Difference between revisions of "1863"

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|description=year 1863
 
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== Events ==
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[[File:Transcontinental railroad route.png|thumb|180px|right| [[January 8]]: [[First Transcontinental Railroad]]]]
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===January–March===
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* [[January 1]]
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** [[Abraham Lincoln]] signs the [[Emancipation Proclamation]] during the second year of the [[American Civil War]], making the abolition of [[slavery]] in the Confederate states an official war goal. It proclaims the freedom of 3.1 million of the nation's four million slaves and immediately frees 50,000 of them, with the rest freed as Union armies advance.
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** The first claim under the [[1862 Homestead Act]] is made, for a farm in [[Nebraska]].
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* [[January 8]]
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** Ground is broken in [[Sacramento, California]], on the construction of the [[First Transcontinental Railroad]] in the United States.
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** The [[Yorkshire County Cricket Club]] is founded at the [[Adelphi Hotel (Sheffield)|Adelphi Hotel]], in [[Sheffield]], England.
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* [[January 10]] – The first section of the [[London Underground]] Railway ([[Paddington tube station (Circle and Hammersmith & City lines)|Paddington]] to [[Farringdon station|Farringdon Street]]) opens officially.
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* [[January 15]] – [[French intervention in Mexico]]: French forces bombard [[Veracruz, Veracruz|Veracruz]].
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* [[January 21]] – [[Adam Opel]] founds [[Opel|Opel AG]].
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* [[January 22]] – The [[January Uprising]] breaks out in Poland, [[Lithuania]] and [[Belarus]]. The aim of the national movement is to liberate the [[Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth]] from Russian occupation.
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* [[January 29]] – [[American Indian Wars]] – [[Bear River Massacre]]: The [[United States Army]], led by General [[Patrick Edward Connor]], massacres Chief [[Bear Hunter]] and forces of the [[Shoshone]], in the [[Idaho Territory]].
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* [[January 31]] – [[Jules Verne]]'s first adventure novel, ''[[Five Weeks in a Balloon]]'' (''Cinq semaines en ballon''), is published in Paris.
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* [[February 1]] – Radicals in Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, northern Ukraine and western Russia join the [[January Uprising]].
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* [[February 16]] – [[Kansas State Agricultural College]] is established, as the first [[Land-grant university|land grant college]] created under the 1862 [[Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act|Morrill Act]].
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* [[February 17]] – The "Committee of the Five" holds their first meeting in [[Geneva]], Switzerland, which is regarded as the foundation of the [[International Committee of the Red Cross]], following the lead of humanitarian businessman [[Henry Dunant]].
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* [[February 26]] – Abraham Lincoln signs the [[National Banking Act]] into law.
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* [[March 2]] – The [[Clapham Junction railway station]] opens in London.
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* [[March 3]]
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** [[Idaho Territory]] is organized by the [[Congress of the United States|U.S. Congress]].
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** The U.S. [[Enrollment Act|National Conscription Act]] is signed, leading to the [[New York City draft riots]] in July.
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* [[March 10]] – Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later [[Edward VII]]) marries [[Alexandra of Denmark|Princess Alexandra of Denmark]] (later Queen Alexandra).
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* [[March 14]] – [[Queen Victoria]] issues [[Letters Patent]] granting [[Goulburn, New South Wales]], city status, making it Australia's first inland city.
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* [[March 19]] – The SS Georgiana is destroyed on her maiden voyage, while attempting to run the [[blockade]] into [[Charleston, South Carolina]]. The wreck is discovered exactly 102 years later, by [[E. Lee Spence]].
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* [[March 30]] – Prince Wilhelm George of [[Monarchy of Denmark|Denmark]], 17, is elected by the [[Hellenic Parliament]] as [[George I of Greece|George, King of the Hellenes]]; he will reign in Greece for 50 years. He arrives in [[Athens]] on [[October 30]] to take the throne.
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=== April–June ===
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* [[April 14]] – The [[Treaty of Huế (1863)|Treaty of Huế]] is signed between [[Vietnam]] and the [[French colonial empire|French Empire]].
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* [[April 30]] – [[Battle of Camarón]] in Mexico: 65 soldiers of the [[French Foreign Legion]] fight 2,000 Mexicans.
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[[File:Edouard Manet - Luncheon on the Grass - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|190px|[[May 17]]: [[Édouard Manet|Manet]]'s ''[[Le déjeuner sur l'herbe]]'' exhibited.]]
