1001 Club
Incomplete membership list
continually updated

Photocopies of official membership lists:
1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008) [download]
1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008) [download]
2010, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Peter Carr in September 2010) [download] (added January 2013)

Content

241 international members and 112 Dutch members (353 in total), all complete with extensive biographies. These are over 90 percent of the Dutch names appearing in the three membership lists ISGP has made available. A few of them were too low profile or uninteresting to include here. The Dutch list also includes a summary of all the important corporations and some of the most interesting names to study.

International members

Abedi, Agha Hasan

Source(s): 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Shiite Muslim. President of United Bank until November 1972. Founder (1972) and president of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), which was initially financed by wealthy individuals like Sheik Zayed bin Sultan al-Nahyan. The bank's early growth was concentrated in the Gulf region, where Abedi could take advantage of his contacts. The bank had been only a year old when the oil embargo started (October 1973), but already it was operating in four Gulf states and had opened offices in the immigrant neighborhoods of London. Between 1973 and 1974, BCCI branches began popping up in much fancier neighborhoods of London. Bank of Credit and Commerce International SA was registered in the Caymans in 1975. It functioned as the principal banking subsidiary of BCCI Holdings SA, which had been established in Luxembourg in 1972. Beneath these two umbrella groups, Abedi had begun forming a bewildering array of additional companies and banking entities. On July 29, 1991, Time Magazine reported in great detail how the BCCI had been controlled by what senior officers called the "black network", which had ties to many Western intelligence agencies (including the CIA, DIA and Mossad), arms merchants and dictators around the world. This black network was involved in drug running, arms trafficking, gold smuggling, assassinations and bribing government officials. It worked hand in hand with the drug cartels.

February 21, 1992, Associated Press, 'Washington Dateline': "Former CIA director William Casey met secretly over several years with the Pakistani head of the illicit Bank of Credit and Commerce International, a television report to be aired this weekend alleges. A CIA spokesman denied the allegation, which is included in a 90-minute NBC News report on BCCI to be broadcast Sunday morning. "We have thoroughly reviewed agency records, and no evidence has been found to support such allegations," CIA spokesman Mark Mansfield said Friday. He said the CIA's review produced "no records or evidence whatsoever to indicate that Director Casey or the agency had any sort of relationship with" Agha Hasan Abedi, BCCI's founder and former head. The NBC report, quoting unnamed BCCI sources, alleges that Casey had secret meetings with Abedi every few months from 1984 through 1986 in a $ 2,000-per-night presidential suite at the Madison Hotel in Washington. The two men discussed the Iran-Contra arms-for-hostages transactions and CIA arms shipments to the rebels in Afghanistan, the report says. Last summer, after banking regulators in the United States and several other countries shut down BCCI's operations, there were published reports that the CIA used the bank in the sale of weapons to Iran and the Afghan rebels. The CIA has denied those reports. The NBC report is the first mention of an alleged direct relationship between Abedi and Casey, who died in 1987. Abedi, now ailing, lives in Pakistan. In a Senate hearing last October, ex-CIA acting director Richard Kerr disputed earlier testimony by former federal budget director Bert Lance, who said he was convinced the CIA recruited Abedi in 1984 in order to use BCCI for CIA purposes. Lance's statements buttressed testimony by Abdur Sakhia, a former top BCCI official, who said that Abedi apparently had been taken off the CIA's "watchlist" around 1984. But Kerr called the idea that the CIA recruited Abedi "baseless." BCCI "was used on an extremely limited basis for legal banking transactions," he testified. Earlier this year, BCCI pleaded guilty to federal racketeering charges. Under a plea agreement approved by a federal court in Washington, the bank's liquidators agreed to forfeit a record $ 550 million in U.S. assets." February 22, 1992, The Seattle Times: "Former CIA Director William Casey [Le Cercle] met secretly over several years with the Pakistani head of the illicit Bank of Credit and Commerce International, a television report to be aired this weekend alleges. A CIA spokesman denied the allegation, which is included in a 90-minute NBC News report on BCCI to be broadcast tomorrow morning... The NBC report, quoting unnamed BCCI sources, alleges Casey had secret meetings with Abedi every few months from 1984 through 1986 in a $2,000-per-night presidential suite at the Madison Hotel in Washington. The two men discussed the Iran-contra arms-for-hostages transactions and CIA arms shipments to the rebels in Afghanistan, the report says." December 13, 2003, The Guardian, 'Smart money' (a combined review of Loretta Napoleoni's 'Modern Jihad: Tracing the Dollars Behind the Terror Networks' and Jeffrey Robinson's 'The Sink: Terror, Crime and Dirty Money in the Offshore World'): "William Casey, Reagan's CIA chief, used Pakistan and its BCCI bank as fronts to train Afghan rebels against the Soviets. Covert operations required a "black network" within the bank and its state equivalent, the notorious ISI. The bank financed and brokered covert arms deals, complete with full laundry service. The short and logical step from there was a BCCI/ISI/CIA move into drug smuggling to feed the needy, and leaky, money pipeline to the Mujahedin. The Pakistan-Afghan connection became the biggest single supplier of heroin to the US, meeting 60% of demand, with annual profits a stratospheric $100-$200 billion." Some time after the BCCI scandal had broken, Abedi incorporated the Progressive Bank in Karachi. August 29, 1991, Jerusalem Post, 'Drawing First Blood': "... investigative reporter S.C. Gwynne, part of the Time magazine team that broke some of the most shocking BCCI stories. ... Gwynne and his partner, Jonathan Beaty, were the first to report the existence of BCCI's "Black Network," a secret hit squad reputedly responsible for making money deliveries, arranging transport for smuggling and silencing the bank's enemies. "What we heard from one of our primary sources who was part of the 'Black Network' was that they actually trained with the Mossad and the CIA," Gwynne said. "And they also had a number of joint operations. If Israel wanted to do business with a country that was not friendly, BCCI would mediate. There were extensive operations not one or two run side-by-side with BCCI operatives and the Mossad. That was confirmed by a former high-ranking State Department official. We're now trying to run down the specific operations." Gwynne's allegations could not be independently confirmed. Numerous investigations, however, have turned up evidence that the bank was used by the CIA to channel and launder funds for its secret dealings with Iran, the contras and the Afghan mujaheddin. Israel's involvement in those operations has been well documented, which lends credibility to at least some of Gwynne's account. "BCCI played a role in a sense of greasing the skids internationally speaking," says Gwynne. "In BCCI you have a nationalist, Third World, Islamic bank that's perfectly happy to do business with anyone." ... Claims that BCCI was an anti-Semitic institution are weakened still further by the apparent links between the bank and Israeli intelligence agencies. "The same thing that made the bank attractive to drug dealers and arms traders attracted covert operators from all over," says Tom Blanton, deputy director of the National Security Archive, a Washington research center. According to Time's Gwynne, "One of the bank's roles was to facilitate contacts between groups and countries that didn't want to be seen doing business with each other. They were very happy to do that.""

October 7, 2002, Local Government Chronicle (LGC), 'TREASURY SEEKS ANOTHER SECRECY GAG ON BCCI REPORTS': "Treasury officials are fighting a last-ditch battle to prevent M16 documents being handed over to creditors of the collapsed Bank of Credit and Commerce International, which include several local authorities, reported The Observer (Business, p2).The bid to keep the papers secret comes after the high court ordered the government to disclose what ministers, civil servants and regulators knew about BCCI before it crashed in 1991 with debts of £7bn. ... At a court hearing last week, however, it presented a fresh application to withhold sections of the MI6 papers on security grounds. The relationship between Britain's intelligence services and BCCI has long been debated, with speculation that MI6 used accounts at the secretive bank to pay sources and operatives around the world. It has also been claimed the bank channelled funds from the USA and Saudi secret services to Mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan. Most of the classified evidence being turned over to creditors was collected by Lord Bingham's 1992 inquiry into the BCCI collapse. The judge criticised the Bank of England for failing to supervise BCCI, but kept many findings confidential.Creditors won the right to sue the Bank of Enland last year, and the trial will begin in October 2003."

Adeane, Sir Robert

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1905-1979. Eton; Trinity Coll., Cambridge. Rose to the rank of Col. during WWII. Enthusiastic big game hunter and accompanied Prince Philip to India and Nepal in 1961 where they shot tigers together. Chairman 117 Group, the later Drayton Group, 1966-1972, after the death of Harley Drayton. His follow-ups being Pilgrim Philip Shelbourne (Rothschild) and Angus Ogilvy. Shelbourne became the new chairman of the Drayton Group, Ogilvy the vice chairman, while with the individual trusts and companies this role was the other way around. Stepped down as chairman from all subsidiary companies and trusts, including Union Commercial Investment Co., Second Consolidated Trust, the Omnium Investment Co., the Premier Investment Co., Governments Stock and Other Securities Investment Co., British Industries & General Investment Trust, Raw Materials and General Unit Trust, and the Consolidated Trust. He did remain a director of these trusts and companies. Only remained chairman of the Colonial Securities Trust. Had also been a director of companies and trusts as Decca Co. Ltd; Ruberoid, Newton, and the Steenbok Investment Trust (managed the Queen's vast investments in South Africa).

Adeane's cousin Michael was private secretary to Queen Elizabeth. Michael's son Edward was treasurer and private secretary to Prince Charles.

February 18, 1972, The Times, 'Change of Title': "The impact of Philip Shelbourne on the 117 Group [note: reference to 117 Old Broad Street Group] is felt again, this time in a change of name. The group is to be known hereafter as The Drayton Group, and the most significant unquoted investment of the nine quoted investment trusts who make up the 117--or rather, Drayton--has changed its name from Securities Agency to Drayton Corporation. The name, of course, derives from Harley Drayton, who was boss of the whole 117 shooting match for 25 years until his death in 1966. ... There's no corporate entity called Drayton Group, any more than there was a corporate entity called The 117 Group--It's simply a collective of investment trusts who choose to work together."

Agnelli, Giovanni "Gianni"

Source(s): July 1997, Jeffrey Steinberg for Executive Intelligence Review, 'Tinny Blair Blares For Prince Philip's Global Eco-Fascism' (Steinberg claimed to have had several 1001 Club membership lists from the 1980s, I believe from a Canadian source); 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

The history of Fiat begins with his grandfather, Giovanni Agnelli. In 1899, Giovanni signed a contract with Emanuele Bricherasio di Cacherano, an eccentric Turinese nobleman looking for investors, as a partner in Fiat. Giovanni managed to become the majority shareholder in 1906, but supposedly through illegitimate means. A long judicial battle would follow until May 1912, when Giovanni was acquitted of the charges. The company started to make large profits in the wake of WWI due to all the domestic and foreign military orders it received. In 1918, Agnelli published a book entitled 'European Federation or League of Nations', arguing for a federalist Europe as antidote to destructive nationalism. Eduardo Agnelli, his son, died in a plane crash in 1935. The wife of Eduardo (Gianni's mother), who died in a car accident in 1945, was Virginia Bourbon del Monte, daughter of the Prince of San Faustino and an American named Jane Campbell. The elder Giovanni died 3 weeks later.

Gianni was born in 1921 in Turin, Italy. He graduated in Law from Turin University. During World War II he served as a Cavalry Officer in the Italian Expeditionary Force on the Russian front, with the "Lodi" Tank Reconnaissance Unit in Tunisia and in the "Legnano" Division of the Italian Liberation Corps. For his conduct in Tunisia he was awarded the War Cross for Military Valour. Became president of Juventus (soccer club) in 1947 and over the eight years of his stewardship oversaw the establishment of Juventus as the powerful force in Italian and European football that it is today. In 1955 Giovanni Agnelli married Marella, daughter of Prince Caracciolo di Castagneto and Margaret Clark. Joined Fiat in 1943 as vice chairman. In 1957 David Rockefeller paid a visit to Italy and met with Agnelli. The two became friends and several years later David invited Agnelli to the newly created International Advisory Council of Chase Manhattan. He was appointed managing director of FIAT in 1963. Became managing director, chairman, and principal shareholder of Fiat in 1966. As head of Fiat, he oversaw 4.4% of Italy's GNP, 3.1% of its industrial workforce, and 16.5% of its industrial investments in research. He opened factories from Russia (at the time Soviet Union) to South America, and started international alliances and joint ventures (like Iveco) which marked a new industrial mentality. In 1970, Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger met Agnelli at Hotel Quirinale in Rome. After this meeting Kissinger and Agnelli became good friends. In 1973 Agnelli helped with the creation of the Trilateral Commission. According to Adnkronos, Agnelli was friends with Giscard d'Estaing, the Rothschild family and Lord Carrington, Katherine Graham, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Felix Rohatyn, senator Ted Kennedy, the writer Truman Capote, Andy Warhol, and international architects as Renzo Piano, Kenzo Tange, Norman Foster, and Frank O. Gehry. Zbigniew Brzezinski was another influential person he often met with. Chairman of the family’s financial company, the Istituto Finanziario Industriale, the Exor Group SA, the Giovanni Agnelli Foundation, and La Stampa publishing company. He was also on the board of Credito Italiano and of the Mediobanca and was a member of the international committee of Chase Manhattan Bank (until a few years before his death). In May 1974 he was elected chairman of the Confederation of Industry (Confindustria), a position he held until July 1976, when he handed over to his chosen successor, Guido Carli, a former Governor of the Bank of Italy. According to Italian sources, Agnelli was a co-founder of the European Round Table in 1983 (Umberto Agnelli, his younger brother, was one of the original members), together with Pehr Gyllenhammar and Etienne Davignon, both also close to Kissinger, Rockefellers, and the Rothschilds. Named senator for life in 1991 and subscribed to the independent parliamentary group. Later named a member of the senate's defence commission. Honorary vice-president of the Association for the Monetary Union of Europe anno 1998, which was co-founded by Etienne Davignon and brought us the EMU. Member of the International Advisory Board of the Council on Foreign Relations. Honorary chairman of the Council for Relations between Italy and the United States. Correspondent member of the Academy of Moral and Political Science of the Institut de France and a member of the Chairman's Council of the (Rockefeller's) Museum of Modern Art in New York (at least in 1999). Trustee of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Stood down as chairman of FIAT in 1996. Giovanni Alberto Agnelli, the eldest son of Umberto Agnelli, was the first person to be pointed out as Giovanni Agnelli's successor, but died in 1997 of a rare form of intestinal cancer, age 33. His only son, Edoardo, who wasn't interested in making cars, committed suicide on November 15, 2000 by jumping off a bridge in Turin; Gianni himself joined the police at the scene. The Agnelli family was one of the largest investors in Rockefeller Center until 2001, together with David Rockefeller, Goldman Sachs, and Stavros Niarchos. At that point the Speyer and Crown families took over, both closely connected to the Rockefeller interests. Agnelli was a member of the 1001 Club, the Trilateral Commission, the Bilderberg steering committee, the European Round Table, and a governor of the Atlantic Institute for International Affairs. Died in 2003. John Elkann (ERT member) is expected to become the new head of the Agnelli interests in the coming years.

February 27, 1972, New York Times, 'Club of Rome a Worldwide Organization': "... a central role in the club's development has been played by Dr. Aurelio Peccei ... While its early work was supported by a grant from the Giovanni Agnelli Foundation in Italy, the more recent support ... has largely come from the Volkswagen Foundation. That foundation, a small counterpart of the Ford Foundation..."

Agnelli, Mrs. Susanna

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Daughter of Eduardo Agnelli and Donna Virginia Bourbon del Monte, a daughter of the Prince di San Faustino and his Kentucky-born wife Jane Campbell. Her brother Gianni Agnelli was the head of Fiat in which the Agnelli family hold the controlling interest. The family also held investments which represented the largest percentage of the Italian stockmarket. In 1945 she married count Urbano Rattazzi with whom she had six children and later divorced. Elected to the Italian Parliament in 1976 for the Italian Republican Party (PRI), becoming a senator in 1983. Also for PRI, she was a member of the European Parliament in 1979-1981. She also served as mayor of Porto Santo Stefano. Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs in the mid 1990s. President of the IL FARO Foundation. Member of the international honorary board of the International Center for Missing and Exploited Children, together with the Queen of the Belgium, Queen Silvia of Sweden, Mrs Laura Bush, wife of the President of the United States; Mrs Marta Sahagùn de Fox, wife of the President of Mexico; Mrs Jolanta Kwasniewska, wife of the President of Poland; and Mrs Valentina Matvienko, a Russian politician.

Agnelli, Umberto

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

CEO of Fiat from 1970-1976. Senator 1976-1979. Chairman of Fiat 2003-2004. Died in 2004. Soft-spoken law graduate Umberto lived in the shadow of his more flamboyant, playboy brother Gianni, revered in the country as the "uncrowned King of Italy". Also a steering committee member of Bilderberg, just as his older brother. Member ERT.

Ahmed, Sheikh Ali

Source(s): 2004, Philip Dröge, 'Het Oranjekapitaal,' p. 211-216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Corrupt Pakistani project developer. According to people from the Amsterdam underworld, Ahmed ended up in an Indian jail in the 1940s, for large-scale smuggling of gold and diamonds. Supposedly, he was bought free for a a huge sum. In the late 40s and early 50s Ahmed is said to have been involved in the arms trafficking from the Netherlands and England to Pakistan, which was formed in 1947. One of Ahmed's partners in this trafficking was MI6 agent Sir Denis Kendall, a member of Parliament and an intimate of Winston Churchill at the time, who, in the decades after, headed a couple of labs and companies involved in the creation of chemical and biological weapons. Head Finance Intercontinental in London in the 1970s in which Maxwell Rabb became the largest shareholder. Friend of Mobutu and Prince Bernhard. Persuaded Bernhard to convince the Moroccan King Muhammed II to invest in a certain hotel. The deal went awry and it took 20 years for the relations between the two royal houses to normalize. Ahmed disappeared in 1976.

August 26, 1976, New York Times, page 8, column 1: "Queen Juliana reptdly backs Prince Bernhard's stand that Dutch Govt recommendations based on rept of 3-man com that probed his ties to Lockheed Aircraft Corp should not criticize him since com reptdly found no firm evidence that he accepted $1.1-million in bribes. Prime Min Joop M den Uyl and some of his Cabinet Mins reptdly feel criticism of Bernhard is justified, but none of 5 parties in center-left coalition Govt want Juliana to abdicate. Several Mins press for Bernhard's resignation as armed forces inspector gen and want him to mute his active role abroad and at home. Rept is believed critical of Bernhard's friendships with various businessmen, including former Lockheed repr Fred Meuser and Tibor Rosenbaum, dir of defunct Internatl Credit Bank. Bernhard has also been linked to fugitive financier Robert Vesco and Sheik Ali Ahmed. Bribery charges against Bernhard, raised by former Lockheed lobbyist Ernest F Hauser, revd."

Aitken, Sir Max

Source(s): 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list, in memoriam (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of the 1st Lord Beaverbrook (1879-1964) who lived in Canada, and as a staunch imperialist was very opposed to Britain joining the European Economic Community (EEC). The elder William Maxwell "Max" Aitken, the 1st Lord Beaverbrook, became a stockbroker and by 1910 had made a fortune from Canadian cement mills. Went on to become a conservative member of Parliament who visited the Western front during WWI. David Lloyd George granted Aitken the title Lord Beaverbrook in 1918, and appointed him as Minister of Information that same year. During the war Beaverbrook acquired a controlling interest in the Daily Express. Beaverbrook immediately set about a coordinated British propaganda programme, responsible for the dissemination of war information at home, among Allies and in neutral countries. His close colleague, Lord Northcliffe, meanwhile was responsible for directing propaganda towards the populations of enemy nations. Turned the Daily Express into the most widely read newspaper in the world. Founded the Sunday Express in 1921. Purchased the Evening Standard in 1929. An employee of Lord Beaverbrook was Sefton Delmer, who was sent to head the German Daily Express office in the early 1930s. Here Delmer became a friend of Ernst Roehm, who arranged for him to become the first British journalist to interview Adolf Hitler. In the 1932 general election Delmer travelled with Hitler on his private aircraft. In 1933 he was also with Hitler when he inspected the Reichstag Fire. Delmer returned to England in 1940 and joined the SOE in its fight against the Nazis. Before and during the initial stages of WWII, Beaverbrook was a strong supporter of Anglo-German Peace, which also included Sir Harry Brittain, Lloyd George, Lord Halifax, Rab Butler, the Duke of Hamilton (royal housekeeper; the one Nazi second-in-command Rudolf Hess tried to reach in May 1941), Sir Nevile Henderson, Sir Samuel Hoare, and seemingly also some senior MI6 figures. Sefton Delmer wrote in his 1962 book 'Black Boomerang': "Beaverbrook had paid several visits to Berlin between 1935 and 1939 and on each occasion he had talked at length with Hitler and Hess. They were talks in which Hitler, sometimes in the presence of Hess, had gone out of his way to impress his British visitor with his essential reasonableness and good sense. Not without some success, as was shown by Beaverbrook's refusal to believe in 1939 that Hitler could be so foolish as to forego the immense gains that avoidance of war would certainly have brought him... In neutral Switzerland, the Aga Khan had told Ribbentrop's amateur agent, Prince Max Hohenlohe, that Lord Beaverbrook was all for peace and compromise with Hitler. 'Beaverbrook,' so the Prince in a letter to the German Foreign Office on July the 25th, igq.o quoted the Aga Khan as saying, 'is the only man who has the courage, the power and the standing to bring about a change in England even against Churchill, since Churchill has for a long time been in Beaverbrook's pay.'" Minister for Aircraft Production 1940-1941. On September 9, 1941 Beaverbrook first met with Rudolf Hess (Delmer): "Dressed, as ever, in his sober blue serge suit he walked into Hess's sick room, flung his soft black hat on a table and advanced towards Hess with the outstretched hand and wide cheery smile of an old friend. It was the very opposite to the frozen formality of Lord Simon... Hess now stated that the object of his flight to Scotland had been to make peace with Britain "on any terms", providing that Britain would then join Germany in attacking Russia. It was an odd statement for him to make in view of the fact that he had not mentioned the coming attack on Russia with so much as a word when he had his talk with Lord Simon. And to Kirkpatrick he had denied point blank that Hitler meant to attack Russia. Nor had the terms he put down in writing at the time of his talk with Lord Simon suggested Germany's readiness for peace with Britain "at any price"... Hess's main theme was that the British were wrong if they hoped that the conflict with the Soviet Union would so weaken both Russia and Germany that at the end of it Britain's 19th-century hegemony over Europe would be restored... 'world domination awaits the Soviet Union in the future, if her power is not broken now', Hess said." Minister of Supply 1941-1942. Minister of War Production 1942. Lord Privy Seal 1943-1945.

Sir Max Aitken, the 1001 Club member, is also known as the 2nd Lord Beaverbrook. Born in 1910 in Canada. Served as a pilot during World War II, earning the Distinguished Service Order and Distinguished Flying Cross. Reached the rank of Group Captain. Member of Parliament for Holborn 1945-1950. After the war he entered the family newspaper business as a director of the Express Group and Beaverbrook Newspapers Ltd. President, Express (formerly Beaverbrook) Newspapers Ltd, since 1977 (Chairman, 1968–77); former Director, Trafalgar House Ltd; Associated Television Ltd. Chancellor of the University of New Brunswick. Died in 1985.

Privy councilor Jonathan Aitken, the former head of Le Cercle who was deeply involved in illegal arms transports, is a great nephew of the 2nd Lord Beaverbrook. He has become an opponent of Britain remaining in the European Union and deepining its integration with it, because he feels Britain will have very little influence on decision making in the EU.

Alba de Liste, Count of

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list, in memoriam (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Spanish aristocrat from an old family.

Alba, Duchess of

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Peter Carr in September 2010) (the Duchess became a member again of the 1001 Club in 1999)

Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart y de Silva. September 29, 2008, The Independent, 'The duchess with everything (except the right to marry)': "The Duchess of Alba, the grandest grandee in Spain, is said to be able to cross the country from north to south without leaving her estates, and possess as many titles as the Queen of England and of higher rank. ... With her piping, querulous voice and eye-popping outfits, the duchess is constantly in the public eye at society weddings and bullfights featuring her ex-son-in-law Francisco ("Fran") Rivera Ordóñez, a popular torero from a distinguished bullfighting family." The Duchess is one of the richest women in Europe. Coming from the Haute Aristocracy of Spain she owns 2 billion Sq. Meters of land across the country including castles and mansions. There are 395 Aristocratic families in Spain called "Grandees", with the Alba family being the most well-known of them. She is also a major art collector and has unique art pieces mainly of the Renaissance period. Total assets around 3 billion Euro. The family is close to Opus Dei.

Al-Naki, Mohammed

Source(s): His biography at the Davos site; 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Peter Carr in September 2010)

Chairman of Kuwait Industries Holding. Military Academy, United Kingdom; Royal School of Military Engineers, United Kingdom; Industrial Course, Institute of Social Studies, Netherlands; Master's degree in Business and Industrial Management, USA. Director, Al Jazeera Holding, Kuwait; Chairman, Kuwait International English School. Vice-Chairman: Al Safat Investment Co., Kuwait; Al Madina Financial & Investment Co., Sultanate of Oman. Member of the Board: Transgulf Industrial Investment, Sultanate of Oman; Alujain Corporation, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Al Ahlia University, Kingdom of Bahrain. Member of the Committee, Arab Academy for Electronic Business, Egypt. Life Member, WWF 1001 Club, Switzerland. Board of Trustees, Kuwait America Foundation, Kuwait. Member: Journal of Arab Children, Kuwait; Arab Federation for Engineering Industries, Iraq; Arab Business Council, Jordan; Arab Thought Forum, Jordan. Recipient of the President's Medal, Lion of the Republic of Finland.

Alsdorf, James William

Source(s): Digital Who's Who; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1913. Son of a Dutch diplomat who moved to Chicago and became an exporter. Quit the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School of Finance and Commerce as a sophomore in 1933, and took a selling job with his father's A. J. Alsdorf Corp., one of Chicago's oldest export businesses. Bought the Cory Food Services, Inc. in 1942, focusing a lot on the coffee business. Worked for Cory in Chicago, Toronto, London, Oslo, Stockholm, Helsinki, Zurich. Founded the Alsdorf Foundation in 1944. Chairman of Alsdorf International Ltd. in Chicago. Chairman of the Art Institute of Chicago and member of member of the international council of the Rockefeller's Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City. Involved in many other arts institutes. Member of the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, the Asia Society, the Newcomen Society, and the Smithsonian Institution. Director World Wildlife Fund. Associated with the leadership of Loyola University, an old Jesuit university in Chicago. Died in 1990.

