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Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach
A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios.
The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose values ranged from 2 mg/kg body weight for heroin to 531 mg/kg body weight for alcohol (ethanol). For individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the ‘‘high risk’’ category with MOE < 100. On a population scale, only alcohol would fall into the ‘‘high risk’’ category, and cigarette smoking would fall into the ‘‘risk’’ category, while all other agents (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants, ecstasy and benzodiazepines) had MOEs > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk).
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|Constitutes||Scientific report +, Report + and Risk assessment +|
|Description||Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach +|
|Display docType||Report +|
|Display image||File:Cannabis comparative risk assessment.jpg +|
|Has author||Dirk Lachenmeier + and Jürgen Rehm +|
|Has documentType||Report +|
|Has fullPageName||File:Cannabis comparative risk assessment.pdf +|
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|Has publicationDate||January 30, 2015 +|
|Has revisionSize||2,149 +|
|Has revisionUser||Robin +|
|Is about||Cannabis +, Alcohol +, MDMA +, Heroin +, Nicotine +, Amphetamines + and Benzodiazepines +|
|Is not stub||true +|
|Sourced from||US National Library of Medicine +|