Text replacement - "conscience" to "[[conscience]]"
'''Ritual abuse''' exists all over the world. There have been reports, journal articles <ref name=SRA-art>[http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/studies/satanic-ritual-abuse-evidence-with-information-on-the-mcmartin-preschool-case/ Satanic Ritual Abuse evidence]</ref> <ref>[http://www.endritualabuse.org/citation%202.htm 2008 Publications on Ritual Abuse and Mind Control]</ref> <ref>[http://endritualabuse.org/Brief%20Synopsis.htm Lacter, E (2008-02-11). “Brief Synopsis of the Literature on the Existence of Ritualistic Abuse”.]</ref>, web pages <ref>http://ritualabuse.us</ref> <ref>http://www.ritualabusetorture.org/</ref> <ref>http://www.ra-info.org</ref> <ref>http://www.survivorship.org</ref> <ref>http://web.archive.org/web/20080116175648/http://theawarenesscenter.org/ritualabuse.html</ref> <ref>http://www.endritualabuse.org/</ref> and criminal convictions of crimes against children and adults <ref>[http://www.ra-info.org/resources/ra_cases.shtml Believe the children (1997). “Conviction List: Ritual Child Abuse”.]</ref> <ref>[http://www.endritualabuse.org/ritualabusearchive.htm The Satanism and Ritual Abuse Archive]</ref> <ref>[http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/an-empirical-look-at-the-ritual-abuse-controversy-randy-noblitt-phd/ Noblitt, PhD, J. R. - An Empirical Look at the Ritual Abuse Controversy (2007)]</ref>.
It is a suitable subject for inclusion on WikiSpooks, less as a reference on the subject per se, and more because of obvious associations with [[:Category:Mind Control|mind control]] programs such as [[:Category:MKULTRA|MK-ULTRA]] and its derivatives, together with the whole gamut of associations summarised by the term "[[The Pedophocracy]]"
'''Ritual abuse has been defined as:'''
|a brutal form of abuse of children, adolescents, and adults, consisting of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, and involving the use of rituals. Ritual does not necessarily mean satanic. However, most survivors state that they were ritually abused as part of satanic worship for the purpose of indoctrinating them into satanic beliefs and practices. Ritual abuse rarely consists of a single episode. It usually involves repeated abuse over an extended period of time. The physical abuse is severe, sometimes including torture and killing. The sexual abuse is usually painful, sadistic, and humiliating, intended as means of gaining dominance over the victim. The psychological abuse is devastating and involves the use of ritual/indoctrination, which includes mind control techniques and mind altering drugs, and ritual/intimidation which conveys to the victim a profound terror of the cult members and of the evil spirits they believe cult members can command. Both during and after the abuse, most victims are in a state of terror, mind control, and dissociation in which disclosure is exceedingly difficult.<ref name=LA>[http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/report-of-the-ritual-abuse-task-force-los-angeles-county-commission-for-women/ Report of the Ritual Abuse Task Force - Los Angeles County Commission for Women] "Mind control is the cornerstone of ritual abuse, the key element in the subjugation and silencing of its victims. Victims of ritual abuse are subjected to a rigorously applied system of mind control designed to rob them of their sense of free will and to impose upon them the will of the cult and its leaders. Most often these ritually abusive cults are motivated by a satanic belief system [only on the surface.] The mind control is achieved through an elaborate system of brainwashing, programming, indoctrination, hypnosis, and the use of various mind-altering drugs. The purpose of the mind control is to compel ritual abuse victims to keep the secret of their abuse, to conform to the beliefs and behaviors of the cult, and to become functioning members who serve the cult by carrying out the directives of its leaders without being detected within society at large."[http://www.geocities.com/kidhistory/ra.htm]</ref>
|WHAT IS RITUAL ABUSE? (BROAD DEFINITION) Ritual abuse is the abuse of a child, weaker adult, or animal in a ritual setting or manner. In a broad sense, many of our overtly or covertly socially sanctioned actions can be seen as ritual abuse, such as military basic training, hazing, racism, spanking children, and partner-battering. Some abuse is private...some public. Public ritual abuse may be either open or secret. WHAT IS RITUAL ABUSE? (NARROW DEFINITION) The term ritual abuse is generally used to mean prolonged, extreme, sadistic abuse, especially of children, within a group setting. The group's ideology is used to justify the abuse, and abuse is used to teach the group's ideology. The activities are kept secret from society at large, as they violate norms and laws.<ref>[http://www.survivorship.org/faq.html Survivorship - Frequently Asked Questions]</ref>
==Origins of the term==