Anderson, Robert Orville

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1917-2007. Graduated from The University of Chicago in 1939 with a Bachelor of Arts degree. Self made oil man and president of the Atlantic Oil Company. Served on the Board of Directors of the National Petroleum Council since 1951 and is the recipient of numerous honorary degrees and awards. With Am. Mineral Spirits Co., Chicago, 1939-41. President Malco Refineries, Inc., Roswell, New Mexico, 1963-86. Chairman of the Board of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas from 1961 through 1964. Became a partner in the Fazenda Bodoquena ranch in Brazil in 1967, at the invitation of the Rockefellers, mainly David, whom he had known since his days at the University of Chicago. The Rockefellers and Anderson sold the ranch in in 1980 for a substancial profit. Chairman, CEO Atlantic Richfield Co. (ARCO), L.A., 1966—1986. ARCO found the Prudhoe Bay oil field on Alaska's North Slope. Anderson subsequently led the seven-company effort to develop the Alaskan oil pipeline in 1974. Co-financier of Earth Day in 1970 with Maurice Strong. Bought Anaconda Copper in the late 1970s. Anderson turned ARCO into the United States' sixth-largest oil company by the time he left in 1986 to pursue other interests. He was by then the largest individual landowner in the United States, with ranches and other holdings in Texas and New Mexico amounting to some 2,000 square miles (5,200 km2) and a personal fortune estimated at $200 million. Chairman and CEO of Hondo Oil & Gas Company, Roswell, New Mexico, from 1986 to 1994. Served on the Board of Directors of Chase Manhattan Bank, New York, Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), New York; First National Bank of Chicago; Weyerhaeuser Company, Tacoma, Washington; and Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc. of Los Angeles. In the past 55 years his business endeavors have included - in addition to the exploration, production, refining and marketing of oil - cattle raising and feeding operations, mining and milling, and general manufacturing. By the end of his career, Robert O. Anderson was reported to have more land holdings than any other person in the world. He had also bought the London Observer and was the founder of the International Institute for Environment and Development (London). He heavily financed the Aspen Institute of which he was a chairman 1963-1987. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1974-1980. September 6, 1982, Time Magazine, 'People: Sept. 6, 1982': "Kissinger Associates Inc., a blue-chip team that includes Lord Carrington, 63, who resigned as Britain's Foreign Minister when the Argentines invaded the Falklands, and Robert O. Anderson, 65, retired chairman of Atlantic Richfield. The firm's services: strategic planning and advice on international-business decision making for about 20 large long-term corporate customers willing to pay the reported $250,000-a-year retainer fee." Rescued two flailing publications, The Observer, and Harper's Magazine. He persuaded Arco's board to purchase the Observer in 1977 when it was nearly bankrupt. He called it "a modest bet on the survival of England." In 1980, Arco saved Harper's with a pledge of $1.5 million, which was matched by a similar amount from the MacArthur Foundation. A supporter of Friends of the Earth, Robert Anderson sponsored the founding of the John Muir Institute in 1969. Co-chairman of the International Institute for Environmental Affairs (IIEA), set up in 1972 under the sponsorship of the Aspen Institute. In 1974 Anderson was chair of the Rockefeller’s Resources for the Future, sitting alongside fellow board member and fellow oil profiteer Maurice Strong. Financed an anti-nuclear offensive in the 1970s.

Annenberg, Walter H.

Source(s): 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of Moses Annenberg, publisher of The Philadelphia Inquirer. Born in 1908. The story of Moses & Max (older brother) Annenberg is a tale of a hardworking immigrants and financial geniuses who got their start working alongside violent Chicago gangsters while employed by newspaper titan William Randolph Hearst at the turn of the last century. After some time, the owner of the Tribune, Bertie McCormick, decided to hire Moses Annenberg away from Hearst. For a while, the Annenberg brothers were sending out thugs to battle each other. Fifteen years later, Max Annenberg was alleged to be an associate and friend of Chicago crime boss Al Capone. In 1924, Moses Annenberg got involved with a racing news service in Chicago and Milwaukee. Soon there were reports that those who didn't take the Annenberg race wire service were themselves the victims of beatings, fire bombings and, on occasion, murder. The crime syndicates had come to be dependent on Moses Annenberg. Without his service they couldn't operate their illegal gambling rackets. In 1938, the Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes, traveled from Washington D.C. to give a speech in Philadelphia condemning Moses Annenberg, who, at that time, was backing the Republican candidate for governor of Pennsylvania. Ickes charged it was Annenberg's violent tactics during the Chicago newspaper wars that inspired gangsters like Al Capone. Ickes said that "the hiring of Moses Annenberg by Hearst was the beginning of the subsequent flood of lawlessness that almost engulfed law enforcement in the United States." Moses, Walter, and 2 other business associates were indicted in 1939 for evading more than $2 million in taxes and another $3 million in penalties and interest. Moses was later separately indicted for conspiring to bribe a Philadelphia detective. In April 1940, Moses Annenberg agreed to plead guilty to one count -- "willfully" evading $1,217,296 -- and to pay almost $9 million in fines and penalties. In exchange for his plea the government agreed to drop all charges against his son, Walter Annenberg. In the 1940s, Walter Annenberg established Triangle Broadcasting, which at its peak controlled 6 AM radio stations, 6 FM radio stations, and 6 TV stations. He is also the founder and owner of Triangle Publications, which owned the Philadelphia Inquirer, the Daily News, TV Guide and Seventeen Magazine. Received the Alfred I. DuPont Award (Pilgrim) in 1951. Received the Marshall Field Award (Pilgrim) in 1958. Founded The Annenberg School for Communication at The University of Pennsylvania in 1958. Ambassador to England 1969-1974. During his assignment to Britain, Annenberg appointed Gorden Gray as chairman of his Triangle Broadcasting Company 1969–1975. Gray was very big in government and intelligence since 1947, the original director of the Psychological Strategy Board, and a heir to the R.J. Reynolds fortune. Annenberg founded The Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California in 1971. In 1988, News Corp. acquired Triangle Publications, including TV Guide. Founder-trustee and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California. Annenberg also served as Trustee of the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships and the Winston Churchill Traveling Fellowships. He was Emeritus Trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, The University of Pennsylvania and The Peddie School. Annenberg received honorary degrees from many international universities. Annenberg was named Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II. He was also named Officer of the French Legion of Honor, and presented with the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy. (received dozens of other awards and honors) He was a member of the Associated Press, the American Society of Newspaper Editors, International Press Institute, National Press Club, Overseas Press Club, American Newspaper Publishers Association, Sigma Delta Chi, the International Arts-Medicine Association, and the Inter-American Press Association. Has been awarded by the ADL. A former Commander of the United States Naval Reserve, Annenberg also was a member of the Navy League of the U.S. He also has his own foundation, the Annenberg Foundation. Walter Annenberg was a generous philanthropist who gave millions to universities, art museums, charities and PBS. He was a friend to kings and presidents. Member of the Pilgrims Society and the 1001 Club. Died in 2002.

Ashburton, 6th Baron

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

18-98-1992. Alexander Francis Baring. Married into the Harcourt family.

Lieut The Greys, 1917–23; Flt-Lt AAF, 1939, retd as Group Captain, 1944. Director: Baring Brothers & Co. Ltd, 1962–68 (Managing Director, 1928–62); Alliance Assurance, 1932–68; Pressed Steel Co. Ltd, 1944–66; Mem. London Cttee, Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corp., 1935–39. Treasurer, King Edward VII Hospital Fund for London, 1955–64, Governor, 1971–76; Trustee: King George’s Jubilee Trust, 1949–68; Chantrey Bequest, 1963–81; St Cross Hospital of Noble Poverty, Winchester, 1961–81. Chm., Hampshire and IoW Police Authy, 1961–71. President: Hampshire and IoW Territorial Assoc., 1960–67 (Mem., 1951–60); Eastern Wessex Territorial Assoc., 1968–70. CC 1945, CA 1955, JP 1951, DL 1973, Hants. KStJ 1960.

His son, the 7th Lord Ashburton, held many corporate positions, including the chairmanship of British Petroleum from 1992 to 1995. Lord Simon was chair from 1995 to 1997.

March 26, 2000, Insight (Sunday Times), 'BP accused of backing 'arms for oil' coup': "Political fallout: Lord Simon ran BP [as CEO] at the time of the coup A SECRET intelligence report accuses BP, Britain's biggest company, of backing a military coup which installed a ruthless KGB hardman in the former Soviet state of Azerbaijan. Turkish secret service documents allege middlemen paid off key officials of the democratically elected government of the oil-rich nation just before its president was overthrown. An intelligence officer says BP hoped for a better deal on oil concessions. He goes on to allege that it later consolidated its position with the new regime when the middlemen arranged to supply the incoming government with military equipment in an "arms-for-oil" deal. Just months afterwards BP was handed the lead role in the consortium of western companies which now dominates the oil business in the region. The £5 billion deal, described as the "contract of the century", was signed by Haydar Aliyev, the newly installed president. Aliyev's arrival was welcomed by Britain and America, which have a strategic interest in securing oil rights. BP has close links to British intelligence and employs several former MI6 officers. Aliyev is a former KGB chief; critics say he runs a repressive regime. BP, which merged with Amoco in 1998 to create one of the world's largest oil firms, admitted this weekend that it had been asked to pay a $360m (£235m) bribe to the top Azeri official appointed by Aliyev to lead the oil talks. But the company insists it refused to pay and denies any involvement in overthrowing elected governments or link to arms deals. It disclosed that it has been conducting an internal inquiry into the allegations since learning of them earlier this month. The Turkish intelligence document, a report on the alleged role of BP and Amoco in the events surrounding the 1993 uprising, claims the companies were "behind the coup" in which president Abulfaz Elchibey was overthrown and some 40 people died. The report says: "As a result of our intelligence efforts, it has been understood that two petrol giants BP and Amoco, British and American respectively, which together forms the AIOC [Azerbaijan International Oil Consortium], are behind the coup d'état carried out against Elchibey in 1993. . ." The allegations follow disclosures three years ago that BP's security contractors in Colombia - a firm run by former SAS officers - were involved in supplying military equipment and training to a section of the Colombian army accused of human rights abuses. The company admitted it had supplied equipment to the Colombian army but denied any wrongdoing. Last year it was criticised by a Commons select committee for having too close a relationship with the Colombian army. The latest allegations will embarrass Lord Simon of Highbury, Tony Blair's former trade minister, who was BP's group chief executive at the time of the coup. Despite Labour's ethical foreign policy and Aliyev's reputation as a hardline autocrat, Blair gave him the red-carpet treatment when he visited London in 1998 to sign a friendship treaty and $13 billion (£9.5 billion) in contracts with BP and other British firms. When Azerbaijan won independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the world's oil giants moved in to target the spoils. BP's development teams flocked to Baku, the Azeri capital, which soon turned into a Wild West boomtown of intrigue and fast bucks where oil executives rubbed shoulders with local Azeri mafia. To the east of Baku, oil laps on the rocks of the Caspian Sea, the discharge from abandoned drillings. Beneath these waters are at least three oil fields with an estimated 200 billion barrels of high-quality crude oil. The intelligence documents, which have been obtained by The Sunday Times from Turkish government files, are backed by a detailed statement from a senior security official. The agent described last week how he met with BP executives to discuss an "arms-for-oil" deal. He said the company had contact with intermediaries who arranged for the supply of arms to the regime."

Astor, Lord Gavin

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of John Jacob Astor V (1886-1971), who was educated at Eton College Oxford, used to be a director of Barclays and Hambro, and had bought The Times newspaper in 1922.

2nd Baron Astor of Hever. Educated at Eton and New College, Oxford. Controlling shareholder Times Publishing Co. Ltd. This company controlled the The Times Book Co. Ltd., Issuing House Year Book Ltd., St. Paul's Engineering Ltd., The Review (Insurance) Ltd., The Times Pension Trusts Ltd., The Times London Incorporated and The Gardeners' Chronicle Ltd. Director Times Publishing Co. Ltd. 1952-1959. Chairman Times Publishing Co. Ltd. 1959-1966. Sold The Times in 1966 to Lord Thomson of Fleet. June 29, 1984, The Times, Lord Astor Of Hever obituary: "[Lord Astor said:] The age when proprietors could successfully run their newspaper as a sideline is fading into an age where the survival and prosperity of newspapers depend upon brilliant commercial and professional management." Remained a director of The Times Newspaper Holdings until his death. Chairman and president of the Commonwealth Press Union 1959-1981. Director of Alliance Assurance, Electrolux and the Monotype Corporation. Held the medieval office of Seneschal of Canterbury Cathedral since 1974. Owned Hever Castle, but was forced to sell it in 1982. Executive chairman and president of the Pilgrims of Great Britain.

Astor, Mrs. Vincent

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

President of the Vincent Astor Foundation. First women elected a trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Active New York socialite. Member of the Pilgrims of the United States.

Astor, 4th Viscount

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1951. Educated at Eton College, and in 1976 married Annabel, Lady Sheffield, with whom he has two sons and a daughter. Annabel is the stepdaughter of the Viscount's uncle Michael Astor. The Viscount's own stepdaughter, Samantha Sheffield, is a company director and is married to the Conservative Leader David Cameron. He was a Lord-in-Waiting (a House of Lords whip) from 1990 to 1993. He was then made a Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the Department of Social Security until 1994 when he moved to the Department of National Heritage where he served until leaving the government in 1995. Viscount Astor is presently a director of Chorion Plc (since 1996) and Urbium Plc (since 2002). Sits as an elected hereditary peer in the House of Lords. Member of the Pilgrims of Great Britain.

Baker, George F., Jr.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list, memoriam (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of George Fisher Baker, Jr. (1878-1937; chair First National Bank of New York; dir. numerous corps.; trustee Mutual Life Insurance Co., United States Trust Co., The Frick Collection; commodore of the New York Yacht Club). Married to Frances Drexel Munn, but later divorced. April 19, 1958, New York Times, 'G. F. Bakers Divorced; Sealed Settlement of Property Filed in Trial at Reno': "Mrs. Frances Munn Baker was granted a divorce yesterday from George F. Baker Jr., of 1001 Park Avenue, New York, on the ground of extreme mental cruelty." Trustee of the George F. Baker Trust. Joined the family's First National Bank in 1939 and became a director in 1949. December 12, 1977, New York Times, 'George F. Baker Jr., New York Socialite, Found Fatally Shot': "George F. Baker Jr., who was prominent in New York City society, was found shot to death early today on his 13,000-acre Horseshoe Plantation near here. A spokesman for the Leon County Sheriff's Department said Mr. Baker had apparently taken his own life with a shotgun. The family plantation was the site of an earlier tragedy on June 17, 1949, when Mr. Baker's younger brother, Grenville, was shot to death. The incident was ruled accidental. The older brother, who was 62 years old at his death, was named for his father and grandfather, both of whom served as chairman of the First National Bank. Mr. Baker joined the bank in 1939, a few months after his graduation from Harvard in 1938. He was made a director in 1949, and continued in that capacity for some time after the merger that established the First National City Bank, now Citibank. Mr. Baker was a director of the George Fisher Baker Trust, a charitable foundation begun by his grandfather. He had served as treasurer of the Community Service Society, treasurer of the Fund for Medical Process of the New York Zoological Society and trustee if the Frick Collection and of the National Art Museum of Sport."

Ball, John Fleming

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

BA, Princeton University, New Jersey, 1952. Associate producer, progam executive CBS, New York City, 1955-59; with J. Walter Thompson Co., 1959—, vice president, 1965—, director programs, 1965-67, director broadcasting, 1967—1983, president, director Survival Anglia Ltd. div., 1972—; president Trident Anglia Inc., 1976—; chairman John F. Ball Productions, John F. Ball Co., 1984—. Trustee Foundation Am. Dance; chairman instructional TV, Archidiocese of New York ; board directors Hist. Society Town of Greenwich, Connecticut With US Navy, 1952-54. Memberships Member Knights of Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem Knights of Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Knights of Order of St. Gregory the Great, Cap and Gown Club of Princeton University (New York City), Links Club, Round Hill Club (Greenwich), Nassau Club (Princeton), Am. Club (London), Princeton Triangle Club (chairman emeritus grad. board). Family Son of Edward Hyde and Kathleen (Fleming) B.; Married Anne Idabelle Firestone, November 9, 1957; children– John Fleming, Junior, David Firestone, Sheila Ball Burkert.

Barran, Sir David

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1912-2002. Joined Asiatic Petroleum Co., 1934; served in Egypt, Palestine, Sudan, India, 1935–46. Pres., Asiatic Petroleum Corp., New York, 1958; Managing Director, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, 1961–72; Chm., Shell Oil Co., 1970–72; Director: Shell Transport and Trading Co. Ltd, 1961–83 (Dep. Chm., 1964–67; Chm., 1967–72; Man. Dir, 1964–73); General Accident Insurance; BICC; Glaxo Hldgs. Chairman: CBI Cttee on Inflation Accounting, 1973–74; Adv. Cttee on Appt of Advertising Agents, 1975–78 (Mem., 1973–78); Ct of Governors, Administrative Staff Coll., 1971–76; Governor, Centre for Environmental Studies, 1972–75. Pres., Embroiderers’ Guild, 1982–87. Comdr, Order of Oranje Nassau, 1971; Comdr, Order of Merit, Fed. Repub. of Germany, 1980. Chairman, Midland Bank Ltd, 1980–82 (Deputy Chairman, 1975–80). The Midland Bank is one of the major Pilgrims Society banks. Pilgrims.

April 11, 1973, The Times, 'The apostles of free enterprise': "British United Industrialists is a special case since there is no doubt that a substantial proportion of its funds are used to help the Conservative Party with its "free enterprise" publicity and general research. Each year Colonel Hobbs and a council of eminent but publicity-shunning businessmen led by Lord Renwick [1001 Club], co-founder of ATV and a once-bitten victim of nationalization (County of London Electricity Supply Co., taken over in 1947), persuade fellow industrialists to part with a sum thought to be between 300,000 pounds and 400,000 pounds which is then used to fund publicity for unreconstructed free enterprise. The precise distribution of funds is a well-kept secret. Following the introduction of the 1967 Companies Act, with its provisions on "political" donations, BUI promptly changed its status from limited company to unincorporated association: "To stop the snoopers finding out more about us than they need to", says the colonel. The senior of the other three prominent groups is the Economic League, whose president is Sir David Barran, former managing director of Shell Transport and Trading. The league was founded in 1919 "to diminish unrest and by positive propaganda to correct economic and other misstatements and impress upon employers and employed the vital necessity of increased production." The league's methods, pamphleteering at the factory gates, have remained the same for half a century, but the message has been adapted to meet changing circumstances. Today, simple economic exposition ... is laced with warnings about the dangers of the militant left wing, from communism, through international Socialism to yet more extreme creeds. The league's publicity director, Mr. Harry Welton .... admits that the league has at its disposal a fund of information about "subversives". The Economic League ... includes many notables from industry and commerce among its past and present council members--men such as ... the veteran Sir Harry Brittain, the polymath barrister businessman and journalist."

Batliner, Herbert

Source(s): 2004, Philip Dröge, 'Het Oranjekapitaal,' p. 211-216; 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 (member since 1980)

Born in 1928. His father, Eduard, was general manager of the Liechtensteinische Landesbank for many years. His brother Heinz, born in 1930, was chairman of VP Bank, one of the larger private banks of Liechtenstein.

Senior lawyer and fund manager from Liechtenstein who is said to administer more than 10,000 letterbox companies and foundations. In 1974, Prince Bernhard sold his Castle Warmelo to the Evlyma Trust in Liechtenstein, a subsidiary of Tibor Rosenbaum's (1001 Club; Mossad agent; criminal) BCI. The Trust was managed by Herbert Batliner. President of Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze Sociali / Foundation for the Promotion of Social Sciences, located in Vatican City. Good friend of the former German chancellor Helmut Kohl (chancellor from 1982 to 1998). A 2002 Observer article reported about a classified BND report which accused Herbert Batliner of laudering money for Kohl's Christian Democrat party (CDU). Besides having funneled money to Kohl's political party, the BND also accused Batliner of having done the same for pro-western Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines, drug lord Pablo Escobar, and Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire/Congo (1001 Club). As one might expect, Batliner has been cleared of all charges. The globalist Walther Leisler Kiep (bio), one-time treasurer of Kohl's CDU, was involved in receiving these illegal campaign donations. At the same time Kiep negotiated illegal arms deals for the Thyssens, ironically just as Franz Joseph Strauss, Kohl's original neofascist opponent. A Peter Frommelt was mentioned as a trustee of the Evlyma Trust. Peter might have been a relative of Egmond Frommelt, the 1001 Club banker closely associated with the royal House of Liechtenstein.

September 1, 2000, Financial Times, 'Liechtenstein lawyer in money laundering probe': "Liechtenstein, one of Europe's most secretive tax havens, has launched an investigation against Herbert Batliner, 71, one of the country's top lawyers and a former head of Liechtenstein's most senior court, on grounds of involvement in a money laundering case involving Colombian drug money. Mr Batliner, who has an extensive network of high-level contacts outside the state, is probably the best known Liechtenstein lawyer specialising in setting up offshore letter box companies and anonymous foundations for overseas clients who want to maintain the privacy of their affairs. ... Last December the Liechtenstein government called in Mr Spitzer to investigate whether there was any truth in allegations in a German secret service report that Liechtenstein banks and lawyers have been involved in large-scale money laundering activities on behalf of Russian organised crime and Colombian drug cartels."

February 16, 2008, Financial Times, 'Liechtenstein's tough secrecy rules are attracting scrutiny': "Liechtenstein seems to have drawn many more German savers than bigger low-tax or no-tax rivals such as Switzerland or Luxembourg - and also more scrutiny from German tax authorities. The principality has proved fertile ground for the latter. Since 2000, prosecutors in Bochum in north- west Germany have recovered Euros 46m in tax dues and levied Euros 22m in fines on 100 Germans with trusts there. Most were clients of Herbert Batliner, the Vaduz- based asset manager who paid a fine in 2007 in return for German prosecutors dropping a case against him relating to the abetting of tax fraud."

October 27, 2002, The Observer, 'Trouble in banking paradise as Uncle Sam's sheriffs ride in': "The Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), Germany's equivalent to MI6, used international banking contacts for its report, as well as electronic surveillance equipment that intercepted telecommunications, including wire transfers. Its investigation, carried out in 1999 and 2000, focuses on the work of Herbert Batliner, a senior Liechtenstein lawyer and fund manager who is said to administer more than 10,000 letterbox companies and foundations. Known to be a friend of former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Batliner has already been identified as a key figure in Germany's 'slush funds' scandal, helping to manage anonymous donations to Kohl's Christian Democrat party. The BND's sources accuse him of 'washing' dirty money for clients including Escobar, godfather of the Medellin cartel in the Eighties, and Mobutu, the late dictator of Zaire. Batliner is also reported to have helped Marcos loot money from the Philippines during his notorious 20-year rule. The lawyer denies any money-laundering, however, and was cleared by a Liechtenstein inquiry. According to the BND, Rudolf Ritter, the brother of a Liechtenstein government minister, also reportedly worked for Marcos. Two trustees, Engelbert Schreiber and Peter Frommelt, also allegedly advised the Marcos family, as well as Mexican drug gangs and a major Italian-American mafia family. Ritter, Schreiber and Frommelt all denied wrongdoing. "

April 13, 2000, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 'FRONT PAGE: ELMA ACCUSED OF 'CONSPIRING' WITH MARCOSES': "LAWYER David Chaikin yesterday accused Presidential Commission on Good Government Chair Magdangal Elma of "lying to the Filipino people" by belittling two German intelligence reports which link Marcos fund managers with international crime rings, including the Mafia and the Medellin drug cartel. Australian investigator Reiner Jacobi also accused Elma of "conspiring" with the Marcoses to hide the family's accounts in Liechtenstein, citing Elma's recent admission that the PCGG was aware that the family kept accounts in that tax haven. Chaikin, Jacobi's lawyer, said Elma's belated disclosure of the transfer of $ 465,000 to two Liechtenstein banks only proved that he was withholding information, in an attempt to block the confirmation and recovery of $ 13.2 billion allegedly once kept in an Araneta account in the Union Bank of Switzerland. "This is just further evidence of the conspiracy," Jacobi said. "What better evidence that you're conspiring with the crooks. He is defending them. He's trying to protect Irene Araneta and the Marcos family." Araneta is mentioned in a supplement to the April 1999 report "Drugs/Money Laundering in Liechtenstein" of the German Federal Intelligence Service (BND), the German counterpart of the US Central Intelligence Agency. The supplement, titled "The Money Laundering Community in Liechtenstein," lists Araneta as one of the suspected contacts of alleged "money launderers for (organized crime) groups." The Senate blue ribbon committee, which is conducting an ongoing investigation into the Marcoses' alleged hidden billions, has yet to see the original BND reports or verify the authenticity of the copies submitted by Chaikin on Monday. Araneta's name is listed along with a "large clan of the Mafia grouping Cosa Nostra"; "the Medellin Cartel around Pablo Escobar"; a large Mexican drug cartel; and the clan of Mexican ex-President Carlos Salinas de Gortari and "his brother Raul who is serving a prison sentence . . . for murder and money laundering." Araneta's alleged $ 13.2-billion account had apparently been used by her fund managers-Engelbert Schreiber, Peter Frommelt, Herbert Batliner, Eugene Heeb and Rudolf Ritter-in illegal activities, according to Chaikin. It was not clear whether this was supposed to have taken place with the knowledge of the Marcoses. Jacobi said the Marcoses would not be hiring five fund managers who also happened to be the fund managers of the world's biggest organized crime groups if they were just handling a few hundred thousand dollars."

Member of the World Baden-Powell Fellowship (boyscouts), together with Egmond Frommelt (1001), Dr. E. Heinz Batliner, Prince Hans Adam II von Liechtenstein (1001), and Prince Nikolaus von Liechtenstein.

Bechtel, Mrs. Kenneth K.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Biography of her husband:

Son of Warren A. Bechtel, the founder of the Bechtel Corporation. In 1925, Ken Bechtel joined his father Warren A. Bechtel and brothers Warren Jr. and Stephen, and incorporated as W.A. Bechtel Company. In 1926, the new company won its first major contract, the Bowman Lake Dam in California. Bechtel served as National president of the Boy Scouts of America from 1956–1959.

