United States federal judge
|United States federal judge|
In the United States, the title of Federal Judge means a Judge (pursuant to Article Three of the United States Constitution) appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate pursuant to the Appointments Clause in Article II of the US Constitution.
In addition to the Supreme Court of the United States, whose existence and some aspects of whose jurisdiction are beyond the constitutional power of Congress to alter, Congress has established 13 Courts of Appeal (also called "Circuit Courts") with appellate jurisdiction over different regions of the United States, and 94 US District Courts.
Every Judge appointed to such a court may be categorised as a Federal Judge; such positions include the Chief Justice of the United States and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, Circuit Judges of the Courts of Appeal, and District Judges of the US District Courts. All of these Judges described thus far are referred to sometimes as "Article III Judges" because they exercise the judicial power vested in the judicial branch of the federal government by Article III of the Constitution. In addition, Judges of the Court of International Trade exercise judicial power pursuant to Article III.
Other Judges serving in the Federal Courts, including Magistrate Judges and Bankruptcy Judges, are also sometimes referred to as "Federal Judges"; however, they are neither appointed by the President nor confirmed by the Senate, and their power derives from Article I instead.