Pazder introduced the term "ritualized abuse" in 1980, describing the experiences of an adult survivor that was disclosing satanic abuse memories. He defined the phenomenon as "repeated physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual assaults combined with a systematic use of symbols, ceremonies, and machinations designed and orchestrated to attain malevolent effects." Later definitions came mostly from professionals addressing ritual abuse in child care settings. Finkelhor, Williams, Burns, and Kalinowski elaborated on Pazder's definition, defining ritual abuse as "abuse that occurs in a context linked to some symbols or group activity that have a religious, magical or supernatural connotation, and where the invocation of these symbols or activities are repeated over time and used to frighten and intimidate the children." Kelley referred to ritual abuse as the "repetitive and systematic sexual, physical, and psychological abuse of children by adults as part of cult or satanic worship"<ref name=VB>Van Benschoten, Susan C. (1990). [http://www.empty-memories.nl/dis_90/vanbenschoten_sra.pdf Multiple Personality Disorder and Satanic Ritual Abuse: the Issue Of Credibility] Dissociation Vol. III, No. 1 "A large number of adult MPD patients in psychotherapy are reporting memories of explicitly satanic ritual abuse beginning in childhood. The authors of two limited surveys, conducted with a select group of MPD therapists, suggest the percentage of reported satanic ritual abuse in the MPD population to be 20% (Braun & Gray, 1986) and 28% (Braun & Gray, 1987). A survey by Kaye and Klein (1987) reveals that 20 of the 42 MPD patients in treatment with seven Ohio therapists describe a history of satanic ritual abuse. Ilopponen (1987) states that 38 of the more than 70 MPD patients she has treated report memories of "satanic-type ritualized abuse " (p. 11). Two inpatient facilities specializing in the treatment of MPD report that approximately 50% of their patients disclose memories of satanic ritual abuse (Braun, 1989a; Ganaway, 1989). Similar accounts of satanic ritual abuse are being reported by personally unrelated MPD patients from across the United States (Braun, 1989b; Braun & Sachs, 1988; Kahaner, 1988; Sachs & Braun, 1987). In addition, according to Braun (1989b), the reports of patients in this country are similar to data collected from adult survivors in England, Holland, Germany, France, Canada, and Mexico...Brown (1986), noting many similar allegations in child and adult satanic ritual abuse accounts, suggests that reports are not only comparable across geographical and personal boundaries, but across generations as well."</ref>.
There is a great deal of evidence supporting the existence of ritual abuse crimes as a worldwide phenomenon. Bottoms, Shaver and Goodman found in their 1993 study evaluating ritual abuse claims that in 2,292 alleged ritual abuse cases, 15% of the perpetrators in adult cases and 30% of the perpetrators in child cases confessed to the abuse<ref>Data from Brown, Scheflin and Hammond (1998).”Memory, Trauma Treatment, And the Law” (W. W. Norton) ISBN 0-393-70254-5 (p.62) Bottoms, B. Shaver, P. & Goodman, G. (1993) Profile of ritual abuse and religion related abuse allegations in the United States. Updated findings provided via personal communication from B. Bottoms. Cited in K.C. Faller (1994), Ritual Abuse; A Review of the research. The American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children Advisor , 7, 1, 19-27</ref>. "In a survey of 2,709 members of the American Psychological Association, it was found that 30 percent of these professionals had seen cases of ritual or religion-related abuse (Bottoms, Shaver & Goodman, 1991). Of those psychologists who have seen cases of ritual abuse, 93 percent believed that the reported harm took place and 93 percent believed that the alleged ritualism occurred....The similar research of Nancy Perry (1992) which further supports (the previous findings)…Perry also conducted a national survey of therapists who work with clients with dissociative disorders and she found that 88 percent of the 1,185 respondents indicated ”belief in ritual abuse, involving mind control and programming”<ref name=CultRA>Noblitt, J.R.; Perskin, P. (2000). [http://books.google.com/books?id=zJkTTpfyJ-8C Cult and Ritual Abuse: Its History, Anthropology, and Recent Discovery in Contemporary America] p. 269, Greenwood Publishing Group.</ref>.
Recently an online survey<ref name=EAS>[http://extreme-abuse-survey.net/ Extreme Abuse Survey]</ref> of over one thousand people answered questions about ritual abuse and extreme abuse crimes. In a summary of the survey <ref name=summaryEAS>[http://ritualabuse.us/mindcontrol/eas-studies/understanding-ritual-trauma-a-comparison-of-findings-from-three-online-surveys/ Understanding ritual trauma: A comparison of findings from three online surveys]</ref>, it was found that ritual abuse/mind control is a global phenomenon. Fifty-five percent stated they were abuse in a Satanic cult. Seventy-seven percent of the adult survivors that responded "had been threatened with death if they ever talked about the abuse." Also, "257 respondents reported that secret mind control experiments were used on them as children." Eighty-two percent reported being sexually abused by multiple perpetrators.