Bechtel, Stephen D.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

His father died under strange circumstances in Moscow. The Bechtel Company is a privately owned (giant) construction firm operating worldwide and headquartered in San Francisco and is a mainstay of the nuclear industry. Bechtel designed the military space shuttle facility at Vandenburg Air Force Base. It is known for decades for its many boondoggles all over the world. Bechtel had been rescued in its time of need by J. Henry Schroder and Avery Rockefeller. Friend of Alles Dulles since the late 1940s. On June 3, 1954, the New York Times announced that Stephen Bechtel, chmn of Bechtel Corp. had become partner of J. P. Morgan Co. In 1955, Fortune reported that as Under Secretary of State, C. Douglas Dillon had arranged important contracts for Bechtel with the Saudi Arabian government, culminating in the present $135 billion Jubail operation. In January, 1975, Fortune pointed out that Bechtel had never been in the red for a single year, because "Its engineering projects are invariably financed by its clients." These clients are usually governments, a lesson which may have been learned from the Rothschilds. Bechtel funds the Heritage Foundation, which made large contributions to the neocon agenda since the 1980's. Heritage is headed by Cercle member Edwin J. Feulner, who is another member of the Bohemian Grove. Bechtel is a leading player in water system privatization, ranking just behind the big three -- Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux, Vivendi Universal and RWE/ Thames Water. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations. 1990, Ron Chernow, 'The House of Morgan', pp. 542-543: "Gates seemed a rare lateral entrant into the Morgan hierarchy but really had true-blue Morgan roots. His father was a Drexel and Company partner and president of the University of Pennsylvania. As a Drexel bond salesman in the 1930s, Tom, Jr., had apprenticed at J. P. Morgan and Company. Drawn to intrique, he served with Naval Air Intelligence in World War II... Rich and affable, a cowboy in well-tailored suits, Gates gave off an easy air of authority, an engaging conviviality. A macho hero to subordinates, he loved wine, women, and warplanes... As defense secretary, Gates loved covert activity. Through the National Security Council, he contributed to a four-point plan to topple Fidel Castro, an early blueprint for the Bay of Pigs disaster. He revered Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, a frequent dinner guest at the Gates household... The day before his inauguration, John Kennedy was briefed by Gates, who painted an alarming picture of the imminent fall of Laos to the Communists and advocated limited American military involvement... Gates never fully recovered from Potomac fever. He was a good friend not only of Eisenhower, who volunteered to back him for a Senate seat, but of two later Republican presidents, as well, Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. (His subordinates speculated as to whether the second phone on Gates's desk was a hot line to the White House.) His connections extended everywhere. He belonged to an exclusive group formed by Stephen Bechtel, Sr., of the secretive San Francisco-based construction firm and an active Morgan director after 1954. At the Carlyle Hotel, Bechtel regularly convened a study group that included Pan Am founder Juan Trippe, Texaco chairman Augustus Long, General Lucius Clay, and Gates. These brandy-and-cigar discussions might feature Bechtel on Saudi Arabia, long on oil-price trends, and Gates on NATO and the Russian threat. Gates would exploit his numerous contacts to spread Morgan influence around the globe."

May 9, 2005, Counterpunch, '"More powerful than the U.S. Army": Straight to Bechtel"': "McCone soon introduced his new friend, Allen Dulles, the nation's top spy, to his old partner in the Bay Area, Stephen Bechtel. Dulles and Bechtel became fast friends and golfing buddies. While slicing drives at Congressional Country Club and shanking irons into the Pacific at Pebble Beach, the two men would discuss the clandestine opportunities for a privately-owned firm like Bechtel in Dulles's shadow world. It is from Dulles that the Bechtel family acquired its obsession with secrecy. Long before the advent of Hollywood stalkers and anarchist pie throwers, the Bechtel family and its top executives traveled with bodyguards. The family has even gone so far as to petition a California court to shield their voter registration cards from public inspection. More often than not, the talk between Dulles and Bechtel turned to oil and the Middle East. Under Dulles's guidance, Bechtel stepped up its operations in the Persian Gulf region, especially in Saudi Arabia. Bechtel engineered the oil infrastructure for the Standard Oil Company's burgeoning empire in Saudi Arabia, building pipelines, refineries, highways and ports. When Standard Oil's Aramco partnership in Saudi Arabia was nationalized, Bechtel didn't miss a beat. Instead, the company inaugurated a profitable new relationship with the Saudi royal family and went right to work building airports, military bases and an 850-mile long pipeline from Saudi Arabia to Jordan. Somewhere along the line, the Bechtels encountered Saudi Arabia's largest construction company, which is also a family-run empire, called Bin Laden Construction. Founded by Osama's father, Mohammed Bin Laden, the Bin Laden firm worked on dozens of joint projects with the Bechtel Corporation, which had already perfected the art of subcontracting out hard labor to low-paid workers in the Third World. Outsourcing is a strategy that Bechtel is using in Iraq today, where 92 percent of its work there is subcontracted out. The Bin Ladens and Bechtels remain close to this day. Indeed, the Bin Laden family owns a $10 million stake in the Fremont Group, the Bechtel Corporation's investment subsidiary. Moreover, the BinLaden Group is a doing work on Bechtel's biggest contract, the $20 billion deal with Saudi government to excavate two new ports, in what has been called the most expensive construction project in world history. Well, since the last big Bechtel project. ... When Iran antagonized US oil companies and the CIA by nationalizing their oil reserves, Allen Dulles and Kermit Roosevelt sought and received Bechtel's assistance in the CIA run coup that overthrew Mossadeq and installed the Shah. Bechtel provided a similar service in 1965 when the CIA instigated the bloody coup that toppled President Sukarno of oil-rich Indonesia and put into place the corrupt and iron-fisted regime of General Suharto. After Dulles was eased out of the CIA, John F. Kennedy picked Bechtel's old hand, John McCone, to replace him as the nation's top intelligence spook and Stephen Bechtel himself became the CIA's emissary to the Business Council. The Agency and the company have rarely pursued separate interests since then."

BECHTEL PEOPLE:

Richard Helms: consultant.
William Casey: consultant.
George Shultz: president. Pilgrims.
Caspar Weinberger: vice president and general counsel. Pilgrims.

September 2012 board of the Stephen D. Bechtel Foundation:

Stephen Bechtel, Jr. - Chairman Fremont Group. Director General Motors, IBM. Vice Chairman on the California Council for Science and Technology Task Force in 2006. MIT.

Elizabeth H. Bechtel -

Lauren B. Dachs - Vice chairman, president and executive director. Much involved with the environment.

Alan M. Dachs - Director Bechtel. Brookings Institution. MIT.

Deborah L. Duncan - Fremont Group. Executive vice president of Chase Manhattan's Global Asset Management Division.

Jude Laspa - Executive vice president and Director of Bechtel Group until 2009. California Council on Science and Technology.

Bob peck - Princeton. Oxford Rhodes Scholar. "Bob Peck is a Managing Director of FPR Partners [Fremont Realty Capital], a private investment partnership focused on public equities. Prior to founding FPR, Mr. Peck worked with the Murchison family and RPM Metropolitan Capital [came over in 2003], a company he co-founded. He also previously worked for eight years with Perot Investments..."

Nonie B. Ramsay - nothing special.

John Weiser: director and general counsel 1980-1996 (Weinberger's follow-up). Harvard; director and general counsel Bechtel 1980–1996; trustee Stephen D. Bechtel Foundation anno 2013; partner Shearman & Stirling; Chair of the President’s Council of United Religions Initiative, and he is a member of the Board of Directors of the National Catholic Reporter. Chair of the Board of Trustees of the Graduate Theological Union. 1998-2007; director Fremont Group.

CONCLUSION: Chase Manhattan, Rhodes Scholarship, Murchison and possibly an important Knight of Malta.

BECHTEL COMPANY:

General John "Jack" Sheehan - senior vice president of Bechtel since 1998. Anti-homosexual. Member of the advisory council of Americans For Humanitarian Trade With Cuba, together with David Rockefeller, Paul Volcker, Frank Carlucci, James Schlesinger, John Whitehead, Peter H. Coors, and A.W. Clausen. Founding patron of the Henry Jackson Society since 2005, together with Richard Perle, the founders of the Project for the American Century, a German neoconservative whose mentor was Fritz Kraemer, and several other supporters of an Anglo-American-Germany axis to control the world. General Charly Wilhelm wrote: "My old friend, General Jack Sheehan, was here to visit you about three years ago."

www.bechtel.com/2003-04-29.html: "William Casey, the late CIA director, was never an employee or consultant to Bechtel—contrary to irresponsible claims from the Center for Responsive Politics, a so-called “watchdog” group in Washington, D.C., that apparently does not watch itself. Beware: Many journalists have recited its claim without checking. ... Jack Sheehan, senior vice president and project operations manager for Bechtel’s petroleum and chemicals business, came to Bechtel in 1998 after a career in the U.S. Marine Corps. ... George Shultz, a member of Bechtel’s board of directors, has not had a management role at the company for 23 years. [Update: Shultz retired from Bechtel's board in April 2006.]"

www.bechtel.com/milestones.html: "With Respect and Regard This past April [2006], George Shultz retired from Bechtel’s Board of Directors. When Shultz joined Bechtel in 1974 as executive vice president ... As president (1975 to 1982), director, and senior counselor at Bechtel..." University of Texas, George Shultz papers: "He rejoined [Bechtel] in 1989 as a director and senior counselor, continuing in that capacity until 2006. While at Bechtel, he maintained his close ties with the academic world by joining the faculty of Stanford University on a part-time basis."

--- RILEY BECHTEL ALSO AT J.P. MORGAN CHASE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL --

Oct. 12, 2005, PR Newswire, 'JPMorgan Chase International Council Convenes in Moscow': "Since 2000, the Council has convened in Beijing (2004), Berlin (2003), Milan and New York (2002) and Hong Kong (2001). Note to Editors The Chairman of the JPMorgan Chase International Council is: Hon. George P. Shultz, Chairman of the Council, Distinguished Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Stanford, California Members of the JPMorgan Chase International Council are: Riley P. Bechtel..."

CIA - BECHTEL - DULLES:

Bechtel was no stranger to the CIA. Bechtel Sr. had been a charter member of the CIA conduit Asia Foundation from its inception [as were friends of his, like Henry Kaiser] as Allen Dulles' brainchild. Former CIA Director Richard Helms himself joined Bechtel, as an "international consultant" in 1978. Said a former executive, Bechtel was: "loaded with the CIA ... The agency didn't have to ask them to place its agents ... Bechtel was delighted to take them on and give them whatever assistance they needed."

1989, Laton McCartney, 'Friends in high places: the Bechtel story', p. 98: "Dwight D. Eisenhower, whom McCone first met when Eisenhower returned to Washington to take up duties as Army chief of staff. Another important friendship made during this period was with Allen Dulles, later to be McCone’s predecessor as Director of Central Intelligence. The occasion that initially brought them together was a dinner party at the Dulles town house in New York, called to celebrate the expected victory of Thomas E. Dewey as president [in 1947]. Taking a brief respite from his Washington duties, McCone had been staying as the houseguest of Grete and John Simpson, Steve Bechtel's chief confidant. When the Dulleses asked the Simpsons to dinner, Uncle John brought McCone along. During the party, McCone and Dulles chatted amiably, interrupting their conversation now and again to listen to the latest election bulletins. With each announcement, it became clearer that the biggest upset in American political history was in the making."

Counterpunch, Bechtel: 'More Powerful Than the US Army': "Blazing a course that so many future Bechtel executives would canter down, McCone, one of the more sinister characters of the 20th century, left Bechtel for Washington, where he became head of the Atomic Energy Commission and one of the central figures in the instigation of the Cold War. McCone soon introduced his new friend, Allen Dulles, the nation's top spy, to his old partner in the Bay Area, Stephen Bechtel. Dulles and Bechtel became fast friends and golfing buddies. While slicing drives at Congressional Country Club and shanking irons into the Pacific at Pebble Beach, the two men would discuss the clandestine opportunities for a privately-owned firm like Bechtel in Dulles's shadow world. It is from Dulles that the Bechtel family acquired its obsession with secrecy. Long before the advent of Hollywood stalkers and anarchist pie throwers, the Bechtel family and its top executives traveled with bodyguards. The family has even gone so far as to petition a California court to shield their voter registration cards from public inspection. More often than not, the talk between Dulles and Bechtel turned to oil and the Middle East. Under Dulles's guidance, Bechtel stepped up its operations in the Persian Gulf region, especially in Saudi Arabia."

On June 3, 1954, the New York Times announced that Stephen Bechtel, chmn of Bechtel Corp. had become partner of J.P. Morgan Co. In 1955, Fortune reported that as Under Secretary of State, C. Douglas Dillon had arranged important contracts for Bechtel with the Saudi Arabian government, culminating in the present $135 billion Jubail operation.

Bedford, 13th Duke of

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

John Russell (1917-2002). Wealthy British aristocrat. Coldstream Guards, 1939. Invalided out, 1940. Journalism and was a reporter for the Daily Express in 1940. Wrote a few books. Brooks’s. Pratt.

Beitz, Berthold

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

From Germany. Like his father, Berthold studied to be a banker. In April 1939, at the age of twenty-five, he was engaged by the Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company in Hamburg. It was as a result of the expertise he had acquired in the strategically important oil industry that Beitz could have his military service deferred and receive a wartime commission as the business manager of the Beskidian Oil Company—later renamed the Carpathian Oil Company—at Boryslaw in eastern Galicia. Protected the Jews in his company from prosecution and has been awarded for that. Beitz was an important German industrialist of the second half of the 20th century. In 1953 he took over as CEO and chairman of Krupp Industries (picked by Alfried Krupp). Chairman of Grundig AG until 1993. Chairman of the Krupp Foundation in 2003, while in his nineties. He is a honorary member of the International Olympic Committee. Chairman EastWest Institute.

Berghmans, Baron Jean-Pierre

Source(s): 2010, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Peter Carr in September 2010)

Chairman and CEO Lhoist Group. President of INSEAD's Belgium Council and member of INSEAD's Board. Important funder of INSEAD. Chairman of the Executive Board Jacqueline d'Amécourt. Member of the Trilateral Commission. Member of the Honorary Committee of the Belgian Herbert Hoover Exhibit, together with Count Maurice Lippens, Baron Jan Huyghebaert, and supporters as Richard Mellon Scaife and Jacques Solvay.

Bhai, Aziz Mohammad

Source(s): 2010 list (member since 1996)

From Dhaka, Bangladesh. Managing director of Ambee Pharmaceuticals Limited. His nephew was arrested in 2007 for running a drug network in a factory owned by Aziz Bhai.

September 4, 1982, United Press International, 'Foreign News Briefs': "Aziz Mohammad Bhai, a businessman and member of the Ismailian community led by the Agha Khan, was sentenced to 10 years of hard labor and fined $50,000. The former general manager of Bangladesh Airlines was jailed for three years. The four men were found guilty of corruption and abuse of power in the purchase of two planes for Bangladesh Airlines in early 1982."

July 16, 1983, United Press International, 'Foreign News Briefs': "A prominent member of Aga Khan family jailed last year on corruption charges was released this week, family sources said Saturday. Aziz Mohammad Bhai was sentenced to 10 years in jail shortly after the military coup in Bangladesh in March 1982. The family sources did not give any reason for the early release."

April 03, 1997, Agence France Presse, 'Stock traders calm down as Bangladesh moves against scam': "Security agencies armed with arrest warrants were hunting on Thursday for 36 people implicated in the worst stock market fraud here which has bankrupted hundreds of small investors, police said. Among the names on the list were those of prominent businessmen, brokers and dealers. One of those listed was the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) chief and a former president of the Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry. ... Also on the list are DSE chief Imtiyaz Hussain, Aziz Mohammad Bhai and Mobarrak Mohammad Bhai, who dominate the Aga Khan Islamic religious sect in Bangladesh and head Olympic Industries, along with Runa Alam, managing director of Hong Kong-based Peregrine, Bangladesh."

November 9, 1998, Outlook India, 'Cricket Talk': "A visit to Dhaka is incomplete without attending a party or two at Aziz Bhai’s place in Gulshan. An industrialist with interests in oil refineries, film productions, chemicals, and god knows what else, Aziz bhai has a collection of over 200 cars, nearly 20 vintage. He has an interest in Indian fashion too and attends Tarun Tahiliani’s fashion shows. Eight years back, he also spent 18 months [that seems to be 16 years back and 10 months in jail; Ershad was president from 1982-90] behind bars over a fracas with former Bangladesh president, Gen. Ershad. He, reportedly, slapped Ershad when he tried to gatecrash one of his famous parties. Of course, when Ershad became president, he took his revenge. Says Aziz bhai: "One of his lady friends presented me with a diamond ring that Ershad gave her. He asked me to return it to him. But the ring was given to me by a lady, not Ershad, so I never did return it. That was the start of the feud." Thankfully, Aziz bhai is not into cricket. So it’s one place where you can talk about other things in life."

January 11, 1999, Agence France Presse, 'Police question detained Bangladesh tycoon over film star murder': "A special police team Monday quizzed a detained Bangladesh business tycoon Aziz Mohammad Bhai for the second day over his possible involvement in the murder of a film star, police said. The interrogation at Dhaka's high-security police detective branch began late Sunday hours after a metropolitan magistrate court granted police a further two-day remand for questioning, they said. Questioning will continue until Tuesday or Wednesday when he is expected to be produced before the court. Police gave no further details. Dhaka's Daily Star reported that during a brief court appearance, the magistrate turned down a second appeal for bail by Bhai's lawyer. Bhai, who belongs to the Ismailia Moslem community in Bangladesh, was arrested late Wednesday also for alleged involvement in activities "detrimental to social and economic interests of the country" including trafficking women, tax evasion and murder, police earlier said. The community, headed by the Aga Khan, has followings in several countries. Earlier reports had wrongly stated that Bhai was a relative of the Aga Khan and briefly headed the Ismailia Moslem community in Bangladesh after the country's indepedendence from Pakistan in 1971. In a statement, the Dhaka-based Prince Aga Khan Shia Imami of the Ismailia Council for Bangladesh, firmly denied that Bhai held any position with the community or that he was related to the Aga Khan. "Mr. Aziz Mohammad Bhai is not a relative of His Highness the Aga Khan, and at no time has Mr. Aziz Mohammad Bhai led the Ismailia Muslim community in Bangladesh," said the statement signed by Noor Amir Ali, a member of the media wing of the Council for Bangladesh. Bhai has been accused of leaking classified information to foreign countries as well as the murder of film star, Sohel Chowdhury, He is also being questioned about the mysterious death a few years ago of another film star Salman Shah, a popular young Bengali film hero, a court official earlier said. Bhai's relative, Bunty Islam, was also arrested last month over Chowdhury's murder. Bhai and Islam own the illegal discotheque where Chowdhury was gunned down on December 18 by unknown assailants."

January 7, 1999, Agence France Presse, 'Bangladesh tycoon arrested over film star murder': "Bangladesh business tycoon Aziz Mohammad Bhai, a relative of the Aga Khan, has been arrested for anti-state activities and the murder of a film star, police said Thursday. Chief metropolitan Magistrate Abdus Salam allowed police two days to interrogate Bhai in their custody rejecting his bail petition after he appeared before the court under heavy police escort. Bhai was arrested late Wednesday for alleged involvement in activities "detrimental to social and economic interests of the country" including women trafficking and tax evasion and murder, police said. "He has been charged with treason by leaking classified information to foreign countries and involvement in women trafficking, international smuggling, tax evasion and murder of two film stars," Sohel Chowdhury and Salman Shah, one court official said. Bhai's relative, Bunty Islam, was arrested this week over the murder of Chowdhury. Bhai and Islam own the illegal discotheque where Chowdhury was killed last month. The Daily Star newspaper said Bhai could be detained for 120 days under the tough Special Powers Act, which does not require specific charges. Bhai has led the Ismaili Moslem sect in Bangladesh since 1971. The worldwide leader is his relative, Karim Aga Khan. The tycoon, owner of the Bengal Group, a private televison channel and other interests around the world, was previously arrested under the rule of ex-president Hussain Muhammad Ershad over a fight linked to a socialite, the Sangbad daily reported."

May 6, 1999, The Independent, 'Aziz Mohammad Bhai, Banti freed from jail on bail': "Aziz Mohammad Bhai and his in law Banti Islam, who were granted bail, were released from the Dhaka Central Jail yesterday noon. Both were granted bail on May 3 in Sohel Chowdhury murder case by the Metropolitan Sessions Judge's Court Dhaka. Police arrested them in January for their alleged involvement in the killing of Sohel Chowdhury."

December 6, 2003, United News of Bangladesh, 'Court-Stay': "The High Court today stayed for six months the proceedings against Aziz Mohammad Bhai and Banti Islam accused in the film star Sohel murder case pending in the Speedy Trial Tribunal. Sohel was gunned down in December 1998. The order came upon a petition filed by Aziz and Banti."

October 26, 2007, United News of Bangledesh, 'Yaba, `crazy medicine', poses threat to society': "On Thursday, RAB members seized about 5 kg Yaba tablets and ice pills, which is more powerful than Yaba, and other dangerous drugs from two houses in Gulshan area. At least 15 persons, including a relative of business tycoons Aziz Mohammad Bhai [his nephew Amin Huda], have been arrested from the city's two posh areas -- Gulshan and Baridhara -- in the last seven days. Two luxury cars, BMW and Porsche, used by the high-society youths in a bid to sell the tablets, were also seized."

October 27, 2007, Financial Express, 'Yaba gives instant euphoria but casts a deadly effect': "Yaba, the Thai word meaning "crazy medicine", is an addictive and powerful stimulant. The tablet came to Bangladesh from Thailand via Myanmar through the Teknaf border. ... It is known that Adolph Hitler, during the World War II, first used the tablet for the German soldiers so they could go without sleep for five to seven days to fight against their enemies. Sons of many elite families first took it as fashion of the modern social culture, but soon they got addicted of the drug. Later on, the Yaba addicts started doing business by alluring the youths. Alongside Yaba business, they also made porno CDs and vulgar films under the influence of the sex-stimulating tablet. ... "The most dangerous thing is that it is now produced in the country as we found a Yaba making factory in Gulshan on Thursday," he said. Haider said the rich people should be careful about their children as these days it is the children of the rich families who are taking this tablet. ... Medicine especialist Dr. Solaiman told the news agency that Yaba has different side effects, which are unknown to the users. The effects are-tremors, hypertension, hallucinations, psychotic episodes, paranoid, delusions, violent behaviour, hyperthermia and convulsions, agitation, anxiety, nervousness, mental confusion and memory loss. When asked why youngsters are prone to taking Yaba, he said youngsters first take it as sexual tonic like Viagra. After taking the tablet, the sensitivity of the users' body increases alarmingly. Dr. Solaiman said physicians here do not prescribe this tablet. Yaba is banned here. RAB members Thursday seized about 5 kg Yaba tablets and ice pills, which is more powerful than Yaba, and other dangerous drugs from two houses in Gulshan area. At least 15 persons, including a relative of business tycoons Aziz Mohammad Bhai, have been arrested from the city's two posh areas-Gulshan and Baridhara-in the last seven days. Two luxury cars, BMW and Porsche, used by the high-society youths in a bid to sell the tablets, were also seized."

November 19, 2010, Sri Lanka Guardian, 'Teen age, sexuality and drug addiction': "In recent years, tendency of drug addiction is increasing in Bangladesh society. Even few years back, when a large proportion of youths were found addicted to Phensedyl cough linctus, in recent time ever a larger section of the same group are seen getting addicted to Yaba. Phensedyl though already banned in Bangladesh many years back, it is still coming to this country from factories set within cross-border areas by a number of unscrupulous traders and even Indian intelligence agency, with the ulterior goal of damaging Bangladeshi society. ... Initially Yaba was entering Bangladesh territory from Chiang Mei province in Thailand via Myanmar. Later, infamous industrialist in Bangladesh, Aziz Mohammad Bhai established a Yaba pill production factory at Dhaka’s Gulshan area with his nephew named Amin Huda, who later was known as ‘Yaba King’. Aziz Mohammad Bhai was using a huge network of society girls and prostitutes in circulating Yaba to Bangladeshi youths and dealers. Though Bangladeshi law enforcing agencies busted the Yaba production factory of Aziz Bhai-Amin Huda duo and arrested Amin Huda along with thousands of Yaba tablets and the machine to manufacture it, the later managed to get released from prison by heavily compensating authorities concerned. There has never been any conviction to Amin Huda for running such illicit trade right within the heart of the capital city."

July 12, 2009, New Vision [Uganda], 'Bangladesh industrialist visits for business': "Aziz owns a number of chain manufacturing industries, ranging from pharmaceuticals, oil refineries, steel making, battery manufacturing, wineries and electrical appliance making in Bangladesh. He held a meeting with the Vice-President Prof. Gilbert Bukenya at the VIP Lounge at the Parliamentary Buildings in Kampala last week."

Olympic Industries Ltd. website, biography of Mohammed Bhai: "Mohammad Bhai is a former president of the Dhaka Chamber of Commerce & Industry, an active member of the Rotary Club, and served as president of the Aga Khan Supreme Council for Bangladesh for more than two decades." A Vazir Mahomed Bhai was president of the Aga Khan Supreme Council for Pakistan in the 1970s.

Bhutto, Mumtaz Ali

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (since 1973)

Cousin of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (president of Pakistan in the 1970s and father of the in 2007 assassinated Benazir Bhutto), chief of the Bhutto tribe and chairman of the Sindh National Front and Sindh Qaumi Itehad. Sardar Mumtaz Ali Bhutto was the founding member of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), former federal minister, Governor of Sindh and Chief Minister of Sindh.

Bin Laden, Sheikh Salem

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987 list

He was the older half-brother of Osama Bin Laden and one of only four Saudis in the 1001 Club (late eighties). James Reynolds Bath was his U.S. representative from 1978 and on, through which he made large investments in the United States. In 1979 Bath bought a 5% share in George W. Bush's first oil company, Arbusto. Bath made his fortune by investing money for Sheikh Kalid bin Mahfouz (20% stake in BCCI) and Salem Bin Laden into the BCCI, which was indicted in 1988 for being involved in a huge amount of drug laundering. Salem Bin Laden died in a small plane crash over Houston in 1988. Finally, in 1991, the bank went out of business. This money from the BCCI has likely been used in financing the Mudjahedeen and various terrorist organizations that came into existence after the Afghan war.

