User:Patrick Haseldine/Suppressed Lockerbie evidence ignited 9-11 attacks
9/11, in addition to being a unique, highly coordinated and meticulously planned act of aggression, constituted a media event on a scale not seen since the advent of civilian global satellite links, round-the-clock television news organisations and the instant worldwide reaction and debate made possible by the Internet. As a result, most of the events listed in the timeline below were known by a large portion of the planet's population as they occurred.
Until Tuesday 11 September 2001, however, the world was completely unaware of an event related to what until then had been the biggest terrorist attack against America: the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 at Lockerbie in Scotland on 21 December 1988. Evidence by security guard Ray Manly concerning a break-in at Heathrow airport hours before Pan Am Flight 103 took off and exploded over Lockerbie had been suppressed for over twelve years. Had the Heathrow break-in evidence been presented at the Lockerbie bombing trial, the Libyan Abdelbaset al-Megrahi would never have been convicted on 31 January 2001. Suddenly, on 11 September 2001, the Heathrow break-in event made front page news in a Scottish Mirror exclusive ("Lockerbie: The Lost Evidence"). Other newspapers also carried the story on 11 September 2001 including The Independent.
According to former British diplomat Patrick Haseldine, it was the confirmatory BBC News report ("Key Lockerbie 'evidence' not used") published on Tuesday 11 September 2001 that was the prearranged signal for the conspirators to proceed with the 9/11 attacks.
- 1 The 9/11 timeline
- 2 References
- 3 Further reading
- 4 External links
The 9/11 timeline
All times are given in Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) which is Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) minus 04:00 hours.
5:00: 9/11 conspirators receive their BBC News daily email (09:00 a.m. GMT edition) containing BBC News article "Key Lockerbie 'evidence' not used" (published at 4:42 a.m.) which is the prearranged signal for the highly coordinated and meticulously planned act of aggression to proceed.
6:00: Mohammed Atta travels on Colgan Air Flight 5930 from Portland International Jetport in Portland, Maine, to Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts, along with Abdulaziz al-Omari.
6:45: Atta and al-Omari arrive at Logan International Airport.
6:52: Marwan al-Shehhi calls Atta from another terminal at Logan to confirm that the plans for the attack are set.
7:35: Atta and al-Omari board American Airlines Flight 11.
7:40: The rest of the Flight 11 hijackers board the aircraft.
7:59: Flight 11, a Boeing 767 carrying 81 passengers and 11 crew members, departs 14 minutes late from Logan International Airport in Boston, its destination being Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) in Los Angeles, California.
8:13: Flight 11 has its last routine communication with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Boston Air Route Traffic Control Center.
8:14: Flight 11 is hijacked when hijackers Waleed and Wail al-Shehri rise from seats 2A and 2B and stab two flight attendants. Atta rises from seat 8D and approaches the cockpit. Within minutes, he is at the controls.
8:14: United Airlines Flight 175, another fully fuelled Boeing 767, carrying 56 passengers and nine crew members, also departs from Logan International Airport in Boston; its destination was also Los Angeles International Airport. Five hijackers are aboard. One of them communicated with Mohammed Atta shortly before American Airlines Flight 11's takeoff.
8:20: American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757 with 58 passengers and six crew members, departs from Washington Dulles International Airport in Fairfax County, Virginia for Los Angeles International Airport. Five hijackers are aboard.
8:25: Boston Centre flight controllers alert other flight control centres regarding Flight 11. The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) is not yet alerted.
8:26:30: Flight 11 makes a 100-degree turn to the south heading toward New York City.
8:34: Dan Bueno from Boston Centre notifies the tower controller at Otis Air National Guard Base at Cape Cod of the hijacking of Flight 11. The controller directs Bueno to contact Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS), the northeast sector of NORAD. The controller then notifies Otis Operations Centre that a call from NEADS might be coming. Two F-15 pilots begin to suit up.
8:37: Flight 175 confirms sighting of hijacked Flight 11 to flight controllers, 10 miles (16 km) to its south.
8:37:52: Boston Centre control notifies NEADS of the hijacking of Flight 11, the first notification received by NORAD that Flight 11 had been hijacked. The controller requests military help to intercept the jetliner.