Anne Johnson Davis in her book ''Hell Minus One'' reported that her parents confessed to her abuse in writing and verbally to clergymen, and to the detectives from the Utah Attorney General’s Office. Her suppressed memories started when she was in her mid-30s, which were fully substantiated by her mother and stepfather<ref name=HMO>Johnson Davis, Anne [http://hellminus1.com/ Hell Minus One: My Story of Deliverance From Satanic Ritual Abuse and My Journey to Freedom] Transcript Bulletin Publishing - ISBN 978-0-9788348-0-7 - 2008</ref><ref>[http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/survivor-stories/hell-minus-one-signed-verified-confessions-of-satanic-ritual-abuse/ Hell Minus One - signed verified confessions of satanic ritual abuse]</ref>.
Many scientific journals articles have discussed the reality of ritual abuse and its effect on its victims. Some of these articles have discussed the extreme nature of these crimes<ref>Cozolino, L.J. (1990). “Ritual child abuse, psychopathology, and evil”. [https://wisdom.biola.edu/jpt Journal of Psychology and Theology], 18(3):218-227 "Ritualistic abuse is an extreme form of psychological, physical, and sexual maltreatment of children in the context of "religious" ceremony. The clinical presentation of the victims of such abuse is complex and raises many issues related in the diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology as well as the importance of spiritual counseling"</ref>, proof of the reality of the ritual abuse phenomenon and victims' symptoms<ref>Cozolino, L.J.; Shaffer, R.E (Fall 1992) "Adults who report childhood ritualistic abuse." Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge. [https://wisdom.biola.edu/jpt Journal of Psychology and Theology] 20(3) "Skeptics question the legitimacy of these reports, but many factors point to the reality of the phenomenon of ritualistic abuse. First of all, the degree of consistency between reports of individuals from different parts of the country is very high. The fact that children as young as 2 and 3 report ritualistic abuse experiences that mirror those reported by adult victims is especially striking in light of the fact that young children do not have access to the kind of printed information that might conceivably allow an older person to fabricate such experiences (Gould, 1987). Second, experiences of ritualistic abuse reported by victims of all ages are virtually identical to written historical accounts of Satan worship and the like (Hill & Goodwin, 1989; Russell, 1972), findings that substantiate our present-day understanding of Satanism and ritualistic abuse as intragenerational phenomenon. Third, the symptoms from which individuals reporting histories of ritualistic abuse tend to suffer are consistent with our current understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder and the dissociative disorders. The progression in which ritualistic abuse survivors respond to psychotherapy places these victims squarely within the category of individual who have suffered real-not imagined-trauma."</ref>, the connection between ritual abuse, multiple personality disorder and mind control<ref>Gould, C., & Cozolino, L. (1992) “Ritual abuse, multiplicity, and mind-control.” Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge. [https://wisdom.biola.edu/jpt Journal of Psychology and Theology] 20(3):194-6 "As a result of the psychologically intolerable nature of their early childhood experiences, victims of ritual abuse frequently develop multiple personality disorder (MPD)....Ritual abuse is conducted on behalf of a cult whose purpose is to establish mind control over the victims. Thus, these perpetrators have a conscious motive for the abuse beyond compulsively repeating their own childhood abuse in an effort to gain mastery over the original trauma. Most victims state that they were ritually abused as part of satanic worship, for the purpose of indoctrinating them into satanic beliefs (Los Angeles County Commission for Women, 1989). Mind control is originally established when the victim is a child under 6 years old."</ref> and the connections between ritual abuse reports and the higher levels of symptoms of childhood sexual and physical abuse<ref>Lawrence, K.J.; Cozolino, L.; Foy, D.W. (1995). [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V7N-3YB56DX-1X&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=b9a75a7e349d4efe5a11ed205f736cf5 Psychological sequelae in adult females reporting childhood ritualistic abuse.] Child Abuse & Neglect 19 (8): 975-984. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(95)00059-H. "Women reporting ritualistic features scored significantly higher on measures of childhood sexual and physical abuse. Neither [[PTSD]] diagnostic status nor severity for PTSD nor dissociative experiences were significantly different between the groups."