June 04, 1992, Houston Chronicle, 'Feds investigate entrepreneur allegedly tied to Saudis': "Federal authorities are investigating the activities of a Houston businessman -- a past investor in companies controlled by a son of President Bush -- who has been accused of illegally representing Saudi interests in the United States. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network -- known as FinCEN -- and the FBI are reviewing accusations that entrepreneur James R. Bath guided money to Houston from Saudi investors who wanted to influence U.S. policy under the Reagan and Bush administrations, sources close to the investigations say. FinCEN, a division of the U.S. Department of Treasury, investigates money laundering. Special agents and analysts from various law enforcement agencies, including the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Customs Service, are assigned to work with the FinCEN staff. The federal review stems in part from court documents obtained through litigation by Bill White, a former real estate business associate of Bath. White contends the documents indicate that the Saudis were using Bath and their huge financial resources to influence U.S. policy. Such representation by Bath would require that he be registered as a foreign agent with the U.S. Department of Justice. In general, people required by law to be registered are those who represent a foreign entity seeking to influence governmental action or policy. An Annapolis graduate and former Navy fighter pilot, White, 46, claims that Bath and the judicial system, under the veil of national security, have blackballed him professionally and financially because he has refused to keep quiet about what he regards as a conspiracy to secretly funnel Saudi dollars to the United States. White became entangled in a series of lawsuits and countersuits with Bath, who for some six years has prevailed in the courts. White says the legal action has financially devasted him and Venturcorp Inc., the real estate development company in which he and Bath were partners. In sworn depositions, Bath said he represented four prominent Saudis as a trustee and that he would use his name on their investments. In return, he said, he would receive a 5 percent interest in their deals. Tax documents and personal financial records show that Bath personally had a 5 percent interest in Arbusto '79 Ltd., and Arbusto '80 Ltd., limited partnerships controlled by George W. Bush, President Bush's eldest son. Arbusto means bush in Spanish. Bath invested $ 50,000 in the limited partnerships, according to the documents. There is no available evidence to show whether the money came from Saudi interests. George W. Bush's company, Bush Exploration Co., general partner in the limited partnerships, went through several mergers, eventually evolving into Harken Energy Corp., a suburban Dallas-based company. Bush, known informally as George Jr., is a shareholder and director of Harken, which has been granted lucrative offshore drilling rights off the coast of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. One of the top shareholders of Harken, a public company, is Saudi businessman Abdullah Taha Bakhsh. Bush said that to his knowledge, Bath's investment was from personal funds, and no Saudi money was invested in Arbusto. Bath, 55, a former U.S. Air Force pilot, declined to comment for the record. Spokesmen for FinCEN and the FBI also declined to comment. According to a 1976 trust agreement, drawn shortly after Bush was appointed director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Saudi Sheik Salem M. Binladen appointed Bath as his business representative in Houston. Binladen, along with his brothers, owns Binladen Brothers Construction, one of the largest construction companies in the Middle East. According to White, Bath told him that he had assisted the CIA in a liaison role with Saudi Arabia since 1976. Bath has previously denied having worked for the CIA. In a sworn deposition, Bath said he was the sole director of Skyway Aircraft Leasing Ltd., a company that a court document shows is owned by Khaled bin Mahfouz. Bin Mahfouz had been a major shareholder in the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, a banking empire that has been accused of money laundering and of using Mideast oil money to seek ties to political leaders in several countries. Mahfouz and his family own the National Commercial Bank of Saudi Arabia. In 1990, Bath bought the Express Auto Park garage at Hobby Airport for $ 8.4 million, which included a $ 1.4 million loan provided by Mahfouz, according to transaction documents. Bath received a 5 percent interest in the companies that own and operate Houston Gulf Airport after purchasing it on behalf of Binladen in 1977. After Binladen died in 1988, his interests in the airport were taken over by Mahfouz, according to court documents."

August 22, 1998, Associated Press State & Local Wire, 'Bombing suspect Osama bin Laden had brother in Texas': "Wealthy Saudi businessman Muhammad bin Laden and his eldest son had disowned bombing suspect Osama bin Laden in the 1980s, say associates of the late Salem bin Laden. Osama, Salem's younger half-brother, always was considered the "black sheep of the family," said San Antonio lawyer Wayne Fagan, who represented Salem from 1982 until his death in 1988. "When I heard all of this (the embassy bombing allegations), it just made me sick," Fagan told the San Antonio Express-News. "Salem, God bless him, is turning over in his grave. The family, they agonized over (Osama bin Laden) and outcast him from the family since the early '80s," Fagan said. Charles Schwartz, a Houston lawyer who represented the bin Laden estate in a 1991 lawsuit in Bexar County, said the family "disowned" and "disavowed" Osama after he went to Afghanistan in 1980 to join the fight against the Soviet occupation of that country. Salem bin Laden came to Texas in 1973 looking for the pilot who had flown for his father, Muhammad, before his death in 1967. "He came to the States and found me because I had flown for his father," Jerry Auerbach said. "He came here to find me and took me back to Saudi Arabia." Auerbach worked for Salem bin Laden for years, first as a private pilot in Saudi Arabia and later as an aviation manager for his company in San Antonio, when bin Laden lived in Marble Falls. "He was great. He always treated me well," Auerbach said. "In fact, I was probably a father figure to him. He was very kind and always took care of me. He came over here all the time." Binladen Aviation was incorporated in Austin and was dissolved shortly after Salem's death at the age of 42 in an ultralight crash near Garden Ridge, Texas. Auerbach said he never met Osama bin Laden, the younger, more radical brother whose activities were targeted this week by U.S. military strikes. As Osama became a major player in the world of radical Islamic fundamentalism, Salem and the rest of the bin Laden family disowned and refused to talk to him, he was told."

March 2, 2000, Intelligence Newsletter, 'George W. Bush's Dubious Friends': "A second figure with an ambiguous part in Bush's financial past is Texas businessman James Bath. Considered as very close to the CIA, he appeared for the first time at Bush's side in 1978 when the latter made his first, unsuccessful run for the governorship. (He wouldn't try again until 1994, when he won). Bath helped to finance his campaign at the time and later bought into two of Bush's companies, Arbusto 79 Ltd and Arbusto 80 Ltd, affiliates of the Arbusto Energy oil exploration company founded by "W" in 1977. Under a mandate signed in 1976, Bath represented the financial interests of the Saudi Arabian sheikh Salem Bin Laden in the United States."

September 24, 2001, Daily Mail, 'Bin Laden's amazing business link to Bush': "THEIR faces lit up by smiles, Osama and Salem Bin Laden are clearly enjoying their holiday with some of their 55 brothers and sisters. The happy youngsters sport the latest Western fashions as they pose for a family snap in front of that enduring symbol of America, a pink Cadillac. Yet within a few years of this picture being taken in the summer of 1971, the two teenagers' lives had taken stunningly different turns. As the world knows to its cost, Osama embraced Islamic fundamentalism and 30 years later was named the world's most wanted man. He is prime suspect in the murder of nearly 7,000 in the worst ever terrorist atrocities in the U.S. earlier this month. Incredibly, Salem went on to become a business partner of the man who is leading the hunt for his brother. In the 1970s, he and George W Bush were founders of the Arbusto Energy oil company in Mr Bush's home state of Texas. The picture was taken during a family holiday to the Swedish town of Falun, 150 miles north-west of Stockholm, when Osama was 14 and Salem around 19. The brothers had recently inherited a fortune from their construction magnate father, Mohammed. He left millions to each of his 57 children by 12 wives after dying in a plane crash in 1968. ... At that time the brothers both delighted in their enormous wealth. Salem wearing a polo neck and slacks as he crouches three places from Osama, in jeans and a skinny rib jumper put a large part of his money into business ventures, including Arbusto Energy. Mr Bush was not long out of Harvard Business School when he started the company in 1978. Salem watched it grow into a hugely successful business until his death in a microlight plane crash in Texas in 1983. As he built his own business empire, Salem Bin Laden had an intriguing relationship with the president-to-be. In 1978, he appointed James Bath, a close friend of Mr Bush who served with him in the Air National Guard, as his representative in Houston, Texas. It was in that year that Mr Bath invested $ 50,000 (about GBP 34,000) in Mr Bush's company, Arbusto. It was never revealed whether he was investing his own money or somebody else's. There was even speculation that the money might have been from Salem. In the same year, Mr Bath bought Houston Gulf Airport on behalf of the Saudi Arabian multimillionaire. Three years ago, Mr Bush said the $ 50,000 investment in Arbusto was the only financial dealing he had with Mr Bath. Last night a White House spokesman was unavailable for comment. Before his death, Salem was married to Briton Caroline Carey, now 35. She has never spoken about her brother-in-law Osama, who was disowned by the rest of his family in 1991 when he was expelled from Saudi Arabia for his antigovernment activities. Now living in luxury in a Cairo villa, she has married twice into the Bin Laden family first to Salem, and now to a younger brother, Khaled. She has a daughter by each brother. ... Yesterday FBI agents swooped on a Boston suburb where around 20 of the wealthy relatives of Bin Laden live. They questioned them at a condominium complex in Charlestown. Agents even began visiting nightclubs to collect credit cards of younger members of the family. Bin Laden's younger brother Mohammed, who is said to have moved back to Saudi Arabia with his wife and children several years ago, owns a ten-bedroom mansion in nearby Wayland. Another younger brother, Abdullah, is a 1994 graduate of Harvard Law School. The family has given it GBP 2million in endowments to research Islamic law. Most of Bin Laden's family have in the past strongly denounced the 44-year-old fugitive, now living in Afghanistan. The FBI in Boston has long been aware of his extended family and began monitoring their activities after the 1998 terrorist bombings of U.S. embassies in Africa. The Bin Ladens still run one of the biggest construction companies in the world."

March 11, 2008, Phil's Stock World, ' $200 Oil - Whos Going to Pay For It?': "Interesting note: The first Iraq war is what made our current President his first millions as he sold his stock the same month his dad invaded Iraq and spiked oil from $18 a barrel in July 1990 to $27 in August. After bankrupting his first company (aptly called Arbusto Energy), in which he was partners with Salem Bin Laden (Osama's Father) through James Bath (who also worked with BCCI who conducted the largest bank fraud in US history while laundering gun money for George I in the 80s), Junior merged Arbusto with Spectrum 7, became the CEO and bankrupted them. Spectrum 7 was then sold to Harken with the financial help of BCCI's Kalid bin Mahfouz, who took over for Bin Laden on his death and bought 17% of Harken in exchange for the Bush bail-out which ended up giving him 400,000 shares of Harken stock (Bush was investigated by the SEC but was cleared - how would he know his dad was going to invade Iraq?!?)"

September 16, 2001, San Antonio Express-News (Texas), 'Fugitive's brother died in S.A. ; Ultralight craft killedSalem bin Laden': ""He was in good with the royal family, a first-class good guy - but nothing to do with this outlaw, Osama," Howard said. ... When Dee Howard got the contract for the $92 million "head of state" 747 aircraft for King Fahd, it was Salem bin Laden who brought the deal to the San Antonio company, Fagan said. "He was the head of one of the most prominent and revered families in the Middle East," he said. San Antonio resident Jerry Auerbach worked as a company pilot for Salem bin Laden (and his father) for several years. "He had a rating in Lear jets and Hawkers," Auerbach said. "He was interested in ultralights. They showed him a new one that day (of the crash)." A witness to the ultralight crash still doesn't understand why it happened. On the morning of May 29, 1988, Salem bin Laden took off from Kitty Hawk Ultralight Flying Field at the southwest tip of Comal County after a late breakfast at a hangar snack bar. Almost immediately after takeoff, Salem bin Laden's aircraft struck and became entangled in power lines 150 feet high before plunging to the ground. Bin Laden, who wasn't wearing a helmet, died with his eyes open, still strapped into his seat "He was a very experienced pilot. He was a good pilot. We just can't understand why he decided to go right instead of left," recalled airstrip owner and former Marine Earl Mayfield, who cradled bin Laden, bleeding from the ears. That day, bin Laden took off in a southeasterly direction into the wind. He surprised onlookers by turning west toward power lines less than a quarter-mile away. ... The 42-year-old businessman was an experienced pilot with more than 15,000 hours of flight experience and a friendly, adventurous spirit, say those who knew him. "He was a good pilot, but he took lots of risks," aviation pioneer Dee Howard, who traveled frequently with bin Laden, recalled this week. As head of Binladen Brothers Construction (now the Binladen Group), a company that later helped build U.S. airfields during Operation Desert Storm, bin Laden was close to King Fahd of Saudi Arabia and was "a good friend of the U.S. government," said local attorney Wayne Fagan, who represented Salem bin Laden from 1982 to 1988."

Bjercke, Alf R.

Source(s): Digital Who's Who; From a biography on his personal site (never responded to questions for more information about the 1001 Club via bjercke@online.no; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Leaving school, he became a cowboy in Argentina, before studying at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Joined the Royal Norwegian Air Force in Toronto in 1941. Managing director and chairman of a Norwegian paint company, which set up sister companies in Ethiopia, Denmark, and Sweden. Received the Officer's cross of the Star of Ethiopia and president Bourguiba named him commander of the Order de la Republique. Honorary consul general of Tunisia in Norway 1963-1993 (a post now passed on to his son). Head of Alf Bjercke A/S in Oslo since 1969. Director, vice-chairman, or chairman at Jotungruppen A/S, Nydalens Compagnie, Addis Ababa National Chemical Ind. Ltd., Norwater, ABC Produkter A/S, Scanpump A/S, Vallenova, Inc., Oplandske Dampskibsselskab, Norwegian Shipping & Trade Journal, A/S Habil, Akershus Broiler Co., Chilinvest A/S., Pan Art Gallery, Vinland Film A/S & Co. Atheneum Pub. Co., Atheneum Communications, Inc., Mosvold Overseas Trading Co., Alamo Co., JMB A/S Parfumes, Chimpundu Mine, Ltd., Norgem Mining Ltd., Kitwe, Zambia, Mineral Resources A/S, UniClip A/S, Alvern-Norway A/S, Fröyna Industries, Moelster International A/S, A/S Moist-Absorbing Soles, Ide-Ko A/S, Hamper A/S, and Nor-art A/S. Chairman board A/S Norsemeter 1992-1996. Vice chairman of the Norwegian Spring Water Association. Headed the Polio Plus campaign, chairman of the Norwegian Athletic Association, member of Norway's Olympic committee, president of the International Wine & Food Society, charter member of the Peace Park Club of southern Africa (together with the Rockefellers, Rothschilds, and Oppenheimers), and author on diplomacy and business ethics. Chairman council Kofoed School, 1962-80; member Olympic Committee of Norway, 1971-74; executive committee Norwegian UNIDO Council, del. conference; Norway del. Economic Commission for Africa; member Norwegian Arbitration Board for Competitive Questions; chairman Society for Protection of Ancient Towns, Society for Reconstruction of Old Christiania, 1968-96; member council Norsk Sjofartsmuseum; chairman board Norway Business Museum, 1980-88; Norwegian member adv. committee Sail Training Association, London; past chairman Nordic Adv. Council for Industry; member Commission 3 CIOR, Norwegian chairman Rotary International Campaign Polio Plus (eradicating polio); member campaign committee Norwegian Conservative Party, 1974; board directors Artists Gallery of Oslo, 1957-69; vice chairman East Norway Sailing School Ship Association, 1961-78; chairman Norwegian-Ethiopian Society, 1954-70, Sammen for Salinas Fund, 1995; chairman council Norway-Am. Association; chairman fin. committee Norwegian World Wildlife Fund Board Reps.; Norwegian rep. Operation Sail 76; board directors A Smoke-free Generation, 1980; chairman Norwegian Church Council, 1984; board directors Care (Norway), 1984, Norwegian Organization Asylum Seekers, 1984-87. Wity Royal Norwegian Air Force, 1941-45; major Reserve. Member Norwegian Association Industries (past director), Norwegian Inventors Association (hon., chairman arbitration), Color Council Norway (chairman 1958-69, 72-81), Norwegian Paint Manufacturers Association (past chairman), Norway Athletic Association (chairman 1968-72), International Wine and Food Society (president), Peace Park Society (charter), World Wildlife Fund 1001 Club, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Club Norway, Phi Gamma Delta, Oslo Business Men's Club (director 1968-70), Oslo Military Society (manager 1997), Royal Norwegian Air Force Association, Rotary (district governor 1980-81, vice chairman world community service, European Area coordinator Family and Community Concerns Task Force 1995-96), Norwegian Inventors Society (hon.), Norway-Tunisian Society (chairman 2000).

Black, Brion Battin

Source(s): 1999 email exchange which appeared in Google

Director-Europe ETHOS/ICID of the International Counsel on Institutional Development (ICID). Had his desk in Germany. Director of Strategic Developments at the Pacific Forest Trust. Financial contributor to this trust. Board member of the Sonoma County chapter of the American Red Cross in 2005 and 2006. Former Director of the World Wildlife Fund, according to himself and according to the website of Deborah Fudge's Sonoma County Supervisor campaign. 1999 email from Black: "The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International (headquartered in Switzerland) has a program called "The 1001" This is a group that is kept at 1000 members plus Price Bernard of the Netherlands, who founded the group. "Membership" is for a life time. When I was directing it, the cost was a one-time contribution of US$25,000. All the funds were invested in "The 1001: A Nature Trust", an endowment fund. The fund grows due to recruitment of new members (due to deaths) and from additional contributions from members. Again, while I was there, the income from the 1001 Trust paid for all of WWF International's fundraising and general administration costs. This was wonderful because we were able to assure all our annual and project donors that 100% of their contribution would go directly to program funding... "Members" are invited to go on 1st class expeditions to visit WWF field projects in rather exotic locations (at their own expense). This is not only a good perk. But, is a great major donor cultivation tool. (e.g. one member left WWF a legacy of around $18 million)" The Bohemian Grove is located in Sonoma County.

Black, Conrad M.

Source(s): 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1944. His father, George, was a British agent and the founder of Hollinger. BA from Carleton University in 1965. LLL from Laval University in 1970. MA in History from McGill University in 1973. Chairman and co-owner Eastern Twps. Pub. Co., Ltd. since 1966. President and chairman of Argus Corp. Ltd. 1978-1979. Chairman The Ravelston Corp. 1978-2005, which owned Hollinger, the British Daily Telegraph, the Toronto's National Post, and the Argus Corporation. Through Argus, Ravelston Corporation owned the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (A&P) and the Chicago Sun Times. Chairman and CEO of the Telegraph Group Ltd. 1987-2004. Chairman and CEO of Hollinger International, Inc. 1987-2003. Non executive chairman Hollinger International 2003-2004. Hollinger also owned hundreds of small Canadian and American newspapers. Jerusalem Post. November 23, 2003, the Observer, 'Fall of a tycoon: Black with his back up against the wall': "Black was adept at attracting the rich and famous to his boards. At one time or another his various boards have included such luminaries as Lord King, bankers Henry Keswick and Sir Evelyn de Rothschild, Lord Hanson, former Tory Minister Lord Carrington, former head of the Federal Reserve Paul Volcker, Lady Thatcher, Canary Wharf's Paul Reichmann and the jailed former chairman of Sotheby's Alfred Taubman, as well as the late Sir James Goldsmith, Fiat boss Giovanni Agnelli and former Israeli president Chaim Herzog. At one time Hollinger had 20 directors and a 13-strong advisory board and critics dubbed it an Almanac de Gotha of the international Right... The Hollinger International board contains some of the biggest beasts in American business and politics, including former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Deputy Defence Secretary Richard Perle... The presence of Black's wife, journalist Barbara Amiel, on Hollinger's board is a concern..." Pilgrims Society members Lord Kenneth Roy Thomson, Raymond Seitz and Zbigniew Brzezinski were other directors of Hollinger. Member of the advisory board of Trireme Partner LLP, together with Henry Kissinger. Trireme, set up two months after 9/11, is a venture capital company that invests in technology, goods, and services related to Homeland Security and Defense. It argued that the fear of terrorism would increase the demand for such products in Europe and in countries like Saudi Arabia and Singapore. Richard Perle (good friend of former Cercle chairman Brian Crozer) is the company's managing partner, with another partner being Gerald Hillman, a friend of Perle. In May 2004, Hollinger International, now free of Black's control, filed a $1.25 billion racketeering lawsuit against Black and other former corporate insiders, accusing them of pillaging the company of more than $400 million. In October 2004, a judge dismissed the racketeering claims, and Hollinger refiled without them, adding neocon Richard N. Perle as a defendant. Director of Sotheby's Holdings, Inc., Brascan Corporation, the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, CanWest Global Communications, and the Jerusalem Post Limited. Appointed to Privy Council of Canada in 1992, in the same year as Charles R. Bronfman, Paul G. Desmarais, and Maurice Strong. Decorated officer Order of Canada. Member International Advisory Board of the Council on Foreign Relations. Chairman of the Editorial Board of the National Interest, a neocon foreign policy magazine founded by Irving Kristol, who also founded the CIA's magazine Encounter. Members of the advisory council of the the National Interest have included Henry Kissinger, Morton Abramowitz, Dov Zakheim, John Mearsheimer, and James Schlesinger. Daniel Pipes has been a long time contributor to the National Interest. Member Trilateral Commission. Member steering committee of of Bilderberg. Member of the chairman's council of the Americas Society. Member Hudson Institute. Member Center Policy Studies. Appointed to the House of Lords, U.K., in 2001. Member International Institute for Strategic Studies. December 4, 2003, The Times, 'Hollinger supported Kissinger magazine': "Hollinger says it is reviewing all business investments to ensure that they are appropriate. It has stopped supplying about $375,000 a year to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, a London-based research institute of which Lord Black is a member." Member Toronto Club, York Club, Toronto Golf Club, Granite Club, University Club (Montreal), Mount Royal Club (Montreal), Century Club (New York City), Everglades Club, Beach Club (Palm Beach), Athenaeum, Beefsteak, Whites (London), and Garrick (London). Patron Malcolm Muggeridge Foundation. Trustee Nixon Center.

Blaton, Mrs. Pierre

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Pierre Blaton, a cousin of Ado Blaton, was born in 1925 at Brussels, Belgium. He married Countess Anne Ostrorog, daughter of Count Jan Ostrorog and Maria de los Angelos de Borbón y de Muguiro, Dame de Balincourt, in 1954 at Chateau de Balincourt. He died in 1974.

Blaton, Mrs. Therese

Source(s): 2010, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Peter Carrin September 2010)

Daughter of Emile Blaton (d. 1970). A sister of Pierre Blaton. Married to Jacques Le Clercq until 1976. Her cousin was Ado Blaton, who featured in the famous Belgian Pinon "pink ballets" affair.

Biography of Jacques Le Clerq: Ze ontdekten dat bestuurder Jacques le Clercq had gezorgd voor de financiering van de aankoop van acht bordelen aan de Aarschotstraat in Brussel. De bordeelhoudster werd gechanteerd door een rijkswachtkolonel. Le Clercq wilde de hulp inroepen van Paul vanden Boeynants om daaraan te verhelpen. Dit scenario werd door de onderzoekers nooit uitgevlooid. Zo bleek bestuurder Jacques le Clercq in het begin van de jaren tachtig de financiering te hebben gedaan voor de aankoop van acht bordelen in de Brusselse Aarschotstraat. Die stonden op naam van Nicole A., de minnares van Le Clercq. Investeren in vastgoed in prostitutiewijken is een lonende bezigheid. Geschat mag worden dat de acht bars aan Nicole A. jaarlijks zo'n honderd miljoen frank (grotendeels zwart geld) opbrachten. In de kluis van Nicole A. werd bovendien een kaartje van Le Clercq ontdekt waaruit duidelijk blijkt dat Nicole A. wordt gechanteerd. De chantage gebeurde door een luitenant-kolonel van de rijkswacht. De zaak was blijkbaar zo ernstig dat Le Clercq op 11 oktober 1984 de hulp inriep van Vanden Boeynants. VdB werd gevraagd tussenbeide te komen om de luitenant-kolonel van de rijkswacht het zwijgen op te leggen.

De speurders van Jumet stelden vast dat alle voorwerpen uit de koffer van Dubois nader zijn onderzocht, behalve dat stukje papier met de onduidelijke boodschap. Ze kwamen tot de conclusie dat de Le Clercq van het stukje papier niemand anders kan zijn dan Jacques le Clercq, bestuurder van Delhaize en verantwoordelijk voor de Amerikaanse activiteiten van de distributiegroep. Ze wonnen informatie in en vernamen dat Le Clercq met Thérèse Blaton getrouwd was tot hij in 1976 scheidde. De scheiding werd in februari 1983 uitgesproken en in mei van datzelfde jaar hertrouwde Le Clercq met de Amerikaanse Winnie Mansfield.

Biography of Ado Blaton (d. 1999): Founder of the construction company Batiments et Ponts in 1954, together with his brother Jean. The company has been involved in building the Brussels World Trade Center, the Charlemagne building where the European Commission is housed, the Tihange nuclear power plant, and several other buildings. Together with Charly De Pauw Batiments et Ponts built Parc Savoy where Cercle des Nations was located and people like Michel Nihoul came to party. Member of Cercle des Nations, which was founded in 1969. Together with Charly De Pauw he was an investor in Baron Bonoît de Bonvoisin's Promotion & Distribution Générales (PDG) NV, located at the same address as CEPIC. In return for their investments PDG created fake invoices for De Pauw, Blaton, and others. Baron De Bonvoisin arranged the takeover of Batiments et Ponts by the French firm Generale des Eaux in 1988. Sold Batiments et Ponts to the French group CBC in 1988. Together, they formed a joint real estate development company in 1989: Batipont Immobilier. After the death of Ado Blaton in 1999, the family withdrew from the partnership. Amart SA.

 

Bloomfield, Instone

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list, in memoriam (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Israel Instone Bloomfield? Managing director West London Property Corporation Ltd. in the 1950s. Chairman of the Oddenino's Property And Investment Company Ltd. from the 1950s-1970s. Has funded the London Society for Psychical Research, resulting in the 1981 book 'The Metal-Benders', by J. B. Hasted. Founder of the Spiritual Truth Foundation in 1965. Instone Bloomfield Charitable Trust.

Volume 1, No. 13, May 2005, Psypioneer: "When I joined the CPS staff as librarian in June 1968, it was springtime for the College, which had recently been (in effect) bought by Paul Beard who had become very much an executive president. ... Paul was very well qualified, first to provide the capital. He was assisted in this by Mr. X, a property developer called Instone Bloomfield who had already been instrumental in saving the two main Spiritualist newspapers through the creation of Spiritual Truth Foundation. ... The new president had numerous creative ideas. He invited Geoffrey Keyte, a dynamic young Spiritualist, for example, to form a Psychic Youth Group which met chiefly at the College from 1967-69.This brought in new junior members for the College, and generated many stories in “ Psychic News”. ... Paul was a dedicated worker for the New Age, part of the network around Sir George Trevelyan, though his own psychic roots were in a long experience of spirit teachers such as Red Cloud and White Eagle. By his book “ Survival of Death” he had achieved a respected place in psychical research, and was an active member of the Survival Joint Research Committee."

Sir George L. Trevelyan (1906-1996): Hon. President, Wrekin Trust (Founder, 1971; Director, 1971–86). trained and worked in F. M. Alexander re-education method, 1932–36; taught at Gordonstoun School and Abinger Hill School, 1936–41. Served War, 1941–45, Captain, Home Guard Training; taught No 1 Army Coll., Newbattle Abbey, 1945–47. Principal, Shropshire Adult College, Attingham Park, Shrewsbury, 1947–71; mounted and ran Wrekin Trust courses, 1971–86; latterly, lecture tours on holistic themes. A Vision of the Aquarian Age, 1977; The Active Eye in Architecture, 1977; Magic Casements, 1980; Operation Redemption, 1981; Summons to a High Crusade, 1986; Exploration into God, 1991. Heir: brother Geoffrey Washington Trevelyan [b 4 July 1920].

