|image_caption=SS Exodus carrying immigrants to Israel. The boat was targeted by [[Operation Embarrass]].
'''1948''' saw an intensifying of the [[Cold War]].
The [[RAND Corporation]] was formed in 1948, a think tank which remains closely affiliated to the [[Military-industrial complex]].
In 1948, directive NSC 10/2 authorised the CIA to carry out covert actions anywhere in the world, specifically including "propaganda; economic warfare; preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition, and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance movements, guerrillas and refugee liberation groups, and support of indigenous anti-Communist elements in threatened countries of the free world." By [], according to [[Walter Bedell Smith]], the CIA covert operations had already "far exceeded" this.