naval defeat in U.S. history (until Pearl Harbor).
- July – The Great Siege of Gibraltar (fourteenth and last military siege) begins. This is an action by French and Spanish forces to wrest control of Gibraltar from the established British garrison. The garrison, led by George Augustus Eliott (later 1st Baron Heathfield of Gibraltar), survives all attacks and a blockade of supplies.
- October 1 – The city of Tampere, Finland (belonging to Sweden at this time) is founded by King Gustav III of Sweden.
- October 4 – The Fort Wilson Riot against James Wilson and others in Philadelphia takes place.
- December 13 – Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais marries Joséphine Tascher.
- December 25 – Fort Nashborough (later to become Nashville, Tennessee) is founded by James Robertson.
- December 31 – Affair of Fielding and Bylandt: Following a brief naval engagement between the British and Dutch off the Isle of Wight, the Dutch merchantmen and naval vessels are captured and taken to Portsmouth, England.
- Industrial Revolution in England:
- The Iron Bridge is erected across the River Severn in Shropshire, the world's first bridge built entirely of cast iron. It will open to traffic on January 1, 1781.
- The spinning mule is perfected by Lancashire inventor Samuel Crompton.
- Boulton and Watt's Smethwick Engine, now the oldest working engine in the world, is brought into service (May)).
- The city of Tampere, Finland, is founded.
- A joint Spanish-Portuguese survey of the Amazon basin begins to determine the boundary between the colonial possessions in South America; it continues until 1795.
- Robert W. Smith, Amid a Warring World: American Foreign Relations, 1775-1815 (Potomac Books, 2012)
- William Nester, The Revolutionary Years, 1775-1789: The Art of American Power During the Early Republic (Potomac Books, 2011) p53