Both Sir John and Lord Humphrey (Pilgrims; chair RIAA) descended from Sir John Trevelyan, 4th Baronet (1735-1828).

In March 1983, after a long, dramatic career, Arthur Koestler ended his life dramatically by killing himself. He and his wife, Cynthia, were found dead in their home near London, both having taken overdoses of barbiturates. The Hungarian-born writer, age 77, had been suffering from terminal leukemia. His wife, in her fifties, was not ill. A suicide note expressed Koestler's "timid hopes for a depersonalized afterlife beyond due confines of space, time, and matter, and beyond the limits of our comprehension." Koestler's intellectual pilgrimage falls into three parts: (1) active communist, (2) active anti-communist and author of the influential anti- Stalinist novel Darkness at Noon, which made him famous, and (3) active promoter of the paranormal. Koestler was firmly convinced that para- psychology is ushering in a new Copernican Revolution. The Koestlers left a will in which about $750,000 was set aside for the endowment of a chair of parapsychology at a United Kingdom university. Oxford, Cambridge, and other leading universities declined the endowment on the grounds that it would cast doubt on their other research programs. Only two finally sought the funding: the University of Wales, at Cardiff, and the University of Edinburgh. Koestler's trustees finally gave it to Edin- burgh. Earlier, retired businessman Instone Bloomfield, a friend of Koestler, had independently established a Koestler Foundation. He announced that he would increase Koestler's endowment by another $750,000 if the chairman of the new department planned a research program that his foundation approved. At the time of this writing, the chairman has not yet been chosen. However, a psychologist at Edinburgh and one of the leading figures in British parapsychology, John Beloff, was a good friend of Koestler. Beloff New Directions in Parapsychology ( 1974) has a postscript by Koestler. Although Beloff is noted for the negative results of his experiments, especially when he tried to replicate U.S. tests of psi, he is a firm believer in the paranormal, including the psi powers of the great mediums of the past, and in the powers of modern psychics like Uri Geller and Ted Serios.

Sir John Rollo Norman Blair Sinclair, 9th Baronet (1928-1990): Lt Intelligence Corps, 1948–49. Director: The Lucis Trust, 1957–61; The Human Development Trust, 1970–; Natural Health Foundn, 1982–87. The Mystical Ladder, 1968; The Other Universe, 1972; The Alice Bailey Inheritance, 1984.

Schiller Institute: "American sponsors of the Lucis Trust include Henry Clausen, former supreme grand commander of Scottish Rite Freemasons; the Rockefeller Foundation; former secretary of defense Robert S. McNamara;, Rabbi Marc Tannenbaum of the American Jewish Committee; and Thomas Watson, Jr. of IBM. Watson is the uncle of John N. Irwin, III."

Members of the Temple met at the Endowment headquarters in the United Nations Plaza. Among their members: Robert McNamara (Secretary of Defense under Kennedy and Johnson), Eleanor Roosevelt, Thomas Watson (President of IBM), Max Lerner, James Linen (of Time-Life), Norman Thomas, James A. Pike, Ellsworth Bunker, and John D. Rockefeller IV.

The Lucis Trust’s leading sponsors include the following prominent figures: Henry Clausen, Supreme Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, 33rd Degree, Southern District Scottish Rite Freemasons Norman Cousins John D. Rockefeller IV The Rockefeller Foundation The Marshall Field family Robert McNamara Thomas Watson (IBM, former US Ambassador to Moscow) The United Lodge of Theosophists of New York City U. Alexis Johnson, former Undersecretary of State Rabbi Marc Tannenbaum, American Jewish Committee

Bloomfield, Louis Mortimer

Source(s): November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (acquired several 1980s membership lists, according to Steinberg of EIR); 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Ardent Canadian zionist. Joined the British military and served in Palestine as an Intelligence Officer under general Charles Wingate. Involved in training the Jewish army in Haganah from 1936 to 1939. Worked for the British SOE (competitor of MI6; role taken over by the SAS). Recruited in the OSS in 1942, and was given the rank of major. The OSS became the CIA in 1947, and Bloomfield continued doing contract work for the new organization. Member of the FBI's Division Five. Regularly visited Israel and met with David Ben-Gurion in 1949. Member Sonneborn "institute", part of the post-WWII Haganah network (Abe Feinberg was involved). November 29, 1951, New York Times, '[Louis Bloomfield] Elected as President Of Credit Suisse Unit'. President of Heineken's Brewers, Ltd. Successful lawyer with Phillips and Vineberg in Montreal. Personal consultant and good friend to FBI head J. Edgar Hoover and has been considered the same to the Bronfmans. Bloomfield and J. Edgar Hoover have both been described as homosexuals. Knight of St. John of Jerusalem and a member of the 1001 Club.

Incorporated Permindex in 1958, became a major stockholder, and was president of Permindex's Canadian department. Permindex counted numerous controversial people on its board. Garrison suspected that Permindex coordinated the 1963 Kennedy assassination. The company was also suspected of coordinating the failed assassinations on Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970). Permindex was the parent company of Centro Mondiale Commerciale, the world trade center in Rome, which was exposed as a CIA front. CMC apparently funded various political parties and right wing groups and that's the reason Permindex was expelled from Italy.

LOUIS' BROTHER BERNARD:

September 1, 1984, The Globe and Mail (Canada), 'Bernard Bloomfield Jewish philanthropist, Montreal businessman': "A prominent member of Montreal's Jewish community, who was also president and director of the Canadian Manufacturers Sales Co. Ltd. and the Israel Continental Oil Co., has died. ... Mr. Bloomfield led a Canadian trade mission to Israel in 1962 and was a delegate to the prime minister's economic conference in Israel in 1968. He also served with the Eldee Foundation, a charitable organization, the Jewish National Fund of Canada, the Canada-Israel Chamber of Commerce in Israel, the United Israel Appeal, the Jewish People's Schools and the State of Israel Bonds Association. While visiting Israel in the late 1940s and the early 1950s, he wrote letters to his wife, Neri, about his impressions of the conditions in Israel. They were later published under the title Israel Diary. Mr. Bloomfield was born in Montreal and attended McGill University, graduating with a bachelor of commerce degree in 1927. He later attended the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. ... Mrs. Bloomfield is president of the Canadian Zionist Federation. Mr. Bloomfield received numerous honorary degrees and the Queen Elizabeth Medal and Grand Commander of the Star of Africa. He was honored by the Queen with the Order of the Knight of Justice and the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem."

BERNARD'S SON, HARRY:

October 9, 2002, national Post (Canada), 'Leading Montreal lawyer facing fraud charges: Harry Bloomfield: Accused of aiding in US$17M 'pump and dump' scheme': "A prominent Montreal lawyer and philanthropist, who served on the board of the Business Development Bank of Canada, is on trial in New York on 22 counts of criminal conspiracy. Authorities in the United States allege Harry Bloomfield, 58, helped organize a complex international stock fraud that used dummy offshore companies to bilk unsuspecting investors out of US$17 million. Mr. Bloomfield's trial in the Supreme Court of the state of New York began last week, and is scheduled to continue to the middle of this month. If convicted, he faces up to 15 years in jail. ... He holds many titles, including Knight of Justice of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem and Queen's Counsel. He is also the former national vice-president of B'nai B'rith Canada, and Canada's current consul general to Liberia, a position formerly held by his late uncle, Louis Mortimer Bloomfield."

October 26, 2002, National Post (Canada), 'The trouble with Harry: Bloomfield in the dock: Montreal society lawyer on trial in N.Y. over alleged part in giant swindle': "The son of a legendary Montreal lawyer and philanthropist, Bloomfield is an intimate of the Bronfmans and the Mulroneys [of Power Corp. and J. P. Morgan Chase; close to Desmarais family]. A few years ago, the former prime minister and his wife attended the bar mitzvah of Bloomfield's youngest son. It was Brian Mulroney who appointed Bloomfield to the Business Development Bank of Canada; Bloomfield eventually became chairman of the bank's audit committee. He is also the former vice-president of B'nai B'rith Canada, a Queen's Counsel and a Knight in the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem."

ADDITIONAL:

March 24, 2009, New York Post, 'Missing Roy' (friends remember Roy Cohn): "POWERFUL lawyer Roy Cohn died in 1986, but his tentacles still reach deep. Looking around the Four Seasons restaurant the other day, one wag observed, "Wouldn't Roy be astonished that his childhood pal, Barbara Walters, is still on national TV?" A tablemate responded, "Roy might be even more shocked that Robert Morgenthau [who disbarred Cohn] is still district attorney." Both were lunching in the Bar Room along with Jack Rudin, Edgar Bronfman Sr.... "

--

Sharon toured the United States in 1980, lining up financing for a massive real estate grab. But first, Sharon launched a campaign of terror against the Palestinians in the West Bank, to literally scare them into leaving their land. In the Spring of 1982, Sharon hosted a planning meeting at his Negev desert ranch, which had been purchased for him by Riklis. Riklis, Henry Kissinger, Louis Mortimer Bloomfield, Rafi Eytan, General Ze'evi, Arieh Genger, Herbert Brin, and Eli Landau attended the session, according to an eyewitness account. Within days of the meeting, Gush Emunim and JDL terrorists began attacks on Palestinians in the West Bank. "Landscam" was under way.

Boel, Countess Rene

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Biography of Count and Countess Rene Boel:

The Boël family historically is one of the most important financial families of Belgium with large stakes in Societe Generale and the Solvay chemical concern. When Solvay went public in 1967 the Solvay and Boël families retained control of this corporation through a private holding company, Union Financiere Boel. 1974, Anthony Rowley, 'The Barons of European Industry', p. 117: "The original base of the Boël industrial empire is the Fabrique de Fer de Charleroi steelworks, but they are also important shareholders in La Generale (S.G. de Banque, that is) Traction et Electricite, Electrobel, Sofina, Solvay & Compagnie and Glaverbel. The neatly interlocking holdings of the Boel and Janssen families can be found in a host of Belgian companies and their outlook is generally in sympathy with that of Societe Generale where, of course, the Solvay holding compounds the power of the trio."

Rene Boel (1899-1990) was a Belgian banker and industrialist and director of the Usines Gustave Boël. He was married to Yvonne Solvay (1896-1930), granddaughter of Ernest Solvay. They have two sons Yves Boël and Pol Boël. After his marriage, he became director at UCB and at Solvay. During his career he advised the Belgian government in exile during World War II, and founded the Museum of Modern Art in Brussels. He was the first President of the Belgian-American Association, and chaired, between 1950 and 1981, the European League for Economic Cooperation. The European League for Economic Cooperation was founded in 1946 by Paul Van Zeeland (Belgium), Josef Retinger (Poland) and Pieter Kerstens (the Netherlands). They were rapidly joined by other people such as Edmond Giscard d'Estaing (France), Harold Butler (United Kingdom) and Herman Abs (Germany). Daniel Cardon de Lichtbuer was chairman of the league from 1985 to 1999.

His brother, Bernhard:

September 1, 1984, The Globe and the Mail, 'Bernard Bloomfield Jewish philanthropist, Montreal businessman': "A prominent member of Montreal's Jewish community, who was also president and director of the Canadian Manufacturers Sales Co. Ltd. and the Israel Continental Oil Co., has died. Bernard Manfred Bloomfield died Thursday at Montreal's Jewish General Hospital of complications resulting from a kidney ailment. He was 79. He was known, not only for his business career, but for his philanthropic and humanitarian activities in the Jewish and diplomatic communities. Mr. Bloomfield led a Canadian trade mission to Israel in 1962 and was a delegate to the prime minister's economic conference in Israel in 1968. He also served with the Eldee Foundation, a charitable organization, the Jewish National Fund of Canada, the Canada-Israel Chamber of Commerce in Israel, the United Israel Appeal, the Jewish People's Schools and the State of Israel Bonds Association. While visiting Israel in the late 1940s and the early 1950s, he wrote letters to his wife, Neri, about his impressions of the conditions in Israel. They were later published under the title Israel Diary. Mr. Bloomfield was born in Montreal and attended McGill University, graduating with a bachelor of commerce degree in 1927. He later attended the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. In 1943 he married Neri Judith Loewy and they had two children, a son, Harry, a Montreal lawyer, and a daughter, Evelyn, who has a masters degree in psychology. Mrs. Bloomfield is president of the Canadian Zionist Federation. Mr. Bloomfield received numerous honorary degrees and the Queen Elizabeth Medal and Grand Commander of the Star of Africa. He was honored by the Queen with the Order of the Knight of Justice and the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. In addition to his wife and children, he leaves a sister, Dorothy Freeman and two grandchildren."

Director Israel Continental Oil Company.

Bovenkamp, Sue Erpf van de

Source(s): Digital Who's Who

Born in New York City. Student at the Gardner School, Art Students League, and the Cooper Union. President Armand G. Erpf Fund in New York City since 1971. Founder and honorary chairman of Erpf Catskill Cultural Center since 1972. Member of the board of advisors and founder of the New York Zoological Society since 1971. Co-founder and life member of the World Wildlife Fund since 1973. Founding member of the 1001 Nature Trust since 1973. Fellow in perpetuity Metropolitan Museum Art in 1977. Life fellow of the Pierpont Morgan Library since 1974. Member of the council of friends of the Whitney Museum of American Art 1971-1977. Member of the Whitney Circle 1978-1993. Director of Catskill Center for Conservation and Development 1983-1986. Member of the advisory council of the department art history and archaeology at Columbia University since 1972. Established a university seminar on uses of the oceans in 1977. Member of the advisory council of the Translation Center in 1986. Life conservator at the New York Public Library in 1980. Fellow of the Frick Collection since 1971. Member of the president's council of Columbia University, 1973-1978. Life member of the Museum City New York since 1972. Member New York Academy of Sciences, the Planetary Society, the Museum of Natural History (life), the president's councils of the Asia Society and the African Wildlife Foundation, the Wildlife Federation (advisor and president's circle). Member of the Museum of Natural History. President of the council of the Asia Society Office: The Armand G. Erpf Fund.

Bruce, David K. E.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list, memoriam (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Direct descendant of Robert (I) the Bruce (1274-1329), King Of Scotland, who accepted the Knights Templar in Scotland. One of the closest allies of the Bruce (at the time) were the St. Clairs, which have also been represented in the Pilgrims Society. The daughter of King Robert I married Walter Stuart (Stewart), and their son became Robert (de Bruce) II. Father was the late U.S. Senator William Cabell Bruce (Sr.) of Maryland. His older brother was James Cabell Bruce, a very important New York-area banker. Born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1898. Attended Princeton University, but went on to serve in the US Army 1917-1920. Spent one year at the University of Virginia Law School and the next year at the University of Maryland Law School. Admitted to the Maryland Bar. Practiced law in Baltimore 1921-1925. Member of the Maryland House of Delegates 1924-1926. Went to Rome as a vice consul in the Foreign Service 1925-1926. Worked at the State Department 1927-1928. W.A. Harriman & Co. during the late 1920s. Member of the Virginia House of Delegates 1939-1942. American Red Cross chief representative in Great Britain 1940. OSS agent stationed in London where he worked with the Vatican 1941-1945. Eventually became director of the European Theater of Operations of the OSS. U.S. Assistant Secretary of Commerce 1947-1948. Chief of the European Cooperation Administration to France 1948-1949. Ambassador to France 1949-1952. Under Secretary of State 1952-1953. Special United States Observer at the Interim Committee of the European Defense Community 1953-1954. Also Special American Representative to the European High Authority for Coal and Steel 1953-1954. Ambassador to Germany 1957-1959. Ambassador to Great Britain 1961-1969. Husband of Paul Mellon's sister (richest woman in America at the time). Their daughter disappeared in 1967. Chief of the United States delegation to the Paris Peace Conference on Vietnam 1970-1971. Identified as a vice president of the Pilgrims Society in 1972, alongside John Hay Whitney. Ambassador to China 1973-1974. Presidential Medal of Freedom 1976. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and has visited Bilderberg. Episcopalian.

Bruce, Mrs. James

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Biography of her husband, who was the brother of David K. E. Bruce:

Direct descendant of Robert (I) the Bruce (1274-1329), King Of Scotland, who accepted the Knights Templar in Scotland. One of the closest allies of the Bruce (at the time) were the St. Clairs, which have also been represented in the Pilgrims Society. The daughter of King Robert I married Walter Stuart (Stewart), and their son became Robert (de Bruce) II. Father was the late U.S. Senator William Cabell Bruce of Maryland. His brother was David K.E. Bruce. Graduated from Princeton University in 1914, after working in Woodrow Wilson's campaign for Governor of New Jersey. Received his law degree from the University of Maryland in 1916. Joined the staff of the International Banking Corporation in London, where he was employed when World War I began. Rose from private to major in the US Army, and served as a military aide to President Wilson at the Treaty of Versailles negotiations in 1919. Vice president of the Exchange Bank from 1921 to 1926 and vice president of the International Acceptance Bank in 1926-1927. In 1927, he was elected to the board of directors of the Commercial Credit Company of Baltimore, and a vice president of the National Park Bank of New York. Vice president of Chase National Bank from 1927-1931. From 1949 to 1950, he was the first director of the Mutual Assistance Program, the forerunner of NATO, and was ambassador to Argentina from 1947-1949. In 1931, James C. Bruce left Chase to return to the Baltimore Trust Company as its president. In 1932, Bruce was a director of the Commercial Credit Company of Baltimore. In 1933, he was president of the Baltimore Trust Company, and chairman of the board of the United Puerto Rican Sugar Company. The former president of the Davison Chemical Company, C. Wilbur Miller, filed suit against James C. Bruce, Albert H. Wiggin (Pilgrims) of the Chase National Bank, and others, alleging that they conspired to wreck his company because he refused to merge it with Rio Tinto Ltd. of England (New York Times, Jun. 28, 1933.), a company associated with the Rothschilds. One of the defendants in sixteen lawsuits alleging negligence by twenty-three officers and directors of the defunct Baltimore Trust, and settled his liability for $50,000 (1936). Became a vice president of the National Dairy Products Corporation in 1935-1947. In 1946, Bruce was vice chairman of the United Hospital Fund. US Envoy to Argentina in 1947-1950. Rejoined Dairy Products Corporation in 1950. Director of General American Investors, American Airlines, Avco Manufacturing Company, Chemical Bank, Chemical Corn Exchange Bank, Niagara Fire Insurance Company, Continental Insurance of the America Fore Group, Hanover Bank, Fruehauf Trailer Company, Commercial Credit Company, Grayson-Robinson Stores Inc., National Dairy Products Company and the Republic Steel Company, and Revlon. Co-chairman of the Business Men's Committee for Stevenson in 1956. Attended a 1960 dinner at the River Club of presidential candidate John F. Kennedy.

Burton, Sir George

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Chairman, Fisons [pharmaceuticals] plc, 1973–84 (Chief Executive, 1966–76, Senior Vice-Chairman, 1966–71, Deputy Chairman, 1971–72). Served RA, 1939–45, N Africa, Sicily, Italy, Austria. Director: Barclays Bank Internat. plc, 1976–82; Thomas Tilling, 1976–83; Rolls-Royce Ltd, 1976–84. Member: Export Council for Europe, 1965–71 (Dep. Chm., 1967–71); Council, CBI, 1970–84 (Chm., CBI Overseas Cttee, 1975–81); BOTB, 1972–73 (BOTB European Trade Cttee, 1972–81; British Overseas Trade Adv. Council, 1975–79); Investment Insce Adv. Cttee, ECGD, 1971–76; Council on Internat. Develt of ODM, 1977–79; Council, BIM, 1968–70 (FBIM); NEDC, 1975–79; Whitford Cttee to Consider Law on Copyright and Designs, 1974–77; Ipswich County Borough Council, 1947–51; Ipswich Gp HMC; Assoc. for Business Sponsorship of the Arts, 1978–84; Governing Body, British National Cttee of Internat. Chamber of Commerce, 1979–86; Governor, Sutton’s Hosp. in Charterhouse, 1979–92; Chm., Ipswich Conservative Assoc., 1982–84. FRSA 1978. DL Suffolk, 1980. Commander: Order of Ouissam Alaouite, Morocco, 1968; Order of Léopold II, Belgium, 1974

Busch, August Anheuser, Jr.

Source(s): 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; May 2003, Capital Research Center, Foundation watch; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1899-1989. Scion of the famous brewing family, Busch served as President, CEO, and Chairman of the Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc. from 1946-1975. Honorary chair 1977-1989. During his tenure, the company his grandfather established emerged as the largest brewery in the world. Busch's grandfather Adolphus Busch came to America from Germany in 1857, settling in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1866, he founded the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company with his father-in-law, Eberhard Anheuser. Busch discovered a way to pasteurize beer, allowing national distribution of his product. By 1901, Anheuser-Busch's brewery was the nation's largest. Busch also developed a beer lighter than those commonly sold at the time. This beer, named Budweiser, ultimately became the world's best seller. The Busch family is said to have close ties to Opus Dei in the United States.

Who's Who: Member brewing industry adv. committee WPB, 1942; president, chairman board, CEO St. Louis Cardinals, 1953—1989; chairman Manufacturers Ry. Co., St. Louis Refrigerator Car Co.; board directors Centerre Trust Co., General Am. Life Insurance Co., Centerre Bank, St. Louis. Chairman public relations committee United Fund St. Louis, 1964—1989; past chairman board Civic Progress, Inc., St. Louis University Devel. Fund Drive; chairman St. Louis Bicentennial Celebration Committee; board directors St. Louis Municipal Opera.

Buxton, Lord Aubrey Leland Oakes

Source(s): November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (Steinberg of EIR claimed to have had several 1001 Club membership lists from the 1980s); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1918. Descended from the anti-slavery and pro-environmentalist politician Sir Charles Buxton through this person's first son, Edward North Buxton (1812-1858). Member of the House of Lords. Helped to establish the WWF and is a lifelong vice-president (he still is anno 2005). CEO Anglia Television Group 1958-1986. Founded Survival Anglia in 1961 and became the program's presentor. Extra Equerry to HRH the Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Philip, 1964-1997. Member of the Countryside Commission 1968-1972. Member of the Royal Commission on Pollution 1970-1975. Held the office of High Sheriff of Essex in 1972. Held the office of Deputy Lieutenant of Essex from 1975 to 1985. Created Baron Buxton of Alsa in 1978. Chairman Independent Television News 1980-1986. Chairman Oxford Scientific Films 1982-1986. Member of the Nature Conservancy Council 1984-1986. Chairman of Anglia Television Group 1986-1988. Member: Countryside Commn, 1968–72; Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, 1970–74; Nature Conservancy Council, 1988–92; British Vice Pres., World Wildlife Fund; Trustee, Wildfowl Trust. Treasurer London Zoological Society 1978–83. Chairman of Survival Anglia 1986-1992, which made nature documentaries, sometimes in cooperation with Prince Philip. His daughter Cindy Buxton, a wildlife photographer, worked with Orson Welles (famous for his Rockefeller-funded War of the Worlds broadcast) on the documentary 'King Pinguins: Stranded beyond the Falklands'. Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order since 1996. Kevin Dowling, a journalist who wanted to expose the 1001 Club and the WWF back in the 1990s, had a deal with Channel 4 to produce a documentary. After a phone call from prince Philip's right hand, Lord Buxton, the whole project was canceled. All of a sudden the (unfinished) documentary wasn't up to the quality Channel 4 demanded. Involved with the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Has been prominent in the Anti-Slavery International (ASI), an organization promoting supranational intervention which has been founded in 1787, and counted among its early leadership Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1822-1908).

Andrew Robert Fowell Buxton, a cousin of Aubrey, was born in 1939. He is descended from the anti-slavery and pro-environmentalist politician Sir Charles Buxton through this person's second son, Thomas Fowell Buxton (1822-1908). Went to Oxford University, and joined Barclays Bank in 1963. Andrew was a director of Barclays Bank UK from 1978 to 1980, a general manager of Barclays Bank Plc. from 1980 to 1984, a managing director from 1988 to 1992, CEO from 1992 to 1993, and non executive chairman from 1993 to 1999 (after institutional investors called for a separation of the roles of CEO and chairman). Remained an advisor to Barclays after 1999. Barclays replaced N.M. Rothschild & Sons when they abdicated from their seat (always the chair) at the London Gold Fixing in 2004. Rothschild chaired this commission for 84 years. President of the British Bankers Association from 1996 to 2002. Chairman of Spearhead International Limited and a director of Merrill Lynch and Rio Tinto. In 1999, Andrew set up the new High-Level Liberalisation of Trade in Services (LOTIS) Group, the major pusher behind GATS 2000, and became its chairman. Founder and co-chair of the Financial Leaders Group and the European Services Leaders Group.

Cadbury, Christopher

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Christopher Cadbury helped set up and develop nature preserves in Britain and elsewhere. Cadbury worked in his family's chocolate-manufacturing company, Cadbury Brothers, and was president of the Royal Society for Nature Conservation from 1962 to 1988. In that post, he worked to establish trusts to promote wildlife conservation in individual British counties. By the mid-1960's, The Daily Telegraph reported, such trusts embraced "the whole of Britain." He also personally bought a number of pieces of land that he turned over to conservation groups to be administered as nature preserves. These purchases included, in 1973, the mile-long Aride Island in the Indian Ocean. Another British newspaper, The Independent, reported last week that Aride is home to "a million breeding sea birds and the sweet-scented Wright's gardenia that is found nowhere else in the world." Vice president and trustee of WWF-UK.

Cadbury, Sir Peter

Source(s): November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (Steinberg of EIR claimed to have had several 1001 Club membership lists from the 1980s); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Has been a leading figure in Corporate Finance in London throughout his career. After 5 years at Linklaters, he spent 27 years at Morgan Grenfell & Co., now the investment banking arm of Deutsche Bank, including 20 years as a director, and the last 6 as its Deputy Chairman. Subsequently he became Chairman of Close Brothers Corporate Finance Ltd. Cadbury also sits on the advisory board of Gow & Partners, and has been a chairman of Preston Publications Ltd. Peter Cadbury is a scion from the very influential Cadbury family that ownes chocolate and beverage (Cadbury Schweppes) interests worldwide. Since 2000, Peter Cadbury has his own corporate advisory firm, Peter Cadbury & Co, and is Non-Executive Chairman of DTZ Corporate Finance Ltd and a Director of Celltech plc and other companies. Past directorships include Chairman of Henderson Smaller Companies Investment Trust and SMG. His family members have been members of the Pilgrims Society, the Eugenics movement, and the OECD Corporate Governance Business Advisory Group. George Cadbury has been a director of the Bank of England 1970-1994.