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* [[May 1]]–[[May 4|4]] – American Civil War – [[Battle of Chancellorsville]]: General [[Robert E. Lee]] defeats Union forces with 13,000 Confederate casualties, among them [[Stonewall Jackson]] (fatally wounded by friendly fire), and 17,500 Union casualties.
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* [[May 8]]
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** The [[Granadine Confederation]] becomes the [[United States of Colombia]], under [[President of Colombia|President]] [[Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera]].
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** [[January Uprising]]: The Polish insurgent army is defeated by the Russians near Gudiškis.
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* [[May 14]] – American Civil War – [[Battle of Jackson, Mississippi]]: Union General [[Ulysses S. Grant]] defeats Confederate General [[Joseph E. Johnston]], opening the way for the [[Siege of Vicksburg]].
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* [[May 17]]
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** After a 2-month siege, the French army of [[Achille Bazaine|Bazaine]] takes [[Puebla, Puebla|Puebla]], Mexico.
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** The opening of [[Salon des Refusés]] in Paris draws attention to paintings by [[avant-garde]] artists, notably [[Édouard Manet|Manet]]'s ''[[Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe]]''.
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* [[May 18]] – American Civil War: The [[Battle of Vicksburg|Siege of Vicksburg]] begins (ends [[July 4]], when 30,189 Confederate men surrender).
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* [[May 21]]
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** The [[General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists]] is formed in [[Battle Creek, Michigan]].
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* [[May 23]] – [[Ferdinand Lassalle]] founds the {{Lang|de|Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein}} ([[General German Workers' Association]], ADAV), the first socialist workers party in Germany.
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* [[May 28]] – American Civil War – The [[54th Massachusetts]], the first [[African-American]] regiment, leaves [[Boston]] to fight for the Union.
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* [[May 31]] – The first [[Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe]] horse race is held.
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* [[June 7]] – [[French intervention in Mexico]]: French forces enter Mexico City.
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* [[June 9]] – American Civil War: The [[Battle of Brandy Station]], [[Virginia]] ends inconclusively.
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* [[June 12]] – [[The Arts Club]] is founded by [[Charles Dickens]], [[Frederic Leighton]] and others in Hanover Square, London.
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* [[June 13]] – [[Samuel Butler (novelist)|Samuel Butler]]'s [[dystopia]]n article "[[Darwin among the Machines]]" is published (under the pen name ''Cellarius'') in ''[[The Press]]'' newspaper in [[Christchurch]], New Zealand; it will be incorporated into his novel ''[[Erewhon]]'' (1872).
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* [[June 14]] – American Civil War – [[Second Battle of Winchester]]: A [[United States|Union]] garrison is defeated by the [[Army of Northern Virginia]], in the [[Shenandoah Valley]] town of [[Winchester, Virginia]].
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* [[June 17]] – American Civil War: The [[Battle of Aldie]] in the [[Gettysburg Campaign]] ends inconclusively.
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* [[June 20]] – [[West Virginia]] is admitted as the 35th [[U.S. state]].
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=== July–September ===
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* [[July 1]] – Slavery is abolished in the [[Dutch Empire|Dutch colonies]] of [[Suriname]] (independent from [[1975]]) and [[Curaçao and Dependencies]].
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* [[July 1]] – The [[Kingston loop line]] of the [[London and South Western Railway]] opens.
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* [[July 1]]–[[July 3|3]] – [[American Civil War]]: [[Battle of Gettysburg]] – Union forces under [[George G. Meade]] turn back a Confederate invasion by [[Robert E. Lee]] in the largest battle of the war (28,000 Confederate casualties, 23,000 Union).
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* [[July 4]] – American Civil War: [[Siege of Vicksburg]] – [[Ulysses S. Grant]] and the Union army capture the Confederate city [[Vicksburg, Mississippi]], after the town surrenders, following a 47-day siege.
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* [[July 6]] – [[Queen Victoria]] issues [[Letters Patent]], annexing to [[South Australia]] the part of the colony of [[New South Wales]] that will later become the [[Northern Territory]].
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* [[July 9]] – American Civil War: The [[Siege of Port Hudson]] ends, and the Union controls the entire Mississippi River for the first time.
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* [[July 13]] – American Civil War – [[New York City draft riots]]: In New York City, opponents of [[conscription]] begin 3 days of violent rioting, which will be regarded as the worst in the history of the United States with around 120 killed.
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* [[July 16]] – [[Battle of Shimonoseki Straits]]: The [[screw sloop]] USS Wyoming engages with the [[Chōshū Domain]] fleet before withdrawing, in Japan's first naval engagement between elements of modern navies.