8:42: United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757, takes off with 37 passengers and seven crew members from Newark International Airport (now Newark Liberty International Airport), bound for San Francisco International Airport, following a 40-minute delay due to congested runways. Four hijackers are aboard. Its flight path initially takes it close to the World Trade Center, which is 3 minutes away from being struck, before moving away westwards.
8:42–8:46 (approx.): Flight 175 is hijacked.
8:44: Flight attendant Amy Sweeney, aboard Flight 11, reports by telephone to Michael Woodward at the American Airlines Flight Services Office in Dallas, "Something is wrong. We are in a rapid descent... we are all over the place." A minute later, Woodward asks her to "describe what she sees out the window". She responds, "I see the water. I see the buildings. I see buildings..." After a short pause, she reports, "We are flying low. We are flying very, very low. We are flying way too low." Seconds later she says, "Oh my God, we are way too low.” The call ends with a burst of very loud, sustained static.
8:46:30: American Airlines Flight 11 crashes at roughly 466 mph (790 km/h or 219m/s or 425 knots) into the north face of the North Tower (1 WTC) of the World Trade Center, between floors 93 and 99. (Many early accounts gave times between 8:45 and 8:50.) The aircraft enters the tower intact. It plows to the building's core, severing all three gypsum-encased stairwells, dragging combustibles with it. A powerful shock wave travels down to the ground and up again. The combustibles and the remnants of the aircraft are ignited by the burning fuel. As the building lacks a traditional full cage frame and depends almost entirely on the strength of a narrow structural core running up the centre, fire at the centre of the impact zone is in a position to compromise the integrity of all internal columns. People below the severed stairwells start to evacuate—no one above the impact zone is able to do so.
French filmmakers Jules and Gedeon Naudet and Czech immigrant Pavel Hlava videotape the crash of Flight 11 with their video cameras from different locations. A WNYW TV camera records the sound, but not the image, of the crash.
8:46:43: Chief of the New York City Fire Department's 1st Battalion, Joseph Pfeifer, makes the first fire department radio message advising the FDNY Manhattan Fire Dispatch Office of the crash. Chief Pfeifer and personnel from other fire companies were several blocks north, on the corner of Church Street and Lispenard Street investigating a smell of gas in the street, and witnessed the attack, along with the Naudet brothers, who were accompanying the firefighters at the time:
Battalion 1 Chief: "Battalion 1 to Manhattan."
Manhattan Dispatch: "Battalion 1, k."
Battalion 1 Chief: "We just had a plane crash into the upper floor of the World Trade Center. Transmit a 2nd Alarm and start re-located companies into the area."
Manhattan Dispatch: "10-4 [message received], Battalion 1."
8:48:29: The first radio report of the incident is heard on WCBS-AM through traffic reporter Tom Kaminski. WCBS' traffic reports are delivered every ten minutes "on the 8s", meaning that Kaminski's traffic report was to come within two minutes of the initial impact of American Airlines Flight 11 (although there is no record of how much time actually passed). At the time Kaminski was in "Chopper 880", WCBS' helicopter that he reports from for morning and evening rush hour traffic reports. The following consists of WCBS anchor Pat Carroll crossing to Kaminski in the chopper before he files his report.
|“||Pat Carroll: WCBS news time, 8:48, it's traffic and weather together sponsored by Henry Miller's Theatre. Tom Kaminski, Chopper 880.
Tom Kaminski: Alright uh, Pat, we are just currently getting a look...at the World Trade Center, We have something that has happened here at the World Trade Center. We noticed flame and an awful lot of smoke from one of the towers of the World Trade Center. We are just coming up on this scene, this is easily three-quarters of the way up...we are...this is...whatever has occurred has just occurred, uh, within minutes and, uh, we are trying to determine exactly what that is. But currently we have a lot of smoke at the top of the towers of the World Trade Center, we will keep you posted.