Carlos, King Juan

Source(s): May 1973, confidential introduction to the 1001 Club written by Charles de Haes: "Similarly, His Royal Highness The Prince of Spain, Founder President and President of Honour of World Wildlife Fund (Spain) is this month holding a reception for Spanish founder members [of the 1001 Club]."

Born in 1938. Direct descendant of Queen Victoria through his grandmother and Louis XIV of France through his family name, Bourbon. The Bourbons ruled France until the French Revolution. Son of Don Juan de Bourbon, Count of Barcelona. Don Juan met with Franco in 1948 and Franco agreed to educate and look after Juan Carlos. Carlos began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the San Isidro Institute in Madrid. Joined the army, doing his officer training, from 1955 to 1957, in Zaragoza. In 1956, his younger brother, the Infante Alfonso died of a gunshot wound in Estoril, Portugal, with Juan Carlos as the only witness. The official explanation is that it was an accident which occurred while cleaning a gun. Alfonso suffered from haemophilia and did not survive. It is uncertain whether Alfonso or Juan Carlos pulled the trigger. From 1957 Carlos spent a year in the naval school at Pontevedra and another in the Air Force school in San Javier in Murcia. In 1961 he graduated from the Complutense University. Then went to live in the Palace of Zarzuela, and began carrying out official engagements. Founder and honorary president of WWF-Spain and a patron of the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC). Honorary member of the Club of Rome. Carlos and Franco became quite close, living only a few miles from each other. In the 1960s Franco was looking for a successor and allegedly after having spoken to Otto von Habsburg, head of the Paneuropa movement, Franco designated Juan Carlos as his successor. July 18, 1969, The Times, 'Prince of 31 to get the throne his father claims for himself - How Franco made a king for Spain': "There is a strong belief that Juan Carlos has emerged as General Franco's heir with the help of the Opus Dei, a Roman Catholic pressure group which is widely distrusted for its political and economic ambitions. He is reported to have the support of Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco [Franco's right hand man; reportedly a patron of Opus Dei in Spain], Vice-President of the Government, and senor Laureano Lopez Rodo [major Opus Dei player], Development Minister." Franco died in 1975 and now King Juan Carlos, a Knight of Malta and supporter of Opus Dei, became the new Head of State and was in charge of Spain's process towards democracy. He initially kept the Francoist hardliner Carlos Arias Navarro, who had succeeded Admiral Blanco, as president/prime minister. Navarro promised a change to democracy, but he was fired in 1976 by Carlos, because of a lack of faith by the opposition that he was really interested in carrying out these promises. Federico Silva Munoz, a dangerous fascist and later Cercle participant, subsequently appeared on a short list of Carlos' highest advisory body to be made prime minister of Spain. Carlos, however, opted this time for the more centrist, but still conservative, Adolfo Suarez Gonzalez, whom he thought would be best suited to unite the different factions within the government. Suarez, reportedly, was a member of Opus Dei, but he did manage to get the job done. Visited the Netherlands in 1980, the first visit of the Spanish royal family to the Netherlands since 1549 - two decades before the outbreak of the 80 years war. Privately, Carlos had always been a good friend of Prince Bernhard and used to spent some of his holidays is Castle Soestdijk. Received the Charlemagne award in 1982, which is awarded by the Paneuropa Union to persons they consider crucial in the effort of European integration. Charlemagne was the ruler of the Frankish Empire and founder of what became the Holy Roman Empire, which is exactly what the leaders of the Paneuropa Union (Coudenhove-Kalergi; Habsburg; Thurn und Taxis; Torre e Tasso; Huyn; etc.) are trying to recreate. Carlos is known to be a very avid hunter. October 16, 2004, The Scotsman, 'Outrage at bear-faced cheek of killer king': "Spain’s King Juan Carlos has come under fire from conservationist groups after shooting bears in Romania just as the WWF was staging an international forum to showcase their work in integrating bear and human populations. The WWF trip was organised to show the world’s media how bears and humans had learned to live in peaceful co-existence. But WWF sources claim the good work was undone by the hunting trip, which drew local newspaper headlines with reports of the King’s weekend hunt and his group’s "success" at shooting nine animals including a pregnant female. The respected Carpathian animal protection group, the Aves Foundation, said King Juan Carlos and his entourage killed nine bears while hunting. The foundation claimed he then left two others wounded, which his attendants were unable to kill, and lost track of after pelting them with bullets. The Aves Foundation claims he also killed a number of wolves and wild boar during his two-day trip, staying at one of former dictator Nicolae Ceausescu’s hunting lodges in Covasna, central Romania. Laszlo Szabo-Szeley, president of the group, said: "Only Ceausescu did things like this. No moral hunter in this world kills more than one bear because it is completely unethical... A spokesman for the King described the visit as private and refused to comment on what he was doing in the country... King Juan Carlos is known to be a keen hunter and has hunted in the past in many countries, at times with other foreign leaders and even with former US president George Bush Snr... But this is not the first time the Spanish King has drawn the wrath of conservation groups over his passion for blood sports. Last year he came in for fierce criticism for killing a rare wild European bison during a hunt in Poland’s Borecka forest, one of Europe’s last surviving areas of ancient woodland... The bison is among the world’s rarest animals with only about 1,600 remaining, and the Polish Society for the Protection of Animals condemned the hunt and the government’s decision to let the animal be shot as a "total scandal". The King reportedly paid £4,700 to be allowed to shoot the 100-stone bison. The latest incident in Romania will only add to growing fears that the brown bear will soon become extinct in the region. Romania is one of the few countries in Europe that permits limited bear hunting. Hunting-tourism has become big business in Romania’s Carpathian Mountains, the last place in Europe apart from Russia, where many large carnivores, bears, wolves and lynxes, can be found. Organised hunts in the country have grown popular with Europe’s rich and elite who often pay tens of thousands of pounds for hunting trips organised by specialised companies... Aves’ Laszlo Szabo-Szeley has also sent a report to Nastase which details evidence that the bear population is down from the official figure of 6,300 to 2,500. The Aves Foundation report argued: "Romania’s kill figures for the trophy-hunter market are way above a sustainable cull. They endanger the species."" Earlier, on June 4, 2004, the Sunday Herald quoted Laszlo, head of the AVES Foundation, as saying: "Our telephones are being tapped, our mail is steamed opened, our website has been broken into, anonymous callers regularly threaten our activists' lives and I am being frequently summoned to the police 'for questioning.'" This happened after László "... submitted a report to Nastase [Romania’s Socialist prime minister] challenging the official bear population figure of 6300, proving with well-supported evidence that the total was now down to a mere 2500." Laszlo became sick in late 2004 and conviently died in 2005, age 55. Email from Romania to ISGP in February 2006: "[Laszlo] pissed a lot of top politicians and business peoples with his exposure of bears hunting. Then it appeared in a TV show and commented along the hunting parties Tiriac organizes at its Balc domain (Romania; got it for a ridiculous low amount): 185 boars at one of these (lately there has been another one, 200+ boars killed). Tiriac promptly sued (he is quick at). Laszlo was making a life from organizing trips in the Danube Delta (amongst others) and came back in august 2004 from one trip only to go to hospital and die 6 weeks later - he was only 55 years old! But the process continues against wife and children - quirk of the Ro laws (http://www.evz.ro/article.php?artid=250456). No speculations in the press about the nature of its death, just babble in the environment milieus." Carlos is a Knight of Malta and head of the Spanish branch of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Karl von Habsburg, son of Otto von Habsburg, is head of the only other branch of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Claims the title King of Jerusalem, as the successor to the royal family of Naples.

Cini, Count Vittorio

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Venetian. Founded the Cini Foundation in 1951. Died in 1977. The Cini Foundation houses a historical library of about 15,000 volumes, an archive of manuscripts, and a collection concerning documents about history, music, theater and art. It is also a venue for exhibitions, concerts and meetings. As such it was a meeting place for the G7 meetings in 1980 and 1987. The Foundation also is home to the School of San Giorgio for the Study of Venetian Civilisation, an academic center to examine the contributions of the Republic of Venice to civilization. The Foresteria are the exclusive guest quarters that were built for Cini's friends and have been reserved for important guests who attend meetings at the Cini foundation. Filled with valuable art and presenting across the water a view of St. Mark's Square and the Doge's Palace, the place has been visited by heads of state including Jimmy Carter, Margaret Thatcher, Ronald Reagan, Francois Mitterrand, Romano Prodi, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, and Juan Carlos of Spain.

Chowgule, Vishwasrao D.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

From India. Born in 1915. Chairman Chowgule Group, which the family established in 1916. The Group became an industrial giant with a wide range of interests and activities such as iron mining, industrial salt, industrial gases, transportation, integrated logistics management, ship owning and ship building.

At the age of 36, he was the first to export iron ore from Goa's mines to Japan under a contract of 1951, known as the 'Chowgule Formula'. He advocated mechanisation for working in the mines and its allied services of river fleet, midstream transshipped bulk loading. He was the first in South East Asia to set up a Pelletization Plant. Moreover he launched some small scale and medium scale units in the country, as he knew their importance. By his ontributions, he made the House of Chowgules, a leading national enterprise with a wide range of activities from iron ore mining to shipping, shipbuilding, industrial salt, breweries, etc. Shri Vishwasrao made a pioneering contribution to education in Goa. He established in Goa its first College immediately after liberation, and also primary, middle and high schools in various places. An institution of Shipbuilding Technology in Goa, which is only one of its kind in Western India, was promoted by the foundation created in the name of his mother, Smt.Parvatibai Chowgule Cultural Foundation.

Cisneros, Gustavo

Source(s): May 4, 1992, PR Newswire; November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (acquired several 1980s membership lists, according to Steinberg of EIR); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Latin America's billionaire media baron. Knight of Malta. Chairman and CEO of the Cisneros Group of Companies (very prominent in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands), which has large stakes in companies like Univision, AOL Latin America, DirecTV Latin America, and a score of other media companies. Member of the board of international directors at the United World Colleges in London, which is presided over by HRH Prince Charles. Trustee of the Rockefeller University and a friend of the Rockefellers. PR Newswire, May 4, 1992: "Cisneros, a Venezuelan native, is a member of the International Advisory Committee of the Chase Manhattan Bank, the Chairman's Council of the Americas Society and the International Advisory Council of the United States Information Agency. He is also a member of the board of overseers of the International Center for Economic Growth and the International Advisory Board of the Power Corporation of Canada. His other memberships include, but are not limited to, the International Advertising Association, the board of directors of the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences in the U.S., and The 1001: A Nature Trust for the World Wildlife Fund in Switzerland." He is an outspoken critic of Venezuela's President Hugo Chavez, whom he criticizes for "arrogant abuse of power and authority." In turn, Chavez accuses him of complicity in the April 2002 coup attempt (on Chavez) and of using his private TV station Venevision to undermine the administration. Luckily for Cisneros, about 80% of his holdings are outside Venezuela. Cisneros hobnobs with U.S. friends such as Jimmy Carter and George Bush Sr. Guests at his daughter's lavish New York wedding reception in October 2002 included Kofi Annan, Sid Bass and Oscar de la Renta. He also ran BIOMA, a leading Venezuelan "environmentalist group" shut down after being caught faking dolphin killings for a campaign against the tuna fishing industry. Early in 1994, the family bank, Banco Latino, in Caracas, went broke after it was charged with fraud. His brother Ricardo, one of the directors, was fugitive for years until caught and sent to jail. Cisneros has received Spain's Order of Isabel la Católica, conferred by His Majesty King Juan Carlos I (also a 1001 Club member and Knights of Malta), for strengthening international ties between Venezuela and Spain.

1997 Annual Report, Power Corporation, p. 63: "International Advisory Council: ... Paul Desmarais ... William G. Davis ... Dwayne O. Andreas ... Lord Armstrong of Ilminster [listed as a consultant to N. M. Rothschild & Sons] ... Charles R. Bronfman ... Gustavo A. Cisneros ... Michel Francois-Poncet ... Baron Frere ... Pierre Haas ... Donald R. Keough ... Andre Levy-Lang ... Brian Mulroney ... Viscount Rothermere ... Helmut Schmidt ... Pierre Scohler ... Pierre Trudeau ... Paul A. Volcker ... " 2003 Annual Report, Power Corporation, p. 63: "International Advisory Council: ... Paul Desmarais ... William G. Davis ... Dwayne O. Andreas ... Lord Armstrong of Ilminster ... Charles R. Bronfman ... Gustavo A. Cisneros ... Michel Francois-Poncet ... Baron Frere ... Pierre Haas ... Donald R. Keough ... Andre Levy-Lang ... Brian Mulroney ... Helmut Schmidt ... Pierre Scohler ... Pierre Trudeau ... Paul A. Volcker ... Wei Ming Yi [chair international advisory council CITIC Group, China's most powerful conglomerate with long-standing ties to the Rockefellers "

Collomb, Bertrand

Source(s): 2010, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Peter Carr in September 2010)

French. Held several positions at the French Ministry of Industry and within ministerial departments (1966-1975) and also founded and managed the Centre for research in Management at the Ecole Polytechnique. Joined Lafarge in 1975. Chairman and CEO of Lafarge, the worldwide leader in building materials, since 1989. Board members of Lafarge include Paul Desmarais, Jr. (Warburg; Power Corp.; Banque Bruxelles Lambert; Suez Tractebel; Pargesa; Total; INSEAD) and Gerald Frere (Frere Bourgeois Group; Banque Bruxelles Lambert; Suez Tractebel; Pargesa). As Chairman of Lafarge Collomb has initiated several global partnerships with NGOs on sustainable development, and specially with WWF, the conservation organization, on environmental preservation with a special focus on CO2 emissions reduction. Chairman World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) 2004-2006. Collomb has long been involved in the work of the WBCSD, with most notable contributions made as co-chair of the Energy and Climate project, and the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI). Director of Total (France), A.T.C.O. (Canada) and DuPont (United-States) and also plays an active role in several institutions. He is Chairman of the French Institute of International Relations (I.F.R.I.) and of the Institut des Hautes Etudes for Science and Technology and of the European Corporate Governance Forum. His career included Non-Executive Directorships on the boards of Vivendi, Allianz, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Credit Commercial de France,Unilever and Elf Aquitaine. Dr. Collomb is a member of the governing body of the European Institute of Technology and of the European Corporate Governance Forum and an Advisor to the Banque de France and the private equity group Permira. Member European Round Table. Regular visitor Bilderberg. Mentor to Career Management International, together with Wim Kok, Etienne Davignon, Niall FitzGerald, and Peter Sutherland.

Cooley, George R.

Source(s): New York State Library, 'George R. Cooly Papers, 1941-1986' (made large contibutions to the 1001 Trust, but might not have been a member of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

George R. Cooley was born May 29, 1896 in Troy, New York. He graduated from high school in 1914 and subsequently joined the armed forces to fight in the first World War. After his tour of duty, he returned to the Albany area and got a job with the banking house of Dillon, Read, and Company. Shortly thereafter, he opened his own investment house and became a successful investment counselor in the Capital District. After he retired he became interested in the field of botany and deeply involved in the modern conservation movement. In 1960, he joined the Board of Governors of The Nature Conservancy and was responsible for the establishment of several sanctuaries in Florida and New York State. He made substantial contributions to the National Council of Churches, the World Wildlife Foundation, "The 1001 : A Nature Trust," the American Baptist Historical Society, and the Colgate Rochester Divinity School. Sierra Club links. He later received the 1971 American Motors Corporation Conservation Award and the 1985 Oak Leaf Award. He died at his home in Rensselaerville, N.Y., September 27, 1986.

Cullman, Joseph F., III

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

President and CEO Philip Morris Company. Head of the Tobacco Institute. Director Ford Motor Company, IBM World Trade Europe/Middle East/Africa Corporation, Levi Strauss, Bankers Trust Company and others. Director WWF since 1974. Commissioner of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Trustee American Museum of Natural History. Exec. Chairman Stock Unit Plan. Cullman is well-known for stating categorically "I do not believe that cigarettes are hazardous to one's health", which he said in a 1971 interview after the TV tobacco advertising ban was begun. When confronted on Face The Nation with a study that smoking results in smaller babies, Cullman's tactless response was "I would say that I did read that report, and I concluded from that report that it's true that babies born from women who smoke are smaller, but they are just as healthy as the babies born to women who do not smoke. Some women would prefer having smaller babies." He is a member of the Peace Parks Foundation. Member of the 1001 Club and said to have been a member of the Pilgrims Society.

May 1, 2004, Associated Press, 'Tobacco industry's chief defender dies at 92 ': "Joseph F. Cullman III, the Philip Morris executive who became the cigarette industry's chief defender against the anti-tobacco movement for decades, died Friday at a hospital in Manhattan. He was 92. Cullman retired as chairman and chief executive in 1978, but remained as chairman emeritus, lobbying legislators and defending cigarettes at Congressional hearings. In 1971, when the government banned cigarette advertising on television, Cullman said in an interview, "I do not believe that cigarettes are hazardous to one's health." In response to a question about a study that found smoking mothers gave birth to smaller babies than nonsmoking mothers, Cullman said: "Some women would prefer having smaller babies." He smoked for many years but eventually quit. Cullman also helped lead the company to become a corporate superpower. The Philip Morris Companies, the parent organized in 1985, went on to buy General Foods, Kraft and Nabisco Holdings. Under Cullman, the company also became a large supporter of tennis and the arts. Philip Morris spent millions each year backing organizations like the Dance Theater of Harlem, Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Guggenheim and Metropolitan art museums. Cullman was an active conservationist and was a commissioner of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey from 1976 to 1983. Tobacco was a family business, but it began with cigars - in the northeast, not the south. Cullman attended Yale, then worked at a cigar store in New York before he was sent to Havana to work in a cigar factory. He joined Philip Morris as a vice president, and was named president and chief executive in 1957."

December 19, 1998, New Scientist, 'The smoking gun': "WHILE independent counsel Kenneth Starr was digging the dirt on Bill Clinton, other investigators were rummaging through documents prised from one of the US President's fiercest adversaries - the American tobacco industry. In 1998, around 30 million pages of industry documents were forced into the open. ... Next in the firing line was the biggest tobacco firm of all, Philip Morris, the manufacturer of Marlboro. An internal document revealed it had investigated the smoking habits of children as young as 12. And in February, the world learnt that scientists at Brown & Williamson, owned by the British American Tobacco conglomerate, once considered a plan to develop cigarettes with a "cola-like" taste. A picture soon began to emerge of companies using lawyers to vet everything their scientists did and wrote. Research projects that looked at the physiological effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke were often closed down before they could produce any evidence of harm. The subtle tactics used to stir up confusion about the health problems caused by passive smoking also came into the limelight. In May, "New Scientist" revealed documents from the London offices of Covington and Burling, a law firm working for Philip Morris, which detailed a programme to hire scientists as consultants. The documents suggested that the consultants infiltrated the medical establishment and created a learned society that would act as a forum for views favourable to the industry. The operation was codenamed "Project Whitecoat". The story developed a further twist in August when the "St Paul Pioneer Press" of Minnesota uncovered documents showing that an industry research organisation called the Tobacco Institute had paid scientists to submit letters and articles to journals, questioning the science of passive smoking. The going rate was dollar 2000 to dollar 5000 per letter, and up to dollar 10 000 for an article. All submissions were edited by industry lawyers. Richard Hurt, a nicotine and addiction specialist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, describes the revelations as "staggering". Hurt was the first expert witness to give evidence against the tobacco industry in a legal action brought by the State of Minnesota - a landmark case that resulted in some 39 000 of the most important documents being put onto the Internet by the US House of Representatives. Hurt has read thousands of these documents, and says the most striking revelation was in discovering how the companies manipulated tobacco leaves to boost the nicotine "hit" that smokers crave. "Philip Morris was the first, but within a few years everyone was doing it. The scientific community knew almost nothing about it and yet it was becoming almost routine.""

September 02, 2009, Pretoria News (South Africa), 'Stricter laws to leave tobacco industry gasping': "It emerged in a major court case in the US in 2006 that the tobacco industry has known since at least the late 1960s that because most smokers are hooked on nicotine and crave a certain daily dose, when they switch to lower-nicotine cigarettes they "compensate" by taking more puffs, inhaling more deeply, covering the ventilation holes or smoking more cigarettes. In an editorial in 2006, the New York Times stated: "Smokers of light or low-tar cigarettes need to realise that the industry is not so much concerned about their health as it is worried, in the words of an internal document, that their penchant to quit smoking entirely could pose 'a special problem for the cigarette industry'." ... Interestingly, two weeks after being ordered by US federal court judge Gladys Kessler to publicise the dangers of smoking and to stop marketing so-called "light" and "mild" cigarettes as healthier than others, the tobacco companies returned to court to effectively ask the judge if they could carry on deceiving their overseas markets about "light" and "low-tar" cigarettes. In that court case, it emerged that the tobacco industry had for decades, as the New York Times put it "obfuscated the health consequences of smoking, duped people into thinking that low-tar and low-nicotine cigarettes might be less harmful, manipulated cigarette design to ensure an addictive dose of nicotine, downplayed the adverse effects of second-hand smoke and seduced young people into taking up smoking while denying that it was doing any such thing. "To hide its tracks, the industry, abetted by its lawyers, suppressed research and destroyed documents." Judge Kessler was appalled by what emerged in the courtroom, stating that the companies had marketed and sold their products "with zeal, with deception, with a single-minded focus on their financial success and without regard for the human tragedy or social costs that success exacted"."

Crowe, Philip Kingsland

Source(s): Digital Who's Who UK (one of 3 or 4 British members who put the 1001 in their biography); 1978 list, in memoriam

1908-1976. Reporter and Editor, New York Evening Post, 1929–32; Broker, Milmine Bodman & Co., NY, 1932–35; Explorer, French Indo-China, 1935–36; Life and Fortune, 1936–40; with USAF HQ, England, 1940–42; Lt-Col; Chief, Secret Intell. Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in India, Burma and China; Exec. Off., S. China Comd of OSS; Special Rep. of Econ. Co-operation Mission to China, 1948–49; Rep. of USA to 10th Session of Econ. Commn (E. Asia) of UN; US Deleg. to ECAFE Conf., 1954; Ambassador to Ceylon, 1953–57; Special Asst to Sec. of State, 1957–59 [John Foster Dulles]; Ambassador to Union of S. Africa, 1959–61; led expeditions for wildlife conservation to 57 nations in Asia, Africa, S. America, Australia, 1962–68; Ambassador to Norway, 1969–73. Director: World Wildlife Fund (Internat.); World Wildlife Fund (USA); African Wildlife Leadership Foundn; Amer. Cttee for Internat. Wildlife Protection; Trustee, Sch. of Advanced Internat. Studies of Johns Hopkins Univ.; Mem., Bd of Advrs, Fletcher Sch. of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts Univ. FRGS; Life Member: Royal Asiatic Soc.; Ceylon Wildlife Protection Soc.; Member: Council on Foreign Relations (NY); Soc. of Cincinatti; Soc. of Colonial Wars; Huguenot Soc.; St Nicholas Soc. Officer, Legion of Honour (France), 1959; Yun Hui of Cloud and Banner, 1st cl. (Rep. of China), 1961; Mil. Order of Christ, 1st cl. (Portugal), 1960; Grand Cross, Order of St Olav (Norway), 1973; Grand Cross, Order of Dannebrog (Denmark). Member Council on Foreign Relations. Tufts University papers on Crowe: "The mission reports are bound volumes detailing Crowe's six Wildlife Missions on behalf the World Wildlife Foundation from 1963-1968, where he visited the Near East, the Far East, the Middle East, Central and South America, and South Africa. There is also a bound volume containing a report compiled by Crowe on polar bears. ... The diaries cover his experience as an explorer and hunter of big game in French Indo-China, his military career in war time, and also his terms as ambassador to Ceylon, the Union of South Africa, Norway and Denmark. The diaries were reviewed by the United States Department of State to prevent the release of classified information in the interest of national security or foreign relations. Deletions were made in volumes numbered 6, 8, 13, 14, 16, 17, 28, 31, 33, 34, 36, 38, 39, and 43. Numbers appear on the spine of each volume. Among the diaries is a bound volume of Crowe's personal recollections of serving as the Special Assistant to Secretary of State John Foster Dulles from 1957 to 1959."

David-Weill, Michel

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Name pronounced as "Dahveed Vay". During the last year of Nazi occupation, at age 11, David-Weill had to hide with his mother and younger sister in a French village called Béduer (Lot, south-western France). After the war was over, he went to live in New York City with his family. He was educated at the Lycée Français de New York and l'Institut d'Etudes Politiques in Paris. In 1956, he married Hélène Marie Lehideux, with whom he has four children. Following the 1977 retirement of André Meyer, Michel David-Weill became chairman of Lazard - working closely with managing director, Felix Rohatyn. He later hired Bruce Wasserstein as CEO, but had a falling-out with him. Currently a director of Groupe Danone, one of the world's largest food-product companies. Director of the Publicis Groupe, the world's fourth-largest communications firm, together with Gerard Worms (of the Worms Bank, notorious in the Synarchie legend) and the long-time Lazard deal maker Felix Rohatyn. November 21, 1994, Belgian ATLAS document: "We are informed that almost all of Cap d'ANTIBES would be privately owned by PRZEDBORSKI, who would have an imposing property there at "l'Impasse Felix" (a street name; named after his first name?). ... The structure set up by Felix PRZEDBORSKI would direct various kinds of traffic in the world: - Diamonds - Arms - Narcotics - Nuclear material - Money laundering - Influence peddling. ... This Colonel would have accepted the proposal to leave the MOSSAD and put his entire team at the service of PRZEDBORSKI. ... he [this colonel] would also have trained members of the CONTRAS as well as those of the CALI CARTEL." Coincidentally it is Michel David-Weill who invited someone to a villa on Felix's Impasse. Le Nouvel Observateur, 'The insult to Antoine': "[In 1992] Vincent Bollore [trainee at Edmond de Rothschild; corporate raider; friend of Sarkozy; father was a friend of Pompidou] was invited by Michel David-Weill to travel to the villa Sous le Vent, Cape d'Antibes [address: 1ère maison impasse Félix] … Arrival has been set at 11.30. He [David-Weill] sent a fax with a map to indicate where Felix's Impasse was located. But nobody came to pick him up at the airport. Arriving by taxi, Vincent Bollore walks into a large lounge, a stylish home, in white gloves. The staging is completely calculated. Michel David-Weill is waiting in a chair, large, very high. … "It made me look up to Michel David-Weill whenever I looked at him or spoke to him," says Vincent Bollore. The head of the house of Lazard decided to play its role to the end. Sovereign and remote, he [David-Weill] spent long minutes to choose a cigar to light it before speaking."" A British board member of Lazard used to the notorious Lord Alun Chalfont with his many intelligence connections.

