Congress for Cultural Freedom/Founding Conference

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Event.png Congress for Cultural Freedom/Founding Conference  Rdf-entity.pngRdf-icon.png
Date26 June 1950 - 29 June 1950
ParticipantsGeorges Altman, Julian Amery, German Arciniegas, Raymond Aron, A. J. Ayer, François Bondy, G. A. Borgese, Franz Borkenau, Irving Brown, Hendryk Brugmans, Rudolph Brunngraber, Margaret Buber-Neumann, James Burnham, Mintauts Cakste, Benedetto Croce, Josef Czapsk, Josef Czapski, Harold Davis, Peter de Mendelsohn, Lawrence de Neufville, Alberto de Onaindi, Denis de Rougemont, John Dewey, Fritz Eberhard, and James T. Farrel, James T. Farrell, Henri Frenay, Jerzy Giedroyc, Adolf Grimme, Christopher Hollis, Sidney Hook, Frode Jakobsen, Karl Jaspers, Panayotis Kanellopoulous, Hermann Kesten, Arthur Koestler, Eugen Kogon, Hans Kohn, Frantisek Kovarna, Karel Kupka, Melvin Lasky, Sol Levitas, Haakon Lie, David Lilienthal, Elinor Lipper, Franc Lombardi, Richard Löwenthal, Keshev Malik, André Malraux, Golo Mann, Jacques Maritain, Claude Mauriac, Muzzio Mazzochi, Carson McCullers, Walter Mehring, Fritz Molden, Per Monsen, Robert Montgomery, Malcolm Muggeridge, Herman Muller, Nicolas Nabokov, Ture Nerman, Boris Nicolaevsky, Rudolf Pechel, André Philip, Guido Piovene, Theodor Plievier, Charles Plisnier, Herber Read, Ernst Reuter, Luise Rinser, Jules Romain, Jules Romains, Wilhelm Röpke, Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, Rémy Roure, David Rousset, Bertrand Russell, Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Carlo Schmid, Franz Josef Schoeningh, George Schuyler, Salomon Schwartz, Anna Siemsen, Ignazio Silone, Altiero Spinelli, Sheba Strunsky, Bonaventura Tecchi, Hans Thirrin, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Sergei Utechin, Tennessee Williams, Max Yergan
PerpetratorsMichael Josselson, CIA
DescriptionFounded the Congress for Cultural Freedom. The participants had a "a culpable incuriosity about funding" of the luxurious conference, which was later exposed as CIA money.

The founding conference of the Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF), 26-29 June 1950 in West Berlin, was attended by leading intellectuals from the U.S. and Western Europe.[1]


Although Michael Josselson was officially the only member of the CCF to be aware of CIA funding, it is likely that a number of prominent Congress members were observant and intelligent enough to connect the dots, according to Peter Coleman in The Liberal Conspiracy: The Congress for Cultural Freedom and the Struggle for the Mind of Post-War Europe, who argues that Congress members must have been observant enough to wonder how at a time when Europe was still recovering economically from WWII, money was liberally spent to cover travel costs, provide meals at high end restaurants and host attendees of CCF conferences in five-star hotels.[2]Coleman also points out that Hook later noted that even at the time of the 1950 Berlin Conference there was "a culpable incuriosity about funding in Congress circles."[3]


Participants. Raymond Aron intended to attend, but may not have made it[2]


Known Participants

17 of the 93 of the participants already have pages here:

Julian AmeryMI6, deep politician who chaired Le Cercle for several years.
Raymond AronFrench sociologist who attended 3 Bilderbergs from 1957 to 1966
Irving BrownUS Trade unionist and and consigliere for the CIA who attended the 1956 Bilderberg
James Burnham"The first neoconservative", spooky propagandist philosopher
Sidney HookAmerican philosopher and anti-communist activist.
Arthur Schlesinger Jr.
Melvin LaskyUS journalist, intellectual, with suspected CIA ties
Haakon Liepowerful party secretary for the Norwegian Labour Party from 1945 to 1969. A CIA collaborator, he was the most prominent organizer of McCarthyism in the 1950s, and set up an extensive surveillance apparatus in the Labour movement and unions.
Richard LöwenthalA Jewish exile from Nazi Germany, he soon was attached to US and UK intelligence services. After the war became a major intellectual in the Social Democratic Party of Germany, and often consulted by the SPD’s leaders, especially Willy Brandt and Ernst Reuter. He attended the 1968 Bilderberg conference.
Fritz MoldenAustrian journalist, publisher, diplomat who attended 2 Bilderbergs in the 1950s
Malcolm Muggeridge
Lawrence de Neufville
Denis de RougementAttended the first 4 Bilderbergs. Promoted European federalism
Bertrand RussellUK philosopher and pacifist
Carlo SchmidFounder member of the Bilderberg Steering committee
Altiero SpinelliItalian politician, referred to as one of the founding fathers of the European Union.
Hugh Trevor-Roper
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  2. a b In Peter Coleman THE LIBERAL CONSPIRACY The Congress for Cultural Freeedom and the Struggle for the Mind of Postwar Europe, page 20-22
  3. Sidney Hook, Out of Step, (New York: Harper & Row, 1987), 451