8:48:50: The first television report of an incident at the World Trade Center is broadcast locally in New York by WNYW less than three minutes after the plane crashed into the North Tower. WNYW breaks into a Paramount Pictures movie trailer for Zoolander with the first live TV pictures of black smoke coming from the North Tower, relayed by a WNYW cameraman at ground level. One of the station's camera crews already had been out on the street that morning for New York's mayoral primary election. As WNYW broadcasts the first live pictures of smoke, the voice of reporter Dick Oliver is heard from the scene:
|“||Jim [referring to WNYW's Jim Ryan, who was not in the studio at the time], just a few moments ago, something believed to be a plane crashed into the South Tower of the World Trade Center. I just saw flames inside, you can see the smoke coming out of the tower; we have no idea what it was. It was a tremendous boom just a few moments ago. You can hear around me emergency vehicles heading towards the scene. Now this could have been an aircraft or it could have been something internal. It appears to be something coming from the outside, due to the nature of the opening on about the 100th floor of the South Tower of the World Trade Center.||”|
Three minutes later, Jim Ryan corrected the location of the first plane crash from the South Tower to the North Tower.
8:50: NEADS is notified that a plane has struck the World Trade Center as they continue to try to locate the flight on radar.
8:50–8:54 (approx.): Flight 77 is hijacked.
8:51: A flight controller at the FAA's New York Centre notices that Flight 175 had changed its transponder code twice four minutes earlier; he tries to contact the flight.
8:52: Lee Hanson receives a phone call from his son, Peter, a passenger on United 175, who says: "I think they've taken over the cockpit — an attendant has been stabbed — and someone else up front may have been killed. The plane is making strange moves. Call United Airlines—tell them it's Flight 175, Boston to LA." Also on board Flight 175, a flight attendant calls a United Airlines office in Chicago, reporting that the flight had been hijacked, both pilots had been killed, a flight attendant had been stabbed, and the hijackers were probably flying the plane.
8:54: Flight 77 deviates from its assigned course, turning south over Ohio.
8:55 (approx.): An announcement is made over the building-wide PA system by officials in the still-undamaged South Tower of the World Trade Center, "The building is secure, please return to your desks." This announcement is reacted to in numerous ways, ranging from people going back to their offices as suggested, ignoring it and evacuating anyway, or congregating in common areas such as the 78th floor sky lobby.
8:55: President George W Bush arrives at Emma E Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Florida, as part of a scheduled visit to promote education when White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card, who is with Bush, informs him that a small twin-engine plane has crashed into the World Trade Center. Before entering the classroom, the President speaks to National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, who is at the White House. She first tells him it was a twin-engine aircraft — and then a commercial aircraft — that had struck the World Trade Center, adding “that’s all we know right now, Mr President.”
8:56: Ten minutes after the North Tower of the World Trade Center was hit by Flight 11, the transponder on Flight 77 is turned off and even primary radar contact with the aircraft is lost. During radar blackout Flight 77 turns east, unnoticed by flight controllers. When primary radar information is restored at 9:05, controllers searching for Flight 77 to the west of its previous position are unable to find it. Flight 77 travels undetected for 36 minutes on a course heading due east toward Washington, D.C.
8:58: Flight 175 takes a heading toward New York City.
9:00: Lee Hanson receives a second call from his son Peter, aboard Flight 175: "It's getting bad, Dad. A stewardess was stabbed. They seem to have knives and Mace. They said they have a bomb. It's getting very bad on the plane. Passengers are throwing up and getting sick. The plane is making jerky movements. I don't think the pilot is flying the plane. I think we are going down. I think they intend to go to Chicago or someplace and fly into a building. Don't worry, Dad. If it happens, it'll be very fast. My God, my God." The call ends abruptly, as Lee Hanson hears a woman scream.
9:01: FAA's New York Centre contacts New York terminal approach control and asks for help in locating Flight 175.
9:02: Evacuation of both World Trade Center towers is ordered by FDNY Battalion Chief Joseph Pfeifer, who was stationed in the lobby of the North Tower. Although it is uncertain whether the South Tower's deputy fire safety director receives this order, an announcement is made over the tower's PA system to "begin an orderly evacuation if conditions warranted".
9:03:02: Flight 175 crashes at about 590 mph (950 km/h, 264 m/s or 513 knots) into the south face of the South Tower (2 WTC) of the World Trade Center, between floors 77 and 85. All 65 people on board the aircraft die instantly on impact, and unknown hundreds in the building as well. By this time, several media organizations, including the three major broadcast networks (who have interrupted their morning shows), are covering the first plane crash—millions see the impact live. Parts of the plane, including the starboard engine, leave the building from its east and north sides, falling to the ground six blocks away. The impact severs communication with several television and radio broadcast towers at the WTC; local station WPIX's satellite feed freezes on an image of the second impact which is all the station broadcasts until alternate transmitters are set up hours later.