</ref>. Several additional studies and organizations have compiled research on the reality of ritual abuse crimes<ref>Gould, C. (1995). [http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/denying-ritual-abuse-of-children-catherine-gould/ Denying ritual abuse of children.] Journal of Psychohistory, 22(3), 329-339. "The evidence is rapidly accumulating that the problem of ritual abuse is considerable in scope and extremely grave in its consequences Among 2,709 members of the American Psychological Association who responded to a poll, 2,292 cases of ritual abuse were reported (Bottoms, Shaver, & Goodman, 1993). In 1992 alone, Childhelp USA logged 1,741 calls pertaining to ritual abuse, Monarch Resources of Los Angeles logged approximately 5,000, Real Active Survivors tallied nearly 3,600, Justus Unlimited of Colorado received almost 7,000, and Looking Up of Maine handled around 6,000. Even allowing for some of these calls to have been made by people who assist survivors but arc not themselves survivors, and for some survivors to have called more that one helpline or made multiple calls to the same helpline, these numbers suggest that at a minimum there must be tens of thousands of survivors of ritual abuse in the United States. Evidence also continues to accumulate that the ritual abuse of children constitutes a child abuse problem of significant scope. In 1988, Finkelhor, Williams and Burns published the results of a nationwide study of substantiated reports of sexual abuse in day care involving 1,639 young child victims. Thirteen percent of these cases were found to involve ritual abuse. Other studies of ritually abused children have been relatively small. Kelly (1988; 1989; 1992a; 1992b; 1993) reported on 35 day care victims of ritual abuse, Waterman et al. (1993) reported on 82 children complaining of ritual abuse in preschool, Faller (1988; 1990) studied 18 children who had disclosed ritual abuse in their preschool, and Bybee and Mowbray (1993) from the Michigan State Department of Mental Health identified 62 children alleging ritual abuse in their preschool and 53 children who reported seeing others be ritually abused. Snow and Sorenson (1990) studied 39 children reporting ritual abuse in five neighborhoods in Utah, and Jonker and Jonker-Bakker (1991) reported on a total group of 98 children, at least 48 of whom were believed to be victims of ritual abuse. The latter case is the only one cited here which was conducted outside of the United States."[http://www.geocities.com/kidhistory/denyra.htm]</ref><ref>Paley, K. (June 1992). [https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/dspace/bitstream/1794/1646/1/Diss_5_2_9_OCR.pdf Dream wars: a case study of a woman with multiple personality disorder(PDF).] Dissociation 5 (2): 111-116. "Apologists believe that reports of satanic cult abuse either must or could be true. There is some evidence to support the apologists. In 1986, the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts in Commonwealth v. Drew (397 Mass. 65) upheld the conviction of Carl H. Drew for the murder of Karen Marsden. There was evidence that Drew conducted satanic ritual meetings and that he had killed Marsden "because she wanted to leave the cult " (Commonworth v. Drew, 1986, p. 66). Marsden had gone to the police and reported a human sacrifice. Scott Waterhouse was convicted of the murder of a twelve year-old girl, and the conviction was upheld in the State of Maine v. Scott Waterhouse (513 A. 2d 862, Me. 1986). It was ruled that the trial court's introduction of the defendant's satanic beliefs was relevant in establishing motive and intent. In a study of hundreds of day care centers, Finkelhor and Williams found that "... [c] lear-cut corroboration of ritualistic practices was available in a few cases, such as Country Walk [in Miami], where ritual objects were found by police and where the female perpetrators did admit to some of the sadistic practices alleged in the children's stories" (1988, pp. 59-60). Greaves (1992) describes a video made by the Chicago Police Department of two sites allegedly used for satanic ceremonies. He was struck by the similarity of the material to descriptions he had heard from many of his clients.</ref><ref>[http://www.saferchildren.net/print/utahrataskforce.pdf Report of Utah State Task Force on Ritual Abuse] Utah Governor’s Commission for Women and Families (1992)</ref>.
Ritual abuse and mind control crimes have also been confirmed in other books<ref>Secret Weapons - Two Sisters’ Terrifying True Story of Sex, Spies and Sabotage by Cheryl and Lynn Hersha with Dale Griffis, Ph D. and Ted Schwartz. New Horizon Press, P O Box 669 Far Hills, NJ 07931 - ISBN0-88282-196-2 "“By the time Cheryl Hersha came to the facility, knowledge of multiple personality was so complete that doctors understood how the mind separated into distinct ego states,each unaware of the other. First, the person traumatized had to be both extremely intelligent and under the age of seven, two conditions not yet understood though remaining consistent as factors. The trauma was almost always of a sexual nature…” p. 52 “The government researchers,aware of the information in the professional journals, decided to reverse the process (of healing from hysteric dissociation). They decided to use selective trauma on healthy children to create personalities capable of committing acts desired for national security and defense.” p. 53 - 54</ref><ref>Rutz, Carol (2001). [http://my.dmci.net/~casey/ A Nation Betrayed. Grass Lake, MI: Fidelity Publishing.] ISBN 0-9710102-0-X.</ref>.