February 6, 2004, Evening Standard (London), 'A guide to the new 'east-ablishment': "Just half an hour's drive from London, it is the perfect place for [Boris] Berezovsky to play host to his new coterie of smart English friends who include Prince Michael of Kent and the Marquess of Reading, both of whom have enjoyed his hospitality at his £20 million villa off Cap d'Antibes [at Chemin de la Garoupe, half a mile away from Impasse Felix; Roman Abramovich is there too; became popular among oligarchs in the 1990s]. Simon Reading, whose great-grandfather was Viceroy of India, told me he includes Berezovsky among his friends. They first met in Moscow in the early Nineties where Reading was looking to explore business opportunities. 'Boris wanted an entree into the City and to understand a sophisticated financial apparatus that didn't exist in Moscow. What would be more normal than to come to London? I helped fix him up with a few introductions.' It was with Berezovsky that Reading met Roman Abramovich, owner of Chelsea FC, at a restaurant in St Tropez, the chosen resort of the oligarch pack. Abramovich was ready to be charmed by the well-connected Marquess. After all, cultivating such contacts had certainly done Berezovsky no harm. After making a £1.5 billion fortune from the sale of Russian oil assets, Berezovsky was granted asylum in Britain last year after the Home Office was persuaded to look favourably on his application. Abramovich seems to have emulated his former mentor Berezovsky in learning the importance of having friends in high places. His first step towards social acceptance was during his business apprenticeship to Berezovsky. The older man spotted the young entrepreneur and promoted him to positions of enormous power and wealth within his oil company during the chaos of the Nineties. Via Berezovsky, Abramovich ingratiated himself with the inner circle around President Yeltsin, known as 'The Family', which at the time was the elite of Russian society. ... Russians are very insecure. They love English titles.' So who is willing to befriend an oligarch? At the top of Abramovich's invitation list is the Rothschild family. Lord Rothschild, who is also a close friend of Khodorkovsky, is a regular guest in the directors' box at Stamford Bridge. According to his office, Rothschild is a 'keen Chelsea supporter' and has been a VIP guest of the elusive new 'Chelski' chairman on a number of occasions. Another regular guest is Lord Rothschild's heir, the Hon Nat Rothschild, along with his relations Jessica, David and Anthony de Rothschild, and glamorous friends Zoe Appleyard and Tamzin Greenhill, the model who once dated Jay Kay. Apparently, Jacob was first introduced to Abramovich through his son Nat. ... Nat, I have learnt, has recently set up his own company called JNR standing for Jacob and Nat Rothschild specialising in providing expert 'financial services' in Russia. Ring Nat's office JNR has offices in New York and London, the latter based at Lord Rothschild's grand offices at St James's Place and you will be connected to one of two charming and very Russian-sounding 'assistants' called Anna and Enya respectively. Repeated calls to JNR's office to clarify the exact nature of Nat's 'friendship' with Abramovich were not returned. It was the super-well-connected Jacob Rothschild who helped introduce the billionaire widow of banker Edward Safra, Lily, to Prince Charles, and helped establish her in London. Is he now doing the same for Khodorkovsky, Abramovich and the other oligarchs?"

November 14, 2003, Jerusalem Post, 'Capitalism with a Stalinist face': "She names the six Jewish oligarchs who helped themselves to Russia's crown jewels as Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Roman Abramovich, Pyotr Aven, Boris Berezovsky, Mikhail Fridman and Vladimir Gusinksy. The seventh of the breed, who is described as the only "full- blooded ethnic Russian," is Vladimir Potanin. As Chua tells it, "in Russia's nearly anarchic transition to a market economy, Jews rose to the top. Long before most Russians, including the country's leaders, had any understanding of how the markets work, the six Jewish oligarchs mastered the game. ... * Boris Berezovsky, 57, with a Ph.D. in mathematics, dabbled in a car dealership before creating a sophisticated get-rich-quick financial structure that appealed to the new Russia. He then set about penetrating the president's inner circle, befriending Yeltsin's ghost-writer and offering to publish his "autobiography." Such generosity was well rewarded. In 1994, Yeltsin handed him control of the privatized ORT TV network and, soon after, Berezovsky took control of the state oil company Sibneft and the national carrier Aeroflot. * Vladimir Gusinsky, 53, parlayed his business in cabs, jeans and copper bracelets into real estate and construction. Then his eyes opened to the riches of banking. Through his friendship with Moscow mayor Yuri Luzhkov, he made millions managing the city's funds, while plowing his mounting profits into newspapers (including a stake in Ma'ariv), magazines and TV companies. His NTV TV network played a pivotal role in Yeltsin's 1996 electoral victory over his Communist adversaries. * Mikhail Fridman, 39, graduated from cleaning windows to importing cigarettes and photo-copiers before moving into the oil business. By 1991, he was a millionaire. Then the privatization of Russia's banks grabbed his attention. After recruiting Yeltsin's trade minister, Pyotr Aven (himself an oligarch), he created the Alpha Group, which today controls Russia's largest private bank, half of Tyumen, Russia's fourth-largest oil company, and Crown Resources, a commodities trading company turning over some $5 billion a year. * Roman Abramovich, 37, was a protege of Berezovsky, who parachuted him into the family. He rose from selling plastic ducks and second-hand car tires to acquiring the world's richest aluminum company. He also bought Berezovsky's shares in Aeroflot and Sibneft. Indulging his passion, he recently sank several hundred million dollars into Chelsea football club. ... Gusinsky, once head of Russia's Jewish community, was arrested on an international warrant in Athens earlier this year but he, too, managed to persuade the Greek authorities that the charges against him were manifestly unjust. After walking free, he invoked his rights as an Israeli citizen and made aliya. ... when Khodorkovsky was arrested, Rothschild automatically assumed control of his $8 billion stake in Yukos, which has been held by the Gibraltar-based Menatep Group. ... Putin's "autocratic intentions" have been obvious since his election in 2000, "the start of his creeping anti-constitutional coup d'etat," wrote Berezovsky. ... In his sterile, exilic bitterness, Berezovsky also lamented the fate of his friend Mikhail Khodorkovsky: "With no end in sight, he is not so fortunate.""

BRONFMAN RELATIONSHIP:

May 1, 1995, New York Times, 'Lazard Freres Plans a Shift In Its Structure': "Lazard ... has traditionally been close to the Bronfman family of Toronto, owners of the Seagram beverage empire, but was recently beaten out by Goldman, Sachs for the advisor's role in Seagram's purchase of the entertainment company MCA."

June 26, 2000, Globe and Mail (Canada), 'Loyalty pays off in Seagram deal': "There are few closer relationships between a corporation and Wall Street than Seagram's relationship with Goldman Sachs & Co. The late Sidney Weinberg, considered the father of the modern Goldman Sachs and senior partner there for 39 years, decades ago struck up a business relationship with Samuel Bronfman, well-known as Mr. Sam. The relationship passed from father to son on both sides, with John L. Weinberg, Sydney's son and former co-senior partner, serving as a close adviser to Edgar Bronfman Sr. and as a Seagram board member. Soon after Edgar Bronfman Jr. took over, John L.'s son, John S. Weinberg, a Goldman Sachs managing director, succeeded his father as a Seagram director. Goldman's Gene Sykes served as Seagram's principal investment banker on deal with Vivendi."

Davis, Sir John H. H.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1906-1993. Director, The Rank Foundation, since 1953; President, The Rank Organisation plc, Subsidiary and Associated Cos, 1977–83 (Chief Executive, 1962–74; Chairman, 1962–77); Joint President, Rank Xerox, 1972–83 (Joint Chairman, 1957–72). British Thomson-Houston Group, 1932–38; joined Odeon Theatres (predecessor of The Rank Organisation Ltd): Chief Accountant, Jan. 1938; Sec., June 1938; Jt Managing Dir, 1942. Man. Dir, 1948–62 and Dep. Chm., 1951–62, The Rank Organisation Ltd. Director: Southern Television Ltd, 1968–76; Eagle Star Insurance Co. Ltd, 1948–82; Chm., Children’s Film Foundation, 1951–80; Chm. and Trustee, The Rank Prize Funds, 1972–. Trustee, Westminster Abbey Trust, 1973–85 (Chm., fund raising cttee, Westminster Abbey Appeal, 1973–85). President: The Advertising Assoc., 1973–76; Cinema and Television Benevolent Fund, 1981–83; East Surrey Cons. Assoc., 1982–87.

De Pauw, Charles "Charlie"

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

From Belgium. Close friend and business partner of the extremely controversial former prime minister Paul Vanden Boeynants. Vanden Boeynants had given him the contract to build the World Trade Center complex in Brussels, which started De Pauw's career as an international real estate baron. Together with Ado Blaton he built Parc Savoy where Cercle des Nations was located and people like Michel Nihoul came to party. Member of Cercle des Nations, which was founded in 1969. Together with Ado Blaton he was an investor in Baron Benoit de Bonvoisin's Promotion & Distribution Générales (PDG) NV, which was literally connected with the CEPIC headquarters through a corridor. In return for their investments PDG created fake invoices for De Pauw, Blaton, and others. PDG, together with King Albert II (then Prince), Fortunato Israel (ran a prostitution ring), Vanden Boeynants and Roger Boas (ran an arms company), was involved in the Eurosystem Hospitalier deal in Saudi-Arabia, which blew up in 1979 due the hundreds of millions of dollars used for briberies and commissions. Business partner of Patrick and Alain Vastapane, sons of Aldo Vastapane, another person whose career was supported by Vanden Boeynants. Accused of child abuse: 1979 Pinon Affair (supposedly present at parties where underage girls were abused, together with later King Albert II); X3 (supposedly participated in extreme torture parties in 1950s and 1960s with Vanden Boeynants and royals)

Dev, Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (from 1972)

Chairman of the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation 1982-2001. Chairman of the Lumbini Development Trust 1986-1991. Member of Honour of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature. Member of the 1001-Nature Trust. Ascended the Throne of the Kingdom of Nepal in June of 2001 after most of the Royal family had been murdered by his nephew. Prince Philip came to meet him in the days thereafter. In October 2002 he dismissed the elected government and has since appointed a series of prime ministers. He says he acted because the cabinet failed to fulfil its mandate, including the restoration of peace. Britain, the United States, and Britain have imposed military sactions since then, while China is supportive of the King's decisions. Gyanendra received a huge amount of international awards. The Grand Cross Order of the House of the Orange (The Netherlands). Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished  Order of St. Michael and St. George. Among his business interests are a hotel in Kathmandu, a tea estate in the east of Nepal, and a cigarette factory.

December 14, 2010, BBC, 'Profile: Paras Shah, Nepal's errant former crown prince': "But he told an inquiry into the tragedy that he had done all he could to stop the crazed prince, and managed to save the lives of several children present by hiding them behind a sofa."

November 15, 2001, BBC, 'Nepal: Bangladesh navy divers to probe royal copter crash site': "On Monday 12 November , the 9N-AFP Fishtail Air helicopter crashed into the lake at about 11.25 a.m. Princess Prekshya sister-in-law of the king died in the crash and three others are still missing. However, two passengers, Lt-Col Dr Rishi Khatri and Sharada Singh Suwal, the personal physician and the personal attendant of the princess respectively, were rescued when they were found swimming. The three others - Ishwor Basnet, an acquaintance; Dan Bahadur Shahi, managing director of the company owned by the princess near Nepalgunj, and the pilot, Rabin Kadaria - are still missing and presumed dead. The officials told The Kathmandu Post that during the 40-minute briefing Capt Rahman expressed concerns about the high altitude of the place (2,990 m), the cold temperature (which the officials say could be as low as zero degree centigrade) and the depth of the lake (167 m). The chances of recovering the wreckage appear to be remote, admitted the officials after talking to the scuba divers..."

June 16, 2001, The Press Trust of India, 'King Birendra made abortive bid to shoot berserk Dipendra': ""The main motive (behind the killing) was the marriage. The issue was raised during Dipendra's last birthday party," Prince Paras told the probe panel. "Bhai and I were always with Dai (Dipendra). We always did what he told us to do. Shruti (Dipendra's sister), Gorakh (her husband) and the other sisters were against the marriage," Paras says. He claims that Prince Dipendra told him that he took up the matter with his mother and the queen mother hours before the fateful incident. "I had talked about the marriage with Muma (Queen Aishwarya) and Afumuma (Queen mother Ratna) but both said no. They promised to talk to Buba (King Birendra) on Sunday," Dipendra told Paras, while the two were chatting between 1940 hours and 2000 hours (local time) on that fateful night."

April 17, 2009, Hindustan Times, ''Nepal palace massacre linked to princess' chopper crash death'': "Nepal's Maoist Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal Prachanda Friday dropped a new bomb shell, alleging that there was a link between the bloodbath in the royal palace in 2001 that wiped out the king, queen and the entire royal family, and a chopper crash five months later in which the slain queen's youngest sister was killed. "There is a link between the palace massacre and the Rara incident," Prachanda told Nepali television station Avenues, referring to the Rara lake in remote Mugu district where Princess Prekshya of Nepal died in a chopper crash along with three more travelling companions. The allegation revives public doubts about the Rara crash in November 2001, almost five and a half months after Nepal was stunned by the assassination of King Birendra in the tightly guarded Narayanhity royal palace along with his queen Aishwarya, their two children, youngest brother Dhirendra, and four other relatives. Though a high-level enquiry commission headed by the then parliamentary Speaker Taranath Ranabhat indicated that the carnage was caused by a disgruntled Crown Prince Dipendra, who at the end shot himself in the head in a drugs and drinks-fuelled rage, the majority of Nepalis scoffed at the report, believing it was part of a deep-rooted conspiracy. The conspiracy theory got a boost when Dhirendra's estranged wife Prekshya, who was also the youngest sister of the dead queen, met with a fatal accident Nov 12, 2001. The 49-year-old Prekshya was returning to Kathmandu with Ishwor Basnet, an acquaintance, Dan Bahadur Shahi, a palace aide, Lt. Col. Rishi Khatri, her physician, and Sharada Singh Suwal, her personal attendant, when the private helicopter they were travelling in crashed into the lake soon after take-off. While the princess was killed, the bodies of Basnet, Shahi and the pilot, Rabin Kadaria, could not be found. The remaining two were flown to Kathmandu for treatment and survived. Dhirendra, known for his rakish ways, had divorced his wife for another woman, for which the king punished him by stripping him of his prince title. However, Dhirendra was still given a key role by the king in establishing contacts with the Maoist guerrillas, who had begun an underground war in a bid to end the monarchy and turn Nepal into a republic. The deaths of Birendra, Dhirendra and Prekshya, who was close to the queen, were regarded by many as a systematic and ruthless attempt to remove all witnesses to secret political deals. Now the conspiracy theories have been resurrected with Prachanda announcing that his government would begin a fresh investigation into the palace massacre and bring the actual perpetrators to justice. The Maoist chief, however, did not say immediately if a new investigation would also be ordered into the Rara crash."

July 6, 2001, New York Times: "He declined to say what Paras Shah did to save the lives of some royals, but other eyewitnesses have said that he pushed several women under a table."

June 13, 2001, Japan Economic Newswire, 'Firearms bear Dipendra's fingerprints, newspaper says': "Witnesses have confided to their friends and relatives that Dipendra indulged in what they call 'target shooting' that night. He shot those he wanted to kill one by one, without any slip-ups, they said. Prince Paras, Dipendra's cousin, saved himself from being shot by creating a human shield around him, they said. As the shooting progressed, he collected women and children attending the party and hid himself behind them. Paras was among those left unhurt. Dipendra wanted to make doubly sure that his task was accomplished and in one case he turned over the body of Princess Jayanti to make sure she was dead, witnesses said. Royal relatives also say that earlier in the day Dipendra had made phone calls to his uncle, then Prince Gyanendra and now king, asking him to join the evening party. Gyanendra, who was in Pokhara in west Nepal, reportedly expressed his inability to attend. Dipendra also repeated phone calls to his youngest aunt, Princess Prekshya, to tell her she should be around for the evening gathering. The princess, ailing with a serious back problem, declined. Her husband, Dhirendra Shah, attended and was one of the royals slain by Dipendra that evening."

ISSUE #47 (15 JUNE 2001 - 21 JUNE 2001), Nepali Times, 'Dhirendra Shah': "Like his elder brothers, the late King Birendra and King Gyanendra, Dhirendra also went to St Joseph's College in Darjeeling. ... The former prince was in the news as recently as last July, when at a function he attended organised by Parivartan Nepal to celebrate the birthday of Crown Prince Dipendra, one of the speakers said he would not hesitate to shoot the prime minister. For two days, legislators charged Dhirendra with trying to topple multiparty democracy. In an interview that followed in a local weekly, he clarified: "My commitment is toward my nation, Nepali people, constitutional monarchy, and democracy." He was member of the Rajya Sabha from 1977 to 1988. Dhirendra has lived mostly in London after 1989, but friends and relatives say he had returned to Nepal settle down permanently."

April 02, 2009, The Paper on Sunday (Malaysia), 'The inside story of the royal massacre' (interview with Paras): "At 8pm, there was the first hint of trouble, Prince Paras recalled. 'I got there a bit late, but Dipendra was staggering around in the room, as if he were drunk, as he usually was. But on this occasion, he did not reek of alcohol. An hour or so later, just as the king was about to enter the room, Dipendra collapsed. 'Looking back, I now realise he was pretending. His brother, Niranjan, and I carried him to his bedroom upstairs. 'We placed him on the bed and tried to remove the Glock pistol from the holster on his left hip so that he would be more comfortable. But he suddenly woke up and told us to leave it alone. 'Then, I noticed that his Colt M16 rifle was on the dressing table, outside the cupboard where it was usually kept. I did not make too much of it as he kept six or seven guns in his room. I left the room and rejoined the party.' The king was mingling with the older generation. Prince Paras was with the younger relatives in an alcove where they could smoke, partly out of sight of the elders. They put out their cigarettes when the king approached the bar near the alcove. Then, it turned violent."

March 30, 2009, Allvoices, 'Royal Palace Murder mystery made Public': "The royal palace murder mystery has been made public today after the former crown prince Paras, who has been living in Singapore, said that late prince Dipendra killed his entire family including king Birendra for love and weapons. The 9 members of the royal family including King Birendra were murdered at a royal palace party on June 1, 2001. Dipendra was blamed for the murder. However, the government has recently said that it would investigate the royal palace massacre. The ex-crown prince Paras has said that the late prince Dipendra had King Birendra and his family for a multi-million dollar arms deal, forbidden love and end to absolute monarchy in 1990, local media reports said here today. “Nepal Army was looking for a new weapon to replace the Belgian SLR. Dipendra liked the German Heckler & Koch G36 assault rifle, as opposed to the battle-tested Colt M16,” Kantipur quoted ex prince Paras as saying in an interview to The New Paper Sunday. The ex-prince has been living in Singapore since July 2008 after monarchy was abolished in May. “But His Majesty, did not agree. I know that they argued over it. Dipendra was frustrated. He wasn't happy. He told me.” Sunday's edition quoted Paras as saying . “The German assault rifle had been short-listed by the army, which was in the market for 50,000 new guns. According to Paras, his cousin's advisers had been working on the deal, which could have brought the crown prince a windfall.” “That, to me, was the real trigger. The deal would have probably been for about 50,000 rifles, which at US$300 a piece, would work out to about US$15 million,” Paras told the English language tabloid. Paras's interview, according to the daily, was a reaction to Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal's recent statement that the government would reopen the investigation into the Royal Palace Massacre on the night of June 1, 2001. Paras said Dipendra needed the money since he was already making plans for the possibility that he would have to leave the country suddenly if things didn't work out for him. “I think this was his back-up plan. The palace was a hotbed of contending interests,” said Paras. In 1990, King Birendra promulgated the new constitution and ended almost 30 years of absolute monarchy. Paras said: “Dipendra was never the same after his father told him in 1990 about plans to give up monarchy. “He never agreed with that as he wanted to rule the country. I think he started planning his moves then.” The second reason was his love for Devyani Rana. The royal family did not want Dipendra to marry her as she was from a rival family. Paras dismissed the notion that his cousin had shot the family on impulse after drinking heavily that night.” He had talked to us (the younger generation of Nepali royalty) about it a year before it happened,” revealed Paras. “I remember it clearly. It was his birthday in 2000 and he told all of us that he would bring down the 'ivory tower'. But we didn't take him seriously. How could we? “This was the crown prince talking. He was going to be our king. And who would believe that he would kill his own father?” The 240 year rule of Monarchy was abolished in Nepal after the CA voted overwhelmingly to abolish monarchy last year. Paras has been living in Singapore since then."

February 2, 2005, Japan Economic Newswire, 'Nepal's king unveils cabinet, political figures arrested': "In Tuesday's proclamation, King Gyanendra said he dismissed the government of Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba 'to defend multiparty democracy by restoring peace for the nation and people' at a time when the Maoist insurgency has 'pushed the country on the brink of destruction.' He accused the kingdom's politicians of shutting their eyes to the people's welfare while tussling for power, abusing authority and engaging in 'unhealthy competition in fulfilling personal and communal interests at the expense of the nation and citizenry.' 'Nepal's independence, national unity and sovereignty are best safeguarded by the intimate relationship between the king and people,' he said. While professing his 'unflinching faith in multiparty democracy,' the monarch said Nepal's people have become 'increasingly disenchanted' with it and 'bitter experiences over the past few years tend to show that democracy and progress contradict one another.' The king's dismissal of Deuba's government marked the second time for him to seize executive power. He dismissed the elected Deuba's first government in October 2002, sparking mass protests. He reinstated Deuba last year with the task of holding elections by next month and conducting peace talks with Maoist rebels. Political parties and students affiliated with them had been agitating against the king's previous seizure of executive powers, calling for revival of the dissolved lower house of parliament to end rule by royal decree."

February 19, 2005, Indo-Asian News Service, 'Journalists fear new media clampdown in Nepal': "Kathmandu, Feb 19 -- Journalists Saturday feared that Nepal's King Gyanendra would soon form a new watchdog to further crack down on the independent media in the country and continue with press censorship. Christopher Warren, president of the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), said that he had come across reports that the king intends to establish a royal media commission to regulate the media and entrench censorship. Warren was speaking to journalists, members of the civil society and international donors in Nepal. Nepal's media has been under censorship since Feb 1 when King Gyanendra dismissed the government of prime minister Sher Bahadur Deuba and assumed executive powers. He imposed a state of emergency and suspended fundamental rights. Warren led a two-member team of IFJ to Nepal this week on a fact-finding mission. The journalist, who was refused an audience by the king, said the IFJ team had found "unacceptable repression of journalists' rights to freedom of expression and association". "The king's advisors and the army repeatedly claimed to us that no journalists were detained," Warren said. "This is patently untrue." Suspension of the freedom of speech and expression has also hit Nepal's FM radio stations, the most popular and fastest source of independent news and views. The stations have been ordered to broadcast only entertainment programmes. There have also been widespread reports about journalists, human rights activists, trade union leaders and intellectuals being arrested. Top political leaders of the country, including Deuba and many of his ministers, are in detention. According to the IFJ team, six journalists are currently under detention, including two associated with the state news agency Rastriya Samachar Samiti and the state-owned Daily Gorkhapatra. More have gone into hiding."

May 11, 2005, Agence France Presse, 'US envoy meets Nepal's King Gyanendra after warning on rights abuses': "A top US diplomat met Nepal's King Gyanendra Wednesday to press for protection of civil liberties and restoration of democracy as the Himalayan nation freed more political prisoners. ... The United States spent 10 percent of its 45 million dollars of aid to Nepal in 2004 for security that included arms and training for Nepal's ill-equipped army. This year, 1.5 million dollars has been set aside for the purpose. Rocca is the most senior US official to visit Kathmandu since Gyanendra sacked the government and suspended civil liberties February 1 in what he said was a bid to end an increasingly bloody Maoist insurgency. ... But Mahesh Acharya, a leader of the Nepali Congress Party, called the releases a token nod in response to international concerns. "The government needs to release all political activists who have been detained to prove it really is easing restrictions," he said. Human rights groups say hundreds of political activists remain in detention. ... India, which along with Britain suspended arms shipments after the king's takeover, said the monarch would take "further and early steps towards restoration of multi-party democracy ... in the coming days"."

March 25, 2006, The Economist, 'Off his head; Nepal': "KING GYANENDRA, Nepal's obstinate dictator, appears to be in a tight spot. Disdained abroad, he faces increasingly united opposition at home. This week his principal enemies, the Maoist rebels who control most of Nepal, and an opposition coalition of seven democratic parties, announced that their former loose co-operation was developing into a tactical alliance against the government. To cement their closeness, reached during two weeks of negotiations in Delhi, the Maoists agreed to end a brief blockade of Kathmandu, and the democratic parties to take the lead in whipping up urban dissent. They have called for a national strike and rally in the capital next month. Their reasons for co-operation are clear. Since he seized power in a coup last year, King Gyanendra has entrenched the powers of the monarchy and refused to negotiate with either opponent. The rebels, though powerful in the villages, have been unable to land major blows in urban areas; and the parties have seen their largely peaceful protests in cities disrupted by Maoist tactics such as blockades. Neither opposition force was getting anywhere. ... The political parties ruled Nepal corruptly and incompetently for 14 years before King Gyanendra's coup. They have little popular support. To keep up their end of the bargain with the rebels they will therefore have to attract much larger crowds than they have managed so far—and this looks unlikely unless their leaders are changed. ... But although King Gyanendra is fortunate in the weakness of his enemies, they are growing in number and in determination. The younger generation of Nepalese politicians is fiercely republican. If the monarchy is to survive the current crisis, the king had better make some friends."

August 30, 2006, Agence France Presse, 'Nepal panel to probe king over protest suppression': "A member of a special panel said Wednesday it will question Nepal's King Gyanendra in person or by letter about his role during massive protests in April that led to the end of his absolute rule. "We have questions to ask the king, not as the head of the state but as the chairman of the then council of ministers which was responsible for the repression of the people's movement," said Harihar Birahi, one of five members of a panel tasked with investigating abuses of power during royal rule. It would be the first time in Nepali history that a monarch had been questioned by his subjects. Gyanendra has already been stripped of control of the 90,000-strong army as well as any role in politics since an alliance of political parties assumed power after he stepped down. "As Saddam Hussein was also given an opportunity to defend himself, King Gyanendra should also be given a chance to clarify his actions," Birahi said. The panel appointed by the new government has already questioned cabinet ministers and others from the royal government about the crackdown that killed at least 19 people and injured scores. The government ordered the inquiry as part of a broad effort to restore democracy after 14 months of royal rule. It has also agreed to a ceasefire and peace talks with Maoist rebels to end a decade-old insurgency."