A massive evacuation begins in the South Tower below its impact zone. One of the stairwells in the South Tower remains unblocked from the top to the bottom of the tower because of the plane hitting at an offset from the vertical centre line of the building, but it is filled with smoke. This leads many people to mistakenly go upwards towards the roof for a rooftop rescue that never comes. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey kept the two sets of heavy metal doors leading to the building's only roof exit tightly locked. The impact severs communication with several television and radio broadcast towers at the WTC; local station WPIX's satellite feed freezes on an image of the second impact which is all the station broadcasts until alternate transmitters are set up hours later.
9:03: President Bush enters a classroom as part of his school visit.
9:03: FAA's New York Centre notifies NORAD (NEADS) of the hijacking of Flight 175, at the same time it crashes.
9:04 (approximately): The FAA's Boston Air Route Traffic Control Centre stops all departures from airports in its jurisdiction (New England and eastern New York State).
9:05: After brief introductions to the Booker elementary students, President Bush is about to begin reading The Pet Goat with the students when Chief of Staff Andrew Card interrupts to whisper to the president, "A second plane has hit the second tower. America is under attack." The president stated later that he decided to continue the lesson rather than alarm the students.
9:14: President Bush returns to a holding room commandeered by the Secret Service shortly before 9:15. The holding room contains a telephone, a television showing the news coverage, and several senior staff members. The president speaks to Vice President Dick Cheney, Condoleezza Rice, New York Governor George Pataki, and FBI Director Robert Mueller, and prepares brief remarks.
9:17: The FAA closes down all New York City-area airports.
9:17:02: CBS News correspondent Jim Stewart in Washington mentions that in the intelligence community, Osama bin Laden is a probable suspect.
9:23: Flight 93 receives a computer text message from United Airlines flight dispatcher Ed Ballinger: "Beware any cockpit intrusion — Two a/c [aircraft] hit World Trade Center." The message is received at 9:24 by the aircraft computer.
9:24: The FAA notifies NORAD's Northeast Air Defence Sector about the suspected hijacking of Flight 77. The FAA and NORAD establish an open line to discuss Flight 77, and shortly thereafter Flight 93.
9:25: A video teleconference begins to be set up in the White House Situation Room, led by Richard A. Clarke, a special assistant to the president, that eventually includes the CIA, the FBI, the departments of Department of State, Department of Justice, and Department of Defence, and the Federal Aviation Administration.
9:26: The FAA bans takeoffs of all civilian aircraft regardless of destination — a national groundstop. All military bases in the United States are ordered to increase threat conditions to Force Protection Condition Delta status.
9:26: Flight 93's pilot, Jason Dahl, replies to Ballinger's text message, "Ed, confirm latest mesg plz--Jason".
9:29: President Bush makes his first public statements about the attacks, in front of an audience of about 200 teachers and students at the elementary school. He states that he will be going back to Washington. "Today, we've had a national tragedy," he starts. "Two airplanes... have crashed... into the World Trade Center... in an apparent terrorist attack on our country," and leads a moment of silence. No one in the President's travelling party has any information during this time that other aircraft were hijacked or missing.
9:32: Controllers at the Dulles Terminal Radar Approach Control in Virginia observe "a primary radar target tracking eastbound at a high rate of speed", referring to Flight 77.
9:34: The FAA's Command Centre relays information concerning Flight 93 to FAA headquarters.
9:35: The President's motorcade departs from the elementary school, bound for Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport and Air Force One.
9:37: Vice President Cheney enters an underground tunnel leading to a security bunker.
9:37:46: Flight 77 crashes into the western side of the Pentagon at 530 mph (853 km/h, 237 m/s, or 460 knots) and starts a violent fire. The section of the Pentagon hit consists mainly of newly renovated, unoccupied offices. All 64 people on board are killed, as are 125 Pentagon personnel.
9:39: NBC and MSNBC report an explosion at the Pentagon.
9:43: The White House and the United States Capitol are evacuated and closed.