A study which identified 270 cases of sexual abuse in day care settings found that allegations of ritual abuse occurred in thirteen percent of the cases<ref>Sexual Abuse in Day Care: A National Study - Executive Summary - March 1988 - Finklehor, Williams, Burns, Kalinowski http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/1c/82/61.pdf "“The study identified 270 “cases” of sexual abuse in day care meaning 270 facilities where substantiated abuse had occurred involving a total of 1639 victimized children….This yielded an estimate of 500 to 550 reported and substantiated cases and 2500 victims for the three-year period. Although this is a large number, it must be put in the context of 229,000 day care facilities nationwide service seven million children…allegations of ritual abuse (”the invocation of religious, magical or supernatural symbols of activities”) occurred in 13% of the cases.”</ref>. Additional evidence of ritual abuse in day care and child abuse cases has been found in news reports, journal articles and legal transcripts<ref>[http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/day-care-and-child-abuse-cases/ Day Care and Child Abuse Cases] Information on the McMartin Preschool Case, Michelle Remembers, the Fells Acres - Amirault Case, the Wenatchee, Washington Case, the Dale Akiki Case, the Glendale Montessori - Toward case, the Little Rascals Day Care Center case, Fran’s Day Care case, the Baran case and the Halsey case</ref><ref>[http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/mcmartin-preschool-case-what-really-happened-and-the-coverup/ McMartin Preschool Case - What Really Happened and the Coverup]</ref><ref>deMause, Lloyd, [http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/why-cults-terrorize-and-kill-children-lloyd-demause-the-journal-of-psychohistory/ Why Cults Terrorize and Kill Children] The Journal of Psychohistory 21 (4) 1994 "Cult abuse is increasing, only that-as with the increase in all child abuse reports-we have become more open to hearing them. But it seemed unlikely that the surge of cult memories could all be made up by patients or implanted by therapists. Therapists are a timid group at best, and the notion that they suddenly begin implanting false memories in tens of thousands of their clients for no apparent reason strained credulity. Certainly no one has presented a shred of evidence for massive "false memory" implantations." [http://www.geocities.com/kidhistory/whycult.htm]</ref><ref>Summit, R.C. (1994). [http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/the-dark-tunnels-of-mcmartin-dr-roland-c-summit-journal-of-psychohistory/ The Dark Tunnels of McMartin] Journal of Psychohistory 21 (4): 397-416."The opportunity came in April, 1990 with permission from the new owner of the preschool to search for the tunnels before he demolished the building and redeveloped the property. These soiled but solid citizens managed to find what the district attorney had disclaimed: solid, scientific evidence that someone had not only dug tunnels under the preschool, but also had taken the trouble to try to undo them. The results of this definitive excavation are described in meticulous detail in the 185 page Report of the Archaeological Excavation of the McMartin Preschool Site by E. Gary Stickel, Ph.D., the UCLA archaeologist commissioned to do the study....Dr. Stickel's report (p.95) concludes: There is no other scenario that fits all of the facts except that the feature was indeed a tunnel. The date of the construction and use of the tunnel was not absolutely established, but an assessment of seven factors of data all indicate that it was probably constructed, used and completely filled back in after 1966 (the construction date of the preschool). This age assessment has also been corroborated by the consulting Geologist for the project, Dr. Don Michael." [http://www.geocities.com/kidhistory/mcmartin.htm] </ref><ref>Tamarkin, C. (1994a). [http://abusearticles.wordpress.com/2007/12/02/investigative-issues-in-ritual-abuse-cases-part-1-and-2-1994/ Investigative Issues in Ritual Abuse Cases, Part I. Treating Abuse Today, 4 (4): 14-23. Tamarkin, C. (1994b). Investigative Issues in Ritual Abuse Cases, Part II. Treating Abuse Today, 4 (5): 5-9.][http://www.geocities.com/kidhistory/mcmartin.htm]</ref>.
