Marxist–Leninist Party of the Netherlands
| Marxist–Leninist Party of the Netherlands |
(Political party, Entrapment)
|A fake pro-China communist party in the Netherlands set up by the Dutch secret service BVD, to obtain intelligence from China and Albania, obtain information about the communist movement in Europe, and to help split the communist movement in the Netherlands.|
The Marxist–Leninist Party of the Netherlands (Marxistisch-Leninistische Partij Nederland or MLPN) was a fake pro-China communist party in the Netherlands set up by the Dutch secret service BVD. The MLPN existed from 1968 to the early 1990s and was led throughout its existence by Pieter Boevé, who used the pseudonym Chris Petersen.
MLPN and Boevé had three tasks: they were to obtain intelligence from China and Albania, they were to obtain information about the communist movement in Europe, and they were to help split the communist movement in the Netherlands.
Boevé joined the Dutch secret service in 1955 after attending 5th World Festival of Youth and Students in Warsaw. Prior to the MLPN's creation, he served as the international secretary of the Marxist-Leninist Centre of the Netherlands (MLCN), using his position to create contacts in China and Albania. He also started his own publication, De Kommunist, in 1966, against the wishes of his MLCN comrades. He was subsequently expelled from the party and formed his own League of Marxist-Leninists in the Netherlands (Liga van Marxisten-Leninisten in Nederland) in 1968. A year later, this party changed its name to the MLPN.
The MLPN claimed to represent the principles of Maoism against the "heresies" of the official pro-USSR Communist Party of the Netherlands. It never had more than a dozen real members, none of whom were aware of its actual purpose. Notwithstanding this, Boevé was able to cultivate many contacts within the Chinese government. He frequently received gifts and travelling expenses from the Chinese government and on one occasion was the guest of honour at a banquet presided over by Zhou Enlai.
The BVD dissolved the MLPN shortly after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, when they judged that it was no longer necessary.
The secret was revealed in 2004 when Frits Hoekstra, a former leader in Dutch intelligence, published a book about what was called Operation Mongol. It stated that BVD set up, financed and operated not just one, but three false radical organizations. Besides MLPN, there were the organizations Nederland-Albania and Nederland-Kampuchea.
The MLPN published a monthly periodical called De Kommunist (The Communist). It was entirely written by BVD operatives.
Entrapment in Norway
In his memoirs Pål Steigan, former leader of the Norwegian Maoist party (AKP m-l) wrote how the Norwegian Police Security Service (POT) in collaboration with a foreign provocateur arranged a false piece of evidence, which then was repeatedly presented to the court to get permission for covert surveillance.
In 1975, the AKP was visited by a Dutchman who called himself Chris Petersen and said that he represented the small Dutch ml party MLPN. He had meetings with Tron Øgrim and one more from an international committee. We were generally very skeptical of Dutch ml-ers. They did not make a good impression, and this Petersen was no exception. He talked a lot and bragged about his contacts in China and Albania, but he had little clue about the Netherlands. We regarded the MLPN as an usual mailbox party, that is, had a mailbox to receive foreign newspapers but hardly any roots in their own country.
Trons' conclusion was clear: "That man stinks. I do not believe in him. We should stay away from him."
And so it was. The story could have ended there.
But then came the Lund Commission's report and opening of the surveillance files. The commission's report stated: "According to a letter of 29 August 1980 from the head of surveillance Gunnar Haarstad to the Ministry of Justice, there was 'reasonable suspicion that the AKP (m-l) has received financial support from China'(§ 97 A)".
In the files of several AKP members, section 97 A was used as an argument for further monitoring of them. In several cases, the POT used the meeting with "Chris Petersen" as an argument for that there was a reasonable suspicion of a violation of the penal code, and that a person who on behalf of a "party or organization in this country receives financial support to influence public opinion about the state's form of government or foreign policy or for party purposes, or who contributes to this, is punished with a fine or imprisonment for up to 2 years». This was used to monitor Jon Michelet, the publisher Oktober, the book shop Oktober, the record company Mai and Klassekampen. And it was used to monitor Kjersti Ericsson. In the latter case, she was confused with another Kjersti, who was secretary of the international committee and attended the meeting with Petersen.
POT must have told the judge that Petersen was known for receiving support from China and Albania, and since he had meetings with the AKP, there was good reason to suspect us of the same. What the POT could not have said to the interrogation judge, but as they obviously must have known, was that Petersen was an agent for the Dutch intelligence service Binnenlandse Veiligheidsdienst (BVD), and that his entire party was created and run by Dutch intelligence in collaboration with the CIA. Also, his name was not named Petersen, but Pieter Boevé.
What was Boevé's mission in Norway? He did not come to meet communist colleagues. Remember, he was an agent. He was on a mission as an agent. We had not asked to see him. He wanted to meet us. Why would a Dutch agent meet the AKP? What was his mission? Most likely, it was about "sticking" Chinese money on the AKP. He came as an agent, and an agent from POT was ready to register the meeting. POT knew he was coming. They had, of course, been told that by their colleagues in the Netherlands. Who knew that Boevé had anything to do with Chinese money? BVD knew that. Where did the POT get the information from? They must have received it from BVD, and then they must also have been told that Boevé was a bluff.
It is Eirik Rossen who has dug up this information. In his file, Boevé is mentioned by his real name, and not by the name Chris Petersen, which he used in politics. But his real identity was secret. Only BVD knew it. How did POT know about it?
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