9:45: United States airspace is shut down. No civilian aircraft are allowed to take off, and all aircraft in flight are ordered to land at the nearest airport as soon as possible. Nearly all international flights headed for the U.S. are redirected to Canada and its airspace, but the Mexican airspace did not shut down. The FAA announces that civilian flights are suspended until at least noon September 12, while Transport Canada gives similar orders; the FAA further ordered that diverted U.S.-bound international flights should be taken in, launching the agency's "Operation Yellow Ribbon". The groundings would eventually last until September 14. Military and medical flights as well as Con Air flights continue. This is the fourth time all commercial flights in the U.S. have been stopped, and the first time a suspension was unplanned. All previous suspensions were military-related (Sky Shield I-III), from 1960 to 1962. Many newspapers (including The New York Times) mistakenly print that this is the first time flights have been suspended. This was also the first time commercial flights in Canada have been stopped.
9:57: President Bush leaves Sarasota, Florida, on Air Force One. The plane reaches cruising altitude and circles for approximately 40 minutes while the destination of the plane is discussed.
9:58:59: The South Tower of the World Trade Center collapses, 56 minutes after the impact of Flight 175. Its destruction is viewed and heard by a vast television and radio audience. As the roar of the collapse goes silent, tremendous grey-white clouds of pulverized concrete and gypsum rush through the streets. Most observers think a new explosion or impact has produced smoke and debris that now obscures the South Tower, but once the wind clears the smoke, it becomes clear that the building is no longer there.
9:59: As the South Tower collapses, Father Mychal Judge, Franciscan chaplain to the FDNY, is struck by falling debris on the lobby level of the North Tower. He dies of blunt force trauma to the head. As Judge's body is the first recovered and certified by the medical examiner's office, he will be designated "Victim 0001" of the September 11 attacks.
10:00: FDNY Battalion Chief Joseph Pfeifer (inside of the still standing North Tower) orders all FDNY personnel to evacuate, via radio.
Batallion 1 Chief: "Command post, Tower 1, all units. Evacuate the building. Command post, to all units."
Due to many communication limitations, numerous firefighters within the tower do not receive this transmission.
10:03:11: United Airlines Flight 93 is crashed by its hijackers and passengers at 583 mph (926 km/h, 272 m/s, or 509 knots), due to fighting in the cockpit 80 miles (129 km) southeast of Pittsburgh in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. Later reports indicate that passengers had learned about the World Trade Center and Pentagon crashes on cell phones and at least three were planning on resisting the hijackers; the resistance was confirmed by Flight 93's cockpit voice recording, on which the hijackers are heard making their decision to down the plane before the passengers succeed in breaching the cockpit door. The 9/11 Commission believed that Flight 93's target was either the United States Capitol building or the White House in Washington, D.C.
10:05: CNN's headlines read: "SOUTH TOWER AT WTC COLLAPSES."
10:07: NEADS, controlling the only set of fighter aircraft over Washington, first learns of the hijacking of Flight 93, 4 minutes after it actually crashed.
10:10: Part of the west side of the Pentagon collapses.
10:10–10:15 (approximately): Vice President Cheney, unaware that Flight 93 has crashed, authorises fighter aircraft to engage the inbound plane, reported to be 80 miles (129 km) from Washington, based not on radar (from which it has disappeared) but speed and trajectory projections.
10:13: Thousands are involved in an evacuation of the United Nations complex in New York.
10:13–10:22: The 9/11 Commission's estimated arrival of Flight 93 over Washington had it not crashed in Pennsylvania.
10:28:22: The North Tower of the World Trade Center collapses. Due to the destruction of the gypsum-encased stairwells on the impact floors (most skyscraper stairwells are encased in reinforced concrete), no one who was above the impact zone in the North Tower escapes the collapse. The Marriott Hotel, located at the base of the two towers, is also destroyed. The second collapse is also viewed live on television and heard on radio. The North Tower collapses 1 hour, 42 minutes after the impact of Flight 11—the building had burned during the whole duration of the attacks. 7 World Trade Center burns after the collapse of the North Tower. New York City's 1010 WINS reports the collapse live as it happens, broadcasting a live phone call with a witness. On NBC News, Katie Couric says: "The South Tower of the World Trade Center has just collapsed..."
Several long-distance videos of the collapse, such as CNN, were able to notice that, after the cloud of dust had partially cleared away, a portion of the building was still standing. It appeared to be the lower half of the northwest corner column of the North Tower, which, like a spire, grew larger and had more structure still standing near the bottom. The portion rose to a fairly good height considering the collapse around it, as it appeared to rise nearly forty stories off the ground. This piece remained standing for a few seconds after the initial collapse before it also came down.