Ritual abuse occurrences have also been found in the Netherlands<ref>Jonker, F.; Jonker-bakker, P. (1991). [http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ429991&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ429991 “Experiences with ritualistic child sexual abuse: a case study from the Netherlands”.] Child Abuse and Neglect 15: 191-196. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(91)90064-K. PMID 2043971 "The case of apparent ritual sexual abuse of children in a community in the Netherlands is described in terms of the children's stories, behaviors, and physical symptoms and the community's reaction to reactions of police and other professionals."</ref>and England<ref>Sinason, V (1994). Treating Survivors of Satanist Abuse. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10543-9. [http://www.valeriesinason.com/PublicationsVSinason.htm Major publications by Valerie Sinason]</ref>. Reports of ritual abuse have also been found in multiple personality disorder sufferers<ref name=VB/>.
Kent believes that intergenerational satanic accounts are possible and that rituals related to them may come from a deviant interpretation of religious texts<ref>Kent, Stephen. (1993). “Deviant Scripturalism and Ritual Satanic Abuse Part One: Possible Judeo-Christian Influences”. Religion 23(23):229-241.</ref><ref> Kent, Stephen. (1993). “Deviant Scripturalism and Ritual Satanic Abuse. II: Possible Masonic, Mormon, Magick, and Pagan influences”. Religion 23(4):355-367</ref>.
Others have stated that the theories and research around recovered memory "strongly confirm the reality of...cult abuse" of SRA survivors<ref>McCulley, D. [https://wisdom.biola.edu/jpt Satanic ritual abuse: A question of memory.] Journal of Psychology and Theology Fall 1994 22(3) p.167-172 "leading memory researchers such as Dr. Bessel van der Kolk of Harvard Medical School maintain that traumatic memories, which typically are engraved in the sensorimotor processes, are not subject to the same kinds of contamination that can affect normal memory. Traumatic amnesia, described in the DSM-III-R as psychogenic amnesia, is a phenomenon which has been known to mental health professionals for more than 100 years. The clinically observed characteristics of traumatic memory formation and retrieval match precisely the patterns of memory recovery exhibited by SRA survivors, and strongly confirm the reality of their cult abuse....If satanic ritual abuse is a question of memory, the data redound to the credibility of those thousands of individuals who identify themselves as SRA survivors. All the scientific studies of memory under trauma indicate that the bimodal response described by van der Kolk (1994), whether hyperpotentiated or dissociative, heightens the reliability of recall. The phenomenon of recovered memory is not a new therapeutic fad created by irresponsible clinical experimentation, but a well established aspect of trauma. The connection between trauma and memory disturbance is made clear by the definition of psychogenic amnesia in the DSM-III-R (1987)...Further, there often is corroboration for these retrieved memories. Judith Herman and Emily Schatzow (1992) found that in a sample of 53 women who disclosed memories of abuse for which they had been amnesic, 74% of the subjects were able to find independent confirmation from family members, pornographic photos, or diaries. Ivor Browne (1990a) found the "internal consistency of the traumatic account" persuasive, and also discovered that in the sizeable minority of cases where there was an available witness that "in every instance, the traumatic events . turn out to be true" (p. 30). There is no longer room for denial and disbelief - for evading the grim reality of SRA - by recourse to memory research which simply does not apply. Solid scientific inquiry does not allow us that luxury; neither should Christian [[conscience]]."</ref>.
==Muddying the waters==
The abuse of children, whatever the apparent motives of the abusers, involves such a gross betrayal of trust and is so abhorent to the mass of any population that it can be very difficult to approach the subject in a completely detached and rational manner.
Of all human vices and perversions, pedophilia is seen as probably THE most shameful and outrageous in the public mind - the transition to branding it as a sort of occult evil is therefore more-or-less inevitable when religious overtones are added. It thus has vast potential as a source of Machiavellian manipulation and control on the one hand and 'witch hunts' by over-zealous but ostensibly well-meaning 'Authorities' on the other.
'''The bulk of this article concerns the former. A brief discussion of the latter as applied to the UK follows:'''
Overtly religious forms of "Ritual Abuse" seem to have first been recognised as a serious issue in the US in 1972 with the publication of ''"From Witchcraft to Christ"'' by Doreen Irvine, the autobiography of a former high priestess of Satan describing events alleged to have happened in England. ''"Many Satanists would be present ... about eight hundred or more ... All meetings included awful scenes of perverted sexual acts ... My ability to levitate four or five feet was very real. It was not a hoax. Demons aided me."''
After the books publication, US police investigated and dismissed more than 10,000 complaints (though lets not forget they have a predisposition to dismiss where powerful interests are involved - Franklin, Finders, Dutroux and a others). The scare was then brought to England by Doreen Irvine. In April and September 1988, MP Geoffrey Dickens warned of the prevalence of Satanic Child Abuse claiming that up to 50 young children a year were being murdered. His evidence included the increased demand for occult books in libraries, the popularity of black magic videos, and the spread of "New Age" shops. The well-known BBC TV Cook Report had an episode on "Devil's Work" on 17 July 1989.
