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Concept.png Malware
Exodus 1.png
One of many apps from the Google Play Store which secretly installed the Exodus spyware on its victims' phone.
Interest ofSecurity Without Borders
Bad software, such as spyware or viruses

Malware is an umbrella term for bad computer software. Colloquially, this may include software which just unwanted, or annoying ("scumware", "nagware", "bloatware", "shovelware" etc.) but the primary meaning is software which by design presents a threat to the user, such as computer viruses or spyware.

Pre-installed malware

In August 2019, Google warned that tens of millions Of Android smartphones come preloaded with malware, and that "if malware or security issues come as preinstalled apps, then the damage it can do is greater".[1]

After a vulnerability was found in the Lenovo Solution Centre, Lenovo left it unfixed, but changed the software's end-of-life date to make it seem less important.[2]


Full article: Spyware

Spyware is created to exfiltrate users' data or facilitate surveillance of users. Its origins include criminal gangs, individuals, private companies[3] and intelligence agencies.


Full article: Stub class article Computer virus

Computer viruses may go beyond spying to have a payload intended to destroy data and/or hardware (for example, Stuxnet, intended to damage the Iranian centrifuges used to refine uranium).


"AT&T employees took bribes to unlock millions of smartphones, and to install malware and unauthorized hardware".[4]



Page nameDescription
Computer virus


Related Document

TitleTypePublication dateAuthor(s)Description
File:Operation-shady-rat.pdfreport2 August 2011Dmitri Alperovitch