10:43: CNN reports that a mass evacuation of Washington, D.C., and New York has been started. A few minutes later, New York mayor Rudy Giuliani orders an evacuation of Lower Manhattan.
10:53: Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld orders the U.S. military placed at DEFCON 3, for the first time since the Yom Kippur War in 1973.
11:05: The FAA confirms that several planes have been hijacked in addition to American Airlines Flight 11.
11:26: United Airlines confirms the loss of Flight 93 and states that it is "deeply concerned" about Flight 175.
12:04: Los Angeles International Airport, the intended destination of Flights 11, 77 and 175, is shut down.
12:15: San Francisco International Airport, the intended destination of Flight 93, is shut down.
12:15 (approximately): The airspace over the 48 contiguous United States is clear of all commercial and private flights.
12:30 (approximately): U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell boards a plane in Lima, Peru, for Washington, D.C.
12:39: On CNN, Senator John McCain characterises attack as an "act of war."
1:00 (approximately): At the Pentagon, fire crews are still fighting fires. The early response to the attack had been coordinated from the National Military Command Centre, but that had to be evacuated when it began to fill with smoke.
1:04: President Bush puts the U.S. military on high alert worldwide (known as Force Protection Condition Delta).
2:39: At a press conference New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani is asked to estimate the number of casualties at the World Trade Center. He replies, "More than any of us can bear."
2:50: President Bush arrives at Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Nebraska, to convene a National Security Council teleconference via the U.S. STRATCOM bunker.
3:00 (approx.): Pasquale Buzzelli, who lost consciousness in a North Tower stairway during the collapse, awakens to find himself lying atop the debris with only a fractured foot.
4:25: The New York Stock Exchange, Nasdaq, and the American Stock Exchange report that they will remain closed Wednesday, September 12.
4:36: President Bush departs Offutt Air Force Base on Air Force One.
5:20:27: The east penthouse on top of 7 World Trade Center crumbles apart.
5:20:33: 7 World Trade Center, a 47-story building, collapses. The building contained New York's emergency operations centre, operated by the NYC Office of Emergency Management, originally intended to respond to disasters such as the September 11 terrorist attacks. Due to the emergency personnel having more than enough time to evacuate the building since the collapse of the North Tower, there are no injuries or deaths as a result of the collapse.
6:54: U.S. President George W. Bush arrives at the White House in Washington, D.C.
7:00: Efforts to locate survivors in the rubble that had been the twin towers continue. Fleets of ambulances are lined up to transport the injured to nearby hospitals, but they stand empty. "Ground Zero", as the site of the WTC collapse becomes known henceforth, is the exclusive domain of New York City's Fire Department and Police Department, despite volunteer steel and construction workers who stand ready to move large quantities of debris quickly. Relatives and friends of victims or likely victims, many displaying enlarged photographs of the missing printed on home computer printers, have appeared around New York. The New York Armoury at Lexington Avenue and 26th Street and Union Square Park at 14th Street and Broadway become centres of vigil.
7:24: Members of Congress join on the steps of the United States Capitol and sing "God Bless America".
8:00 (approx.): Port Authority Police Officer Will Jimeno, who was in an underground corridor between the two towers, is found alive in the rubble, and eventually freed at approximately 11:00 p.m.
8:30: U.S. President George W. Bush addresses the country from the White House in Washington, D.C. Among his statements: "Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts," "Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve," and "The search is underway for those who are behind these evil acts...we will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbour them."
9:00: President Bush meets his full National Security Council, followed roughly half an hour later by a meeting with a smaller group of key advisers.
10:00: There are reports (later proven incorrect) of many survivors buried in rubble in New York making cell phone calls. Only two more survivors will be pulled from the rubble on September 12 and neither of them had made cell phone calls.
11:30: Before sleeping, President Bush enters into his journal: "The Pearl Harbour of the 21st century took place today...We think it's Osama bin Laden."
- "Lockerbie: Heathrow break-in revealed"
- "Key Lockerbie 'evidence' not used"
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- NTSB Report, page. 3
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- "90th Floor Frozen, Even as Ground Zero Changes" New York Times, September 12, 2007.
- 9/11 Commission Report, p. 35.