Social work conferences were held, particularly one at Reading University, 15-17 September 1989, on the theme "Not One More Child".
Belief in the danger of satanic rituals quickly became very widespread amongst social workers. More than 50 children in England and Scotland were removed from their homes on the grounds that their parents were practicing satanists. After investigations lasting up to four years, all charges were dropped and all the children supposedly abused by satanists were allowed back home.
One of the cases that seems to have triggered the scare was a case in Nottingham where 'sex parties' involved children under the age of seven. 27 young children were put into care and in February 1989 eight male members of the family and a family friend were imprisoned. A social worker arranged for the new foster mothers of these children to be briefed by Americans Jerry Simandl and Pamela Klein and the children began to recall Satanic rituals.
In Trafford, Manchester, two sisters who'd been abused were taken into care in October 1989. Coaxed by experts, after three months they started telling stories of witch parties they had attended, with babies and animals killed and blood drunk. Eleven more children were taken into care and an innocent man arrested in January 1990. The children were held for a further ten months until a High Court judge ordered their release. The social services department accepted criticism of their methods.
A case in Rochdale in November 1989 did not involve any real abuse but after months of interviews, a frightened boy and his dreaming sister were persuaded to implicate still more families. Ten children remained in custody until a 47-day High Court hearing exposed the evidence as ridiculous in March 1991. A boy admitted watching the Black Master of Huddersfield stab a man to death. Asked why the rest of his family had not seen it, he said they were in the chip shop. The following day the Director of Social Services for Rochdale resigned. Two social workers who had 'done some reading on Satanic abuse' were transferred.
Eventually, Professor Jean LaFontaine of the LSE, was commissioned to study the affair in England and Wales. (Some of the Scottish cases were said to be even more alarming, however there is only a judicial report on the case in Orkney). In 1998 LaFontaine blamed the spread of satanic abuse stories on the Evangelical Christian movement, and on professional 'specialists', American and British, purveying unreliable information.<ref>[http://www.smwane.dk/content/view/88/30/ SATANIC CHILD ABUSE HYSTERIA IN BRITAIN 1990-1991] - Donald Rooum 1998.</ref>
====Sources on Satanic Abuse====
* LaFontaine J.S., 1994, The extent and nature of organised and ritual abuse, London, HMSO.
* Asquith S. (editor), 1993, Protecting children, Cleveland to Orkney: more lessons to learn? Edinburgh HMSO.
* ORCRO Magazine 1991 three issues
* Fortean Times 1991 various, Anon, 1997
* 'Satanic abuse special', Private Eye nos. 926 and 927, Rooum D., 1991
* 'The Satanic child abuse epidemic 1990-91' The Raven 4:245-250 & 289-292.
* Brown, Scheflin and Hammond (1998).”Memory, Trauma Treatment, And the Law” (W. W. Norton) ISBN 0-393-70254-5
* Cook, C. (1991). Understanding ritual abuse: A study of thirty-three ritual abuse survivors. Treating Abuse Today, 1(4), 14-19.
* Cozolino, L.J. (1989). “The ritual abuse of children: Implications for clinical practice and research.” Journal of Sex Research 26(1), 131-138.
* Craighead, W. E.; Corsini, R.J.; Nemeroff, C. B. (2002) The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science Published by John Wiley and Sons ISBN 0471270830 - [http://books.google.com/books?id=JQMRmyOfpJ8C&pg=PT82&lpg=PT86&vq=sadistic+abuse&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html Sadistic Ritual Abuse (p. 1435 - 1438)]
* Gould, C. (1992) “Ritual abuse, multiplicity, and mind-control.” Special Issue: Satanic ritual abuse: The current state of knowledge. Journal of Psychology and Theology 20(3):194-6
* Hersha, C.; Hersha, L.; Griffis, D.; Schwarz, T (2001). Secret Weapons. Far Hills, NJ: New Horizon Press. ISBN 0-88282-196-2.
* Hill, J. [http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/believing-rachel-jeanne-hill-the-journal-of-psychohistory/ Believing Rachel] The Journal of Psychohistory 24 (2) Fall 1996 "Rachel's story is one of suffering, courage and hope. As a young child she was the victim of unspeakable crimes, but because she received therapy and the support of a loving family, she has emerged intact."
* Johnston, Jerry (1989). The Edge of Evil - The Rise of Satanism in North America. Dallas: Word Publishing. ISBN 0-8499-0668-7.
