|start=14 May 1948
|logo=Flag of Israel.svg
|description=Renewing the Memorandum of Understanding in September 2016, whereby the American taxpayer agreed to pay Israel $38 billion over a 10-year period
|subgroups=Military Intelligence Directorate (Israel), Mossad
'''Israel''' is a singular [[nation state]] in the [[Middle East]]. It occupies a
Israel used the word "terrorism" in the [[1960s]] and [[70s]] to refer to attacks by [[Palestinian]]s, both against civil and military targets.<ref name=ug747/>
==US military aid==
On 14 September 2016, US Under-Secretary of State [[Tom Shannon]] and Acting [[Israeli National Security Adviser]] [[Jacob Nagel]] signed a new 10-year memorandum of understanding for $38 billion in US military aid to Israel.
A signing ceremony — described as “low-key” by the ''[[Washington Post]]'' — was held in the State Department’s Treaty Room. Ceremonial protocol revealed not only why such a memorandum of understanding (MOU) cannot be subjected to much public scrutiny, but also the identities of the main constituencies pushing for such aid in the face of growing opposition.
The attendees were either [[State Department]] special guests invited to fill the arced row of chairs in the Treaty Room, or members of the news media responding to a last-minute notification posted on the State Department’s website. The rules for news media were strictly enforced. There were to be no questions asked of officials — such as Nagel or US National Security Adviser [[Susan Rice]] — before or after their speeches. Reporters were also kept from asking questions of the many special guests who filed in from an elegant annex. They were marched from a private passageway, relieved of cell phones, and kept behind a rope line at the back of the room. Numerous State Department minders were on hand to keep the press in line.
It quickly became clear that pro-Israel activists made up the large contingent of the special guests. “I want you to meet…he’s from the Conference of Presidents! [of Major American Jewish Organizations]!” went one introduction. [[Jonathan Greenblatt]], the new head of the [[Anti-Defamation League]], entered the room with quiet intensity, less effusive than his predecessor, [[Abraham Foxman]], who headed the organization for 28 years before stepping down in 2015. Rep. [[Debbie Wasserman Schultz]] (D-FL), ejected in June amid controversy as chair of the [[Democratic National Committee]], only to immediately be named [[Hillary Clinton]]’s honorary campaign chair, flitted among her numerous admirers across the Treaty Room. Only a handful of low-ranking uniformed military personnel were on hand, ignored by most of the special guests and mainly serving at the very end as props for an official photo opportunity.
After a perfunctory speech by Rice claiming an “unshakeable commitment to Israel’s security” and assertion that “our security is linked” without explaining how, and additional comments by Nagel, the MOU signatures were inked at a long table. The leather portfolios passed between signatories seemed too thin to contain the actual MOU. Shannon and Nagel cast what seemed to be almost furtive glances at the audience as press and State Department video cameras rolled and shutters snapped.
The new MOU succeeds the [[George W. Bush]] administration’s 10-year (2009-2018) $30 billion MOU. Under that agreement, Israel used 26.3 percent of its U.S. aid to build up its own domestic export-oriented [[military industrial complex]]. It also used MOU aid to purchase U.S. commodities such as military rations, diesel and aviation fuel. Israel and its U.S. affinity organizations then lobbied and extracted hundreds of millions more from Congress each year in additional “short fuse” emergency funds for missile defense. The U.S. taxpayer shelled out $1.3 billion for Israel’s ''Iron Dome'' system, with additional ad hoc allocations for Israel’s ''Arrow-3'' and ''David’s Sling'' systems.
The complete contents of the George W. Bush MOU — like its [[Barack Obama|Obama administration]] successor — remains a mystery. Neither has been publicly released. The George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum — responding to a FOIA request — confirmed that the expiring MOU was “approximately 675 pages”, but shows no eagerness or haste to release it. The State Department has not responded to a FOIA request for the current MOU, which is likely even lengthier and more complex, or for a complete list of MOU ceremony invitees. According to the MOU 'Fact Sheet' released by the White House, Israel will now be prevented from lobbying Congress for additional missile defense aid, may no longer spend MOU dollars on commodities such as fuel, and the huge subsidization of Israeli military contractors will gradually sunset.
However, the MOU must still be funded by Congress. As an executive order mandating Foreign Military Financing, a Foreign Operations Appropriations Act must be passed each year by Congress and signed into law by the president before spending on new military hardware can commence. The appropriation is likely to be included in an omnibus spending bill in December.
Key members of Congress heavily supported by pro-Israel donors and PACs, have already proclaimed the MOU caps on addition funds “unconstitutional”. Republican Sens. [[Lindsey Graham]] (SC), [[Kelly Ayotte]] (NH), [[John McCain]] (AZ) and [[Ted Cruz]] (TX) have already rejected the principle of limitations by filing measures to provide Israel with $1.5 billion in military aid in addition to MOU commitments.<ref>[http://www.wrmea.org/2016-november-december/dispatch-from-inside-the-signing-ceremony-for-the-$38-billion-u.s.-israel-mou.html "Dispatch From Inside the Signing Ceremony For the $38 Billion U.S.-Israel MOU"]</ref>