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|( 1240s: ) 1249|
|University College, the first College at Oxford, is founded.|
- King Louis IX of France captures Damietta in Egypt, in the first major military engagement of the Seventh Crusade.
- Pho Khun Si Indrathit becomes the first king of the Sukhothai Kingdom, marking the founding of the modern Thai nation.
- The Hikitsuke, a judicial organ of the Kamakura and Muromachi shogunates of Japan, is established.
- The Japanese Hōji era ends, and the Kenchō era begins.
- February 16 – Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by King Louis IX of France as an ambassador, to meet with the Khan of the Mongols.
- May 26 – The Battle of Fossalta is fought between the Holy Roman Empire and the Lombard League. The Italians capture the German commander.
- July 13 – Alexander III is crowned as King of the Scots.
- August 15 – The First Battle of Athenry is fought in Galway, Ireland.
- The city of Stralsund (in present-day Germany) is burned to the ground, by forces from the rival city of Lübeck.
- Swedish statesman Birger Jarl subjugates the province of Tavastia in Finland, securing Swedish power in Finland.
- Alphonse, Count of Poitiers orders the expulsion of Jews from Poitou, France.
- The Hungarian capital is moved from Esztergom to Buda.
- The Moors lose possession of Alicante in Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain).
- King Afonso III of Portugal recaptures Faro and Silves in the Algarve from the Moors, thus ending the Portuguese Reconquista.
- The city of Mystras, Greece is fortified, and a palace is constructed there by William II Villehardouin.
- Spring – University College, the first College at Oxford, is founded with money from the estate of William of Durham.
- Jean Mouflet makes an agreement with the abbot of Saint-Pierre-le-Vif in the Senonais region in France: in return for an annual payment, the monastery will recognize Jean as a "citizen of Sens". He is a leather merchant, with a leather shop that he leases for the rent of 50 shillings a year. The agreement is witnessed by Jean's wife, Douce, daughter of a wealthy and prominent citizen of Sens, Felis Charpentier.
- Roger Bacon publishes a major scientific work, including writings of convex lens spectacles for treating long-sightedness, and the first publication of the formula for gunpowder in the western world.
- July 9 – Emperor Kameyama of Japan (d. 1305)
- Eric V of Denmark (d. 1286)
- Robert III of Flanders, ruler
- Frederick I, Margrave of Baden (d. 1268)
- Constance of Sicily, Queen of Aragon (d. 1302)
- Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford (d. 1297)
- Pope John XXII (d. 1334)
- Menachem Meiri, Catalan rabbi
- Amadeus V of Savoy (d. 1323)
- July 6 – King Alexander II of Scotland (b. 1198)
- July 19 – Jacopo Tiepolo, Doge of Venice
- September 27 – Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse (b. 1197)
- November 22 – As-Salih Ayyub, ruler of Egypt
- date unknown
- Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110