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* [[July 17]] – The [[New Zealand Wars]] against the [[Māori people]] resume, as British forces in New Zealand led by [[Duncan Cameron (British Army officer)|Duncan Cameron]] begin their [[Invasion of the Waikato]].
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* [[July 30]] – [[American Indian Wars]]: Representatives of the United States and tribal leaders including [[Chief Pocatello]] (of the [[Shoshone]]) sign the [[Box Elder Treaty|Treaty of Box Elder]].
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* [[August 8]] – American Civil War: Following his defeat in the [[Battle of Gettysburg]], General Robert E. Lee sends a letter of resignation to Confederate President [[Jefferson Davis]] (Davis refuses the request upon receipt).
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* [[August 15]]–[[August 17|17]] – [[Bombardment of Kagoshima]]: The British [[Royal Navy]] bombards the town of [[Kagoshima]] in Japan in retribution, after the [[Namamugi Incident]] of [[1862]].
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* [[August 16]] – After Spain's annexation of the [[Dominican Republic]], rebels raise the [[Flag of the Dominican Republic|Dominican flag]] in [[Santiago de los Caballeros|Santiago]] to begin the [[Dominican Restoration War]].
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* [[August 17]] – American Civil War: In [[Charleston, South Carolina]], Union batteries and ships bombard Confederate-held [[Fort Sumter]] (the bombardment does not end until [[December 31]]).
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* [[September]] &ndash; The [[Western Railroad (North Carolina)|Western Railroad]] from [[Fayetteville, North Carolina|Fayetteville]], North Carolina to the coal fields of [[Cumnock, North Carolina|Egypt]], North Carolina is completed.<ref>[http://www.historync.org/railroad-WRR.htm CommunicationSolutions/ISI, "Railroad — Western Railroad Company"], ''North Carolina Business History'', 2006, accessed 1 Feb 2010</ref>
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* [[September 6]] &ndash; American Civil War: [[Confederate States of America|Confederates]] evacuate [[Battery Wagner]] and [[Morris Island]], in [[South Carolina]].
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=== October&ndash;December ===
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* [[October 3]] &ndash; U.S. President Abraham Lincoln proclaims a national [[Thanksgiving (United States)|Thanksgiving]] Day, to be celebrated on the final Thursday in November.
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* [[October 5]] &ndash; The [[Brooklyn, Bath and Coney Island Rail Road]] starts operations in [[Brooklyn, New York]]; this is now the oldest [[Right-of-way (railroad)|right-of-way]] on the [[New York City Subway]], the largest [[rapid transit]] system in the United States, and one of the largest in the world.
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* [[October 23]] &ndash; [[Ffestiniog Railway]] in [[North Wales]] introduces [[steam locomotive]]s into general service, the first time this has been done anywhere in the world on a public railway of such a [[Narrow gauge railway|narrow gauge]] ({{convert|2|ft|cm}}).
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* [[October 26]] &ndash; [[The Football Association]] is formed in London.
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* [[October 26]]&ndash;[[October 29|29]] &ndash; The Resolutions of the Geneva International Conference are signed by sixteen countries meeting in [[Geneva]] agreeing to form the [[International Red Cross]].
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* [[November 15]] &ndash; The death of King [[Frederick VII of Denmark]], and the succession of his distant cousin [[Christian IX of Denmark|Christian IX]], marks the beginning of the Second [[Schleswig-Holstein]] crisis.
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* [[November 18]] &ndash; King [[Christian IX of Denmark]] signs [[History of Schleswig-Holstein#The November Constitution|the November Constitution]], which declares [[Schleswig]] to be part of Denmark, regarded by the [[German Confederation]] as a violation of the [[London Protocol (1852)|London Protocol of 1852]], leading to the [[Second Schleswig War|German–Danish war of 1864]].
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* [[November 19]] &ndash; American Civil War: U. S. President Abraham Lincoln delivers the [[Gettysburg Address]], at the military cemetery dedication ceremony in [[Gettysburg, Pennsylvania]].
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* [[December 15]]
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** [[Romania]] opens its first [[mountain railway]] (from [[Anina]] to [[Oravița]]).
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** [[Gerard Adriaan Heineken]], 22, buys the brewery 'De Hooiberg' ("The Haystack") in [[Amsterdam]].
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* [[December 19]]
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** [[Linoleum]] is patented in the United Kingdom.
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** [[Association football]] is played for the first time in the modern era.
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=== Date unknown ===
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* The Second [[Anglo-Ashanti wars#Second Anglo-Ashanti War|Anglo-Ashanti war]] begins.
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* [[Bartolomé Mitre]] secretly backs the revolt of [[Venancio Flores]], against the [[Uruguay]]an Blanco government.
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* The [[Chōshū Five]] leave Japan secretly to study at [[University College London]], which is part of the ending of [[sakoku]].
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* The first outbreak of [[phylloxera]] on the European mainland is observed, in the vineyards of the southern Rhône region of France.
 