* Jonker, F and Jonker-Bakker, I. (1997). “Effects of Ritual Abuse: The results of three surveys in the Netherlands.” Child Abuse & Neglect 21(6):541-556
* Kent, S. (1994). “Diabolic Debates: A Reply to David Frankfurter and J. S. La Fontaine,” Religion 24: 135-188.
* Kent, S. (1993). “Deviant Scripturalism and Ritual Satanic Abuse Part One: Possible Judeo-Christian Influences”. Religion 23(23):229-241.
* Kent, S. (1993). “Deviant Scripturalism and Ritual Satanic Abuse. II: Possible Masonic, Mormon, Magick, and Pagan influences”. Religion 23(4):355-367
* Leavitt, F. [http://web.archive.org/web/20000306224228/http://idealist.com/tat/leavitt.shtml Measuring the impact of media exposure and hospital treatment on patients alleging satanic ritual abuse.] Treating Abuse Today 8(4) 1998 pp. 7-13 "This study provides evidence that clients who report SRA exhibit a set of associations to SRA-related words that cannot be explained by exposure to the popular media or from inpatient treatment."
* Neswald, D., Gould, C., & Graham-Costain, V. (1991). [http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/common-programs-observed-in-survivors-of-satanic-ritualistic-abuse/ Common programs observed in survivors of Satanic ritual abuse.] The California Therapist, 3 (5), 47 50. "Increasingly, cases of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and Satanic Ritualistic Abuse (SRA) are being reported in the psychotherapeutic community. Though controversy concerning authenticity remains, such cases are slowly gaining in acceptability as a genuine social and psychopathological phenomenon. Concurrently, the etiological underpinnings and treatment demands of these special patients are being unraveled and understood as never before. As a result, it is becoming increasingly clear that perhaps the most demanding treatment aspects of such cases concern the problems posed by what is known as "cult programming." [http://www.geocities.com/kidhistory/sracp.htm]
* Noblitt, J.R.; Perskin, P. (2000). [http://books.google.com/books?id=zJkTTpfyJ-8C Cult and Ritual Abuse: Its History, Anthropology, and Recent Discovery in Contemporary America] p. 269, Greenwood Publishing Group.
* Noblitt, R.; Perskin, P. (2008). [http://www.rdrpublishers.com/catalog/item/6339393/5820690.htm Ritual abuse in the 21st century] p. 552, Bandon, OR: Reed Publishers.
* Pike, P.L.; Mohline, R.J.(Eds.). [https://wisdom.biola.edu/jpt Ritual abuse and recovery: Survivors' personal accounts.] Journal of Psychology and Theology Spring 1995 23 (1) p.45-55
* Sachs, A. & Galton, G. (Eds) (2008). [http://www.karnacbooks.com/product.php?PID=25876 Forensic Aspects of Dissociative Identity Disorder] London: Karnac. Chapters include discussions on ritual abuse, dissociative identity disorder, mind control, extreme abuse, survivor accounts and criminal convictions [http://books.google.com/books?id=upHtL9lual0C&dq=Forensic+aspects+of+dissociative+identity+disorder+|&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=caNy__6-zt&sig=VwIOryBkcSN0nh24CJR3aJkS_gs&hl=en&ei=702fSbmpOo_ftgfe5eSVDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPA142,M1]
* Scott, S. (2001). [http://www.amazon.com/Politics-Experience-Ritual-Abuse/dp/0335204198 The politics and experience of ritual abuse: beyond disbelief.] Open University Press. ISBN 0335204198.
* Smith, Margaret. (1993). Ritual Abuse: What it is, why it happens, and how to help - HarperCollins
* Waterman, Jill; Kelly, Robert J.;Oliveri, M. K.;and McCord, Jane (1993). Behind the Playground Walls - Sexual Abuse in Preschools. New York, London: The Guilford Press, 284-8. ISBN 0-89862-523-8.
* Young, Walter C., Sachs, Roberta G., Braun, Bennett G., and Watkins, R. T. (1993) “Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: A clinical syndrome. Report of 37 cases.” Child Abuse and Neglect 15(3):181-9
*[http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/an-empirical-look-at-the-ritual-abuse-controversy-randy-noblitt-phd/ An Empirical Look at the Ritual Abuse Controversy]
*[http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/studies/satanic-ritual-abuse-evidence-with-information-on-the-mcmartin-preschool-case/ Ritual Abuse articles]
*[http://www.ra-info.org/resources/ra_cases.shtml Ritual Abuse Cases]
*[http://extreme-abuse-survey.net/ Extreme Abuse Survey]
*[http://web.archive.org/web/20071210161357/http://home.mchsi.com/~ftio/ra-stats.htm Ritual Abuse Statistics & Research]