PARAS SHAH, GYANENDRA'S SON:

August 8, 2000, Japan Economic Newswire, 'Lawmakers demand punishment for Nepalese 'killer' prince': "Nepalese lawmakers across party lines slammed the government Tuesday for its silence over the killing of a popular Nepalese musician by a prince last Sunday. Speaking at the House of Representatives, the members also demanded an investigation into the slaying and harsh punishment for the killer. Nepalese newspaper reports Tuesday said musician Praveen Gurung died Sunday night after his motorbike was hit by a blue Pajero jeep, allegedly driven by Prince Paras Shah, the eldest son of a younger brother of King Birendra. The prince had set out on his jeep from a local discotheque after a quarrel with his friends and allegedly ran over the musician in front of the Narayanhity Royal Palace. After the word went out of the motorcyclist's death, the gun-totting prince went to the local police station and threatened the duty officer with dire consequences if the incident was made public, according to the reports. 'The prince was wearing mask and pointing a gun at the officer,' the Kantipur newspaper quoted sources as saying. Gurung, 38, who had composed music for more than 500 songs, was employed at a local hotel and was returning home late in the evening when he was run over by the jeep. He died 30 minutes after being rushed to hospital. Sunday night marked the third killing of innocent Nepalese by the prince, parliamentarian Mohan Bahadur Basnet charged. A taxi cab driver and a pedestrian were also victims of drunken-driving by the prince who is known for his forays to discos and nightclubs. 'The excesses of the prince have crossed the limits, and even the royal palace should do something about it,' lawmaker Rajendra Pandey said. Lawmaker Ramchandra Neupane said the alleged killings by a member of the royal family had tarnished the image of the Nepalese monarchy. And parliamentarian Pasupati Chaulagain criticized the government of Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala for its silence on the matter and its failure to indict the killer."

August 11, 2000, Nepali Times, 'Paras Shah': "Prince Paras Shah, infamous after committing dozens of excesses, killed an innocent son of the people by running his Pajero over musician Praveen Gurung. This is the third time someone, who, as member of the respected Royal Family gets an annual allowance of Rs 300,000 (his wife, Himani, gets Rs 75,000), has killed a commoner. Earlier, in 1997, a Pajero driven by Paras hit and killed taxi driver Sanukaji at Putafi Sadak. A year before that, a drunk Paras driving his jeep caused a similar accident in Bharatpur, Chitwan. The people have also not forgotten the other excesses of Paras\'. In 1996 Paras assaulted a traffic police officer who had gone up to him to inquire about the lights used in his vehicle. About a week later, after hitting a motorcycle near Hattigauda he went around beating people assembled at the site of the accident. The same year, he drew out a pistol and spread terror at Hotel Soaltee and then drove to the Everest Casino where he fired several rounds in the air. A year later, he drove to the police headquarters and beat up a sentry on duty. Again in 1999 he struck a police officer with the butt of his gun and drove away after threatening him with a machine gun. A month later he went to the Durbar Marg police station and thrashed the policeman standing guard, On election day in May last year he went around driving his car threatening all police officers he came across."

August 9, 2000, United Press Internationa;, 'Lawmakers demand action against Nepalese prince': "Lawmakers in Nepal demanded the prosecution of a prince who killed a popular singer in automobile accident. Members of the ruling Nepali Congress and opposition parties unanimously demanded that Prince Paras Shah should not be allowed to take advantage of the immunity from prosecution granted the royal family. According to the constitution, no member of the royal family can be prosecuted in the court. The Nepalese parliament witnessed noisy scenes over the accident involving the prince. "Everybody is equal before law, even members of the royal family. Legal action should be initiated against Paras Shah," Pradip Kumar Gewali, member of the main opposition party said. Praveen Gurung, a popular musician and vocalist, was crushed under prince's car outside the royal palace Sunday night while returning home from work. He died in hospital. The entire nation has been mourning the singer's death. Describing the accident as an irresponsible act, lawmakers urged that the prince be dealt with under the law applicable to all common citizens in the country. The opposition alleged that the government was trying to shield the prince. The government has not responded to the lawmakers' demand and police have not registered a complaint against the prince."

August 17, 2000, United Press International, ' Nepal's royal family facing protest': "Thousands of students have threatened to lay siege Friday to the Narayanhiti royal palace, the official of King Birendra Bikram Shah Dev, demanding that Prince Paras Shah be handed over to the police for crushing a popular local vocalist under his car. A section of parliamentarians and human rights activists support the students' agitation against the immunity enjoyed by the royal family. Members of the ruling Nepali Congress and the opposition parties unanimously demanded that Prince Paras Shah should not be allowed to take advantage of the immunity from prosecution the royal family enjoys in the kingdom."

June 6, 2001, The Australian, 'Second reign will be the toughest': "Some Western diplomats believe he may prove to be a more successful king than his predecessor, having a more forceful personality. Others are nervous over long-standing rumours of corruption, smuggling and failure to pay debts that surfaced in tabloid newspapers years ago. Whatever their suspicions about King Gyanendra, the public's feeling about his only son Prince Paras is clear. They hate him, distrust him and fear that now he is the heir to the throne, he will "be free to do what he wants". Western diplomats say Paras has long abused the protection afforded by laws protecting royals from prosecution and the consistent refusal by senior royals to bow to public pressure and waive this immunity. Nepalese newspapers, usually deferential to the crown, have made a notable exception in his case, trumpeting his alleged wrongdoings and reporting calls for him to be held to account. He is widely suspected of involvement in the death of the popular Nepalese musician Praveen Gurung in August last year, after the pop star was run over and killed while riding his bicycle home from a club where the two had argued. Accounts of his drunkenness and boorish behaviour are legion and the Katmandu Post last year also reported an incident in which he is said to have struck a policeman with the butt of an automatic weapon after being stopped for alleged drink-driving. Witnesses claimed Paras picked up the machinegun from the car seat and said: "I am Paras Sarkar, I'll blow all of you.""

June 9, 2001, Weekend Australian, 'Throne to the wolves': "There's the nagging problem of his wayward son, Prince Paras Shah, 30, who has a habit of behaving in an unregal fashion. Last August the potential heir to Nepal's throne mowed down a popular folk singer in an alleged drink-driving accident. The playboy prince with a penchant for booze and nightclubs got away with killing Praveen Gurung, though there was a public outcry. Birendra gave him a rap over the knuckles and told him to keep his nose clean. It wasn't the first time. He was allegedly involved in two other fatal drink-driving accidents. "He's got a drink problem," says one source close to the royal family. "He's a Jekyll and Hyde character. A couple of drinks and he goes berserk. Even his own family walk the other way when they see him with a glass in his hand." Several years ago, one expatriate worker playing roulette in the casino of Kathmandu's Everest hotel didn't get that chance. The drunk prince came in and decided he'd like that particular seat at the gaming table -- a request politely refused. Paras pulled out a pistol and waved it in the astonished gambler's face, before it was seized from his hand by his aide de camp. Still, his rehabilitation may have begun. Out of the ashes of the royal family's funeral pyres, a new picture of Paras emerged, in what some think a rather too-happy coincidence. As the first comprehensive witness account was finally given on Thursday, the prince came out a bit of a hero. He somehow shielded younger female members of the royal family and faced down the wild-eyed, gun-toting Dipendra as he killed his family. Whether it's a lasting image remains to be seen -- rather like Nepal's monarchy and its tottering democracy."

March 31, 2009, UNI (United News of India), 'I left Nepal because of differences with father: Former Prince Paras': "But really, all this can only come to pass if the people want me,'' he said. For the first time, Paras has admitted to the media that he was behind the death of famous musician Praveen Gurung in the Kathmandu street. A Nepal army personnel (then royal Nepal army) was arrested on the charge of murder of singer Gurung. The army personnel was later released at the request of then Prime Minister Koirala. Over half a million people had submitted memorandum to then King Birendra to take action against Paras a few months before the royal palace massacre. According to him, Gurung's motorbike swayed suddenly in front of him, and though he stepped on the brake, he could not stop in time. Paras claimed that he attended to the injured and took him to the hospital, but he was pronounced dead on arrival. He claimed that he visited the bereaved family the next day. ''I paid his wife compensation and took care of his two sons, putting them through school,'' he said. In the same newspaper interview yesterday, Paras said that former Crown Prince Dipendra has carried out the royal palace massacre for weapons and love. Former Crown Prince Paras Shah has said that he left Nepal because of differences with his father former King Gyanendra and insecurity following the political change that abolished monarchy in the country. In a series of interview to The New Paper, tabloid published from Singapore, Paras, who has been living in Singapore since July last year after the monarchy was abolished, said, ''I left Kathmandu (the capital) because it was not safe then for me. I did not get along with my father at that time.'' Paras was reported to have supported the idea of Girija Prasad Koirala for the ceremonial monarchy if Gyanendra and Paras declared the abdication. He wanted to declare his son Hridayendra as the ceremonial king but Gyanendra opposed that idea saying the monarchy could not be abolished. Paras said, ''I plan to return to my country. It needs me. Crime and violence have spiraled. There are all kinds of shortages-- petrol, diesel, kerosene and gas. The people are hungry. They are lucky if they have four hours of electricity daily because of power cuts.'' According to him, he would return at opportune time and lead the country, claiming the people need a better government. ''But I will assume power this time through the ballot box. I will form a new party with young people--bankers, professionals and men-- with a vision for the country. But really, all this can only come to pass if the people want me,'' he said."

April 8, 2009, Hindustan Times, 'Nepal palace massacre tale gets new twist': "Nepal's deposed playboy crown prince Paras has opened a Pandora's box with his claim that his cousin Dipendra had been contemplating the assassination of the king and queen of Nepal for over a year. Now a former royal aide has rejected the allegations, saying that he was sacked for not circulating the same story. Saujanya Kumar Sulya Joshi was the personal secretary of Nepal's Crown Prince Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah in June 2001 when Nepal's popular king Birendra was gunned down in the tightly guarded Narayanhity royal palace in Kathmandu along with his queen Aishwarya and seven other relatives. Soon after the bloodbath, his eldest son and heir Dipendra, who lay in a coma, was crowned the new king and also blamed for the carnage. Palace officials said Dipendra had caused the havoc during a drugs and drinks-induced rage, after which he shot himself. But the claim was rejected by Nepalis, who believed it was a conspiracy plotted by the slain king's brother Gyanendra, who became the next monarch of Nepal. The old skeletons began rattling once more this month when Gyanendra's son Paras, who has been living in Singapore after the tumultuous abolition of monarchy in the former Himalayan kingdom, told a Singaporean tabloid that Dipendra had several motives for killing his family. Besides being thwarted in his wedding plans by his parents, Dipendra was also furious at his father agreeing to surrender the absolute power he had wielded in the past to an elected government, Paras alleged. A third motive for the murder was being foiled in his attempt to make a fortune out of a weapon deal for the army, Paras said, adding that Dipendra had been mulling the assassination for almost a year. But now, Paras' interviews, that are calculated to project the dead crown prince as a killer anew, are being discounted by Dipendra's personal secretary, who says he was sacked for refusing to toe the palace line on the massacre. Joshi, 59, says the crown prince's behaviour did not tally with Paras' allegations. Dipendra was the patron of Nepal's Sports Council and on the eve of the killings was involved in planning the annual National Games. He attended a sports meet and told the organisers to wait for him the next day, Joshi told the Jana Aastha weekly, which did not indicate he was planning an appalling massacre the next day. Neither was Dipendra drunk or stoned on the day the tragedy occurred, Joshi said. After the killings, palace officials pressured him to say that Dipendra was behind the slayings but he refused, Joshi told the weekly. "Neither was I privy to Dipendra's plans nor was I present at the august family dinner where the killings occurred," Joshi said. "So my conscience would not allow me to say that the crown prince was the perpetrator." Joshi also said that the way the dead crown prince's secretariat was disbanded immediately afterwards and seven people who had been familiar with his daily routine sacked raised doubts about new king Gyanendra's motives. "Gyanendra chose the lull time of Dashain festival (when Nepal enjoys its biggest holiday period) to appoint his own son Paras as the new crown prince," Joshi said. "It created suspicions about his motive." The appointment of a new crown prince also made him wonder why the secretariat was dissolved then. Joshi's clinching argument that Dipendra did not point the gun at his parents has to do with King Birendra's health. Birendra had just survived a heart attack and it was feared that time was running out for him. Dipendra, Joshi says, knew about his father's condition. He simply had to wait a little longer to be the new king of Nepal and do things the way he wanted, including marrying the girl he loved. "How long does the survivor of a cardiac arrest last," Joshi asks. "When Dipendra knew this, was there any need for him to kill his father?" The new theories about the palace massacre come after Nepal's new government led by the former Maoist guerrillas pledged to begin a fresh investigation and bring the real culprits to book. Published by HT Syndication with permission from Indo-Asian News Service."

December 13, 2010, AFP, 'Nepal's ex-crown prince Paras Shah fires gun during argument': "He added: "When my family and all the guests had left the restaurant, I fired one bullet in the air because I could not tolerate the insult upon me and my country." A witness who spoke on condition of anonymity said Paras, who was staying at the resort with his wife and young son, had to be escorted from the dining hall by his security staff after he started shouting at the guests. "I don't know what the discussion was about, but he was pretty annoyed," said the witness, who asked not to be named. "He was shouting and then he went outside and fired a round." Paras moved to Singapore in 2008 when his father, the unpopular former king Gyanendra, lost the throne. But he has now returned to Nepal, where his wife recently launched a fund to help deprived women and children in a move widely seen as an attempt to rehabilitate the family's public image. A spokesman for the Tiger Tops resort, a popular tourist destination, declined to comment. A local government official said no formal complaint had been lodged."

Dillon, C. Douglas

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of the above Nazi trader Clarence Dillon. Born on a business trip in Geneva. At the Pine Lodge School in Lakehurst, N.J., Dillon's schoolmates included Nelson, Laurance and John Rockefeller III. Went to Harvard and graduated in 1931. In 1931 his father gave him $185,000 to buy a seat on the New York Stock Exchange. Director of United States & Foreign Securities Corporation and the United States & International Securities Corporation 1937-1953. Director of Dillon Read & Company 1937-1938, a company deeply involved with the Nazi trade at that moment. Became vice president of Dillon Read & Company in 1938. Served in the Navy during WWII. Chairman of Dillon Read & Company since 1946, but left after a short period. Trustee Harvard University's Board of Overseers 1952-1958 and served a while as its president. US Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France 1953-1957. Here he became a good friend of Jean Monnet, one of the primary builders of a united Europe with numerous connections to Wall Street and London bankers. Monnet also was a founding member of the private intelligence group Le Cercle. Nicholas Brady, a Knight of Malta and Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay visitor, joined Dillon, Read & Company in 1954, eventually rising to the chairmanship under C. Douglas Dillon. Was visited by Jean Monnet in 1959, who came to the US to attend the funeral of his good friend John Foster Dulles. Again chairman of Dillon Read & Company 1960-1985. United States treasury secretary 1961-1965. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1965-1976. His daughter became Princess Joan de Luxembourg, after having married Prince Charles of Luxembourg in 1967. Charles was a son of Felix of Bourbon, Prince of Parma (direct descendant of Henri IV; president of the Luxembourg Red Cross between 1923 and 1932 and again between 1947 and 1969). Chairman Brookings Institution 1968-1975. Chairman Rockefeller Foundation 1971-1975. Vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1976-1978. Trustee Metropolitan Museum of Art 1977-1983. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Member Royal Institute for International Affairs. Director Chase Manhattan Bank and American Telephone & Telegraph. Member of the International Advisory Council of Chase Manhattan. Owner of France’s Haut-Brion vineyards. Received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1989. Executive member of the Pilgrims Society from the 1960s until at least the 1990s.

Drake, Sir Eric

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1910. Joined British Petroleum (BP) in 1935, then known as the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC), which had the exclusive right to extract and market Iranian oil. General manager of the AIOC in 1951, when Mossadeq was working to nationalize the AIOC. Duncan flew to London to address the Cabinet, pleading that "we should not allow the biggest foreign in Britain to go without doing something about it." (May 27, 1985, The Times, 'When Britain brought off a coup'). Nov 4, 1996, The Times, Drake's obituary: "Partly thanks to his efforts, BP survived the Mossadeq episode and it was, no doubt, in recognition of this that in January 1952 he was appointed CBE at the relatively early age of 41." In the United States as BP's North American representative 1951-1953. Created and headed a new supply and development department for BP 1953-1957. Director of BP Trading since 1957, the company's main subsidiary. Director of BP's main board since 1958. Vice chairman of BP 1963-1969. Chairman of BP 1969-1975. In the autumn of 1973, in the wake of the Arab oil embargo, he found himself summoned to Chequers - along with the chairman of Shell - to confront the Prime Minister. Member Committee on Invisible Exports 1969–75 (which became the British Invisibles in 1990). Became a Knight of the British Empire in 1970. One of the sponsors of a fundraiser of the British Library of Political and Economic Science in 1973, together with Pierre Trudeau, Sir Evelyn de Rothschild, the Earl of Drogheda and the Rhodes Trust. Vice chairman of large shipping corporation P&O (Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company) in the 1970s for five years. Chairman of the Mary Rose Trust, which was founded in 1979 and presided over by the Duke of Edinburgh. Member of the 1001 Club and the Pilgrims Society. Died in 1996.

Fellow 1976). With The British Petroleum Co. Ltd, 1935–75, Chm., 1969–75; Dep. Chm., P&O Steam Navigation Co., 1976–81. Pres., Chamber of Shipping, 1964; Hon. Mem., General Council of British Shipping, 1975–; Member: Gen. Cttee, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 1960–81, 1985–87; MoT Shipping Adv. Panel, 1962–64; Cttee on Invisible Exports, 1969–75; Bd of Governors, Pangbourne Nautical Coll., 1958–69; Court of Governors, London Sch. of Economics and Political Science, 1963–74; Governing Body of Shrewsbury Sch., 1969–83; Cttee of Management, RNLI, 1975–85; Life Mem., Court of City Univ., 1969; Pres., City and Guilds Insignia Award Assoc., 1971–75; Hon. Petroleum Adviser to British Army, 1971. Hon. Mem., Honourable Co. of Master Mariners, 1972; Elder Brother of Trinity House, 1975–. Vice Pres., Mary Rose Trust, 1984– (Chm., 1979–83). Freeman of City of London, 1974; one of HM Lieutenants, City of London.

Dulverton, 2nd Baron

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1915-1992. Commissioned Lovat Scouts (TA), 1935; Major, 1943. President: Timber Growers’ Orgn Ltd, 1976–78; Bath and West and Southern Counties Agric. Soc., 1973; British Deer Soc., 1973–87; Three Counties Agric. Soc., 1975; Gloucestershire Trust for Nature Conservation, 1979–; Member, Red Deer Commn, 1972–87; Chairman: Forestry Cttee of GB, 1978–80; Dulverton Trust, 1956–; Trustee, Wildfowl Trust; former Trustee, World Wildlife Fund (UK); Hon. Pres., Timber Growers UK, 1983–. Joint Master: N Cotswold Foxhounds, 1950–56; Heythrop Foxhounds, 1967–70. DL Gloucester, 1979. Commander, Order of Golden Ark (Netherlands), 1985.

Duncan, Sir Val

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list, in Memoriam (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1913. Son of Norman Duncan. Educated at Harrow and Brasenose College. Called to the bar in 1938. Served in the royal engineers during WWII. Assistant secretary at the German and Austrian Control Office right after WWII. Member Coal Board 1947-1948. Joined Rio Tinto in 1948 as a commercial manager, and represented the company in mainland Europe. Chairman and CEO of Rio Tinto Zinc since at least in the late 1960s. In the past, the Rothschild family owned a third of Rio Tinto and is said to have counted the Windsors among its shareholders. Appointed president and CEO of the British Newfoundland Corporation and chairman, CEO and president of Churchill Falls in 1969, after his predecessor, Donald J. McParland, had died in a plane crash over Labrador. British January 8, 1976, The Times, reaction of Edmund de Rothschild to the obituary of Sir Val Duncan: "These characteristics were particularly shown in his contribution to the British Newfoundland Corporation (Brinco) and its development of Churchill Falls. When he and I first flew over the almost unexplored territory of Labrador in 1954, he understood the immensity of the preparatory work..." Director of the Bank of England and British Petroleum (BP). Chairman of a committee in 1968 to report on the future of the Foreign Service. Formed a group of industrial and trade union representatives in 1973. Involved in the preparation for a coup to oust prime minister Harold Wilson in the early 1970s. March 13, 2006, Daily Mail, 'A very British coup': "Sir Val Duncan, the chairman of Rio Tinto Zinc, promised: 'When anarchy comes, we are going to provide a lot of essential generators to keep electricity going . . . then the Army will play its proper role.'" Sir Val Duncan was a dowser and had met with Uri Geller in the early seventies. He inspired Geller to use his talents to find minerals (Henry Kissinger, Gerald Ford and Alexander Haig were very interested in his talents, according to Uri Geller himself). Died in 1975.

Who's Who: Joined The Rio Tinto Co. Ltd, 1948; Managing Dir, 1951; Chairman and Chief Executive, The Rio Tinto-Zinc Corporation Ltd, since 1964; Chairman: Rio Algom Mines Ltd, Toronto; Director: Conzinc Riotinto of Australia Ltd; British Petroleum Co. Ltd, since 1974; a Director of the Bank of England, since 1969. Chm., Review Cttee on Overseas Representation, 1968–69. Chm., Council of Commonwealth Mining & Metallurgical Insts, 1975–. Governor, Harrow Sch., 1971–.

East, Barry

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Owned Town & City Properties. In June 1974 Sterling Guarantee Trust took over Town & City through a reverse takeover.

Eastwood, Sir John

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1909-1995. Developed the largest integrated chicken- and egg- producing company in the world, transformed chicken from the dearest of common meats to the cheapest and initiated a decline in the price of eggs which, in real terms, still continues. The chicken business was run by the company set up in 1945, J.B. Eastwood Ltd, which went public in 1959, with Eastwood advising all his many friends to buy shares rather than invest in their own farms. Egg units were added to the existing broiler units from 1963 and Eastwood came close to supplying 10 per cent of the national market for both chickens and eggs. He sold the poultry business for some pounds 40m to Imperial Tobacco in 1978 and also sold his private Thorganby Estate, south of York, for pounds 4m at about the same time.

Edu, Chief Shafi Lawal

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Until his death in 2002 President of the Nigerian Conservation Foundation. January 9, 2002, Africa News, 'Nigeria; Chief Edu Dies At 91; 50 Perish in Wedding Crash': "Chief Edu became the local Manager of Holland West African Lines in 1945. He soon pitched tent with politics and was elected into the Western House of Assembly, where he served from 1951-1954. In 1954, he was again elected into the Federal House of Representatives in Lagos, and later became the Vice-President of the Lagos Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) from 1958 and 1962. In 1963, he became the President of the Chamber. Chief Edu also served as Health Minister, Western Nigeria. From 1965 and 1966, he was appointed Vice-President of the Commonwealth Chamber of Commerce and soon rose to become the President in 1966. In the same year, he was appointed the first Health Commissioner of Lagos State by the Mobolaji Johnson military regime. Brig.-Gen. Johnson had said of Chief Edu on his resignation from his government in 1968: "By the time flee (S. L. Edu) was appointed into my cabinet, every Nigerian knew he was already an established colossus in the business world, a man of stature and a well of knowledge. "I was quite certain that his participation in government would definitely not be with a view to making money." The quintessential Edu was indeed the director of several companies, including the Nigerian Oil Refinery Company, Palm Lines and British Petroleum (Nigeria). He was also Chairman of African Alliance Company, Niger Petroleum Company, Alumaco (Nigeria) Limited and Blackwood Hodge's Transport Limited. He also led the Association of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Mines of Nigeria as President. Chief Edu established the Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF) in 1981 with a view to protecting the nation's environment and making Nigerians adopt friendly attitudes towards the environment." September 17, 1965, Time Magazine, 'Africa: The Nigerian Millionaires': "Chief Shafi Lawal Edu, 54, who is president of Lagos' chamber of commerce, has built a fleet of eight oil tankers. He owns a silver-blue Rolls-Royce, but usually drives around in a Mercedes—thinks it is less ostentatious."

Spelled by EIR as "Chief Salay L. Edu". The late founder (in 1980) and president of the Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF). The NCF is described as "Nigeria's foremost non-governmental organisation". EIR: "In 1989, Chief Edu hosted Prince Philip in a visit to the wetland area bordering Niger, a tour requiring a new airfield. In 1990, Edu hosted Prince Charles in a visit to the site, to view migrating birds from Europe. The WWF wants to put a park in the area. Chief Edu also happens to be the point man in Nigeria for Royal Dutch Shell, a financial moneybag for the WWF. Shell runs 50% of Nigeria's 2 million barrels per day oil production. Through this route, the Fund launched its provocations. In a bid to cut off supplies of foreign exchange, Shell organized a strike of oil workers, who demanded the release of Abiola from jail and a government payout of $800 million in arrears Nigeria allegedly owes Royal Dutch Shell and other foreign companies. "Shell is behind this strike," a well-informed London source told EIR. "The easiest thing for them to do is to bribe the union with a payoff to provoke such a strike. It is entirely political. Shell and the U.K. Foreign Office want a civilian regime which will be weak." The Abacha government, however, managed to settle the strike in September."

The Dutch, British, and other countries vied with Portugal to control the lucrative slave trade that was organized out of Nigeria and by the 1700s, the British controlled most of the coastal region. The tide changed after Britain abolished slavery and sought to eliminate slave trading. In 1861, Nigeria was made a British colony and in 1906, land east of the Niger River was incorporated into the colony. Slowly, Britain began to prepare the country for self-rule: in 1946 Britain divided Nigeria into three parts, each with an advisory assembly. Nigeria was restructured as the Nigerian Federation in 1954. The country experienced difficulties in the 1960s as the various ethnic groups making up the country battled for control. In 1966, a civil war erupted following a coup in which the prime minster and many others were killed. Between 1967 and 1970, the war in Biafra raged (correspondent, fresh MI6 agent, and later Cercle chairman Jonathan Aitken was stomping around here some time in the 1960s). Biafra was the region that seceded from Nigeria after rejecting a plan that divided the country into 12 states. This devastating conflict cost the lives of at least a million Biafrans (mostly of the Ibo tribe) and severely damaged the Nigerian economy. But through the years, political instability, as manifested by coup after coup, has been a constant in the country. In 1999, the first popularly-elected president in 16 years came into office.

The British have been accused of continually manipulating events in Nigeria. Especially the Eastern Region of Nigeria was exceptionally rich oil and natural gas resources. Even [more so] today Nigeria is very important to the West for its high quality oil production. Shell and British Petroleum have major installations there.

Edu, Abayomi "Yomi"