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==References==
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{{reflist}}

Latest revision as of 03:06, 1 March 2021

1853 < 1854 < 1855 < 1856 < 1857 < 1858 < 1859 <1860 < 1861 < 1862 < 1863 > 1864 > 1865 > 1866 > 1867 > 1868 > 1869 > 1870 > 1871 > 1872 > 1873

Decade.png 1860s: )    Year.png 1863 Rdf-entity.pngRdf-icon.png
The Battle Of Gettysburg.jpg
‘'A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg - The Battle Of Gettysburg
year 1863

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

 

Events

Event
Pax Brittanica
American Civil War

 

New Groups

GroupImageTypeDescription
Boston CollegeBoston College Seal.svgPrivate NonprofitResearch CoeducationalJesuit/catholic university
Polytechnic University of MilanLogo Politecnico Milano.pngIntended to do all graduate courses in English, but stopped by courts.
University of JyväskyläJyväskylän yliopiston logo.pngThe university offers a wide range of study programmes for master's degree conducted in English, many of which are unique in Finland.
Social Democratic Party of GermanySPD logo.png
Kansas State UniversityKansas State University seal.pngUniversity
Nation state
Public
Flagship
Land-grant
Space Grant
Significant agrodefense and biodefense research
Book and SnakeGroup.pngSecret societyA secret society of interest.
Adelphi UniversityAdelphi University Seal.svgMilitary ranksSmall university in New York
Social Democratic Party of AustriaSPD logo.pngAustrian social-democratic political party.
Red CrossGroup.pngNGO
Non-profit
Boğaziçi UniversityBoğaziçi University logo.pngPublicTurkish elite university with strong ties to the American educational system.
Adelaide ClubAdelaide Club.JPGExclusive Adelaide club for members of the Adelaide Establishment.
Robert CollegeRobert College aerial.jpgA long established school with many Turkish Bilderbergers among its alumni.

 

Births

TitleBornPlace of birthDiedSummaryDescription
Gates McGarrah18631940
David Lloyd George17 January 1863Lancashire
Chorlton-on-Medlock
England
26 March 1945Politician
Lawyer
William Randolph Hearst29 April 1863San Francisco14 August 1951Publisher
Media mogul
Businessperson
Henry Ford30 July 1863Michigan
Greenfield Township
U.S.
7 April 1947Businessperson
Frederic Adrian Delano10 September 1863New York
US
Manhattan
28 March 1953Businessperson
Esmé Howard15 September 18631 August 1939Diplomat
Deep state actor
An integral member of the small group of men who made and implemented British foreign policy (the Milner group?)
Samuel Bush4 October 1863New Jersey
Brick Church
Orange
Essex County
U.S.
8 February 1948BusinesspersonBush family patriarch, from a wealthy background, who got into railroads and then finance.
Franz Ferdinand18 December 186328 June 1914PoliticianThe archduke whose assassination is widely cited as the proximate cause of World War I.
104 pounds thermometer.png
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References

  1. CommunicationSolutions/ISI, "Railroad — Western Railroad Company", North Carolina Business History, 2006, accessed 1 Feb 2010