- With its transponder off, it is possible, though more difficult, to track an aircraft by its primary radar returns. But unlike transponder data, primary radar returns do not show the aircraft’s identity and altitude.
- 9/11 Commission Report, p. 289
- Time as given in the 9/11 Commission Report, July 2004, pp. 8, 32. However, Final Report of the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers, published by the U.S. Commerce Department's National Institute of Standards and Technology in September 2005, pp. 83-84, timed this event at 9:02:59 a.m., established from time stamps in four September 11 telecasts.
- [http://www.fpp.co.uk/online/01/10/WTC_Helicopters.html "Could Helicopters Have Saved People From the Top of the Trade Center?" Paltrow, Scott J., Kim, Queens Sook, Wall St. Journal, retrieved August 10, 2010
- National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, "We Have Some Planes," 1.3 National Crisis Management, The President and the Vice President.
- "As Director of Communications Dan Bartlett points to news footage of the World Trade Center Towers burning, President George W. Bush gathers information about the attack at Emma E. Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Fla., Sept. 11, 2001. Also photographed are Director of White House Situation Room, National Security Council, Deborah Loewer (directly behind the President) and Senior Advisor Karl Rove (right). White House photo by Eric Draper". 11 September 2001.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "CSS").
- Timeline: Sept. 11, 2001, FoxNews.com
- 9/11 Commission Report, p. 11.
- "9/11 Commission Report", p. 11.
- "9/11 Commission Report", Sec. 1.3, National Crisis Management.
- Bamford, James (June 8, 2004). A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq, and the Abuse of U.S. Intelligence Agencies. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50672-4.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "CSS").
- "St. Peter's Parish: Death and Resurrection at Ground Zero - September 2003 Issue of St. Anthony Messenger Magazine Online". www.americancatholic.org. Retrieved 2015-06-23.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "CSS").
- Excerpt from 9/11, 10 Mar 2002, retrieved 2015-06-23Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "CSS").
- Executive Summary, p. 7-8
- The exact time is subject to some dispute—a report on seismographic data readings by Won-Young Kim and Gerald R. Baum puts the time of impact at 10:06:05. The 9/11 Commission argued "the seismic data on which [Kim and Baum based their] estimate are far too weak in signal-to-noise ratio and far too speculative in terms of signal source to be used as a means of contradicting the impact time [of 10:03] established by the very accurate combination of FDR, CVR, ATC, radar, and impact site data sets (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Notes, 1 "We Have Some Planes", note #168). Black box recordings, radar analysis, satellite data (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, "We Have Some Planes," 1.2 Improvising a Homeland Defense, United Airlines Flight 93) and at least one telephone call indicate 10:03:11.
- "1. We Have Some Planes". The 9-11 Commission Report. U.S. Government Printing Office. July 22, 2004. p. 45. Retrieved 2010-08-15.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "CSS").
- The 9/11 Commission Report, p. 44–45.
- CNN, September 11: Chronology of terror.
- Statement by the President in His Address to the Nation, Sept. 11, 2001.
- Balz, Dan; Woodward, Bob (January 2002). "America's Chaotic Road to War:Bush's Global Strategy Began to Take Shape in First Frantic Hours After Attack". Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-04-05.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "CSS").
- Bernstein, Richard B. (2003). Out of the Blue: A Narrative of September 11, 2001. Times Books. ISBN 0-8050-7410-4.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "CSS").
- Thompson, Paul (2004). The Terror Timeline: Year by Year, Day by Day, Minute by Minute: A Comprehensive Chronicle of the Road to 9/11. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-078338-9.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "CSS").
- "Interactive 911 Timeline" - Provided by TimeRime.com.
- "Complete 911 Timeline" minute by minute - Provided by the History Commons.
- Template:Internet Archive (Understanding 9/11 archive).
- CNN: September 11: Chronology of terror at the Wayback Machine (timeline published Sept. 12).
- 911 Case Study: Pentagon Flight 77: 3D Computer Simulation about The Pentagon impact.
- My 9/11 Flight: Airline pilot's account of the SCATANA airspace shutdown on 9/11.
- Pasquale Buzzelli, the "9/11 Surfer" who survived North Tower collapse.
- 1010 WINS from 8:00 a.m. (September 11, 2001) to 8:00 a.m. (September 12, 2001)
- 9/11 tragedy pager intercepts, published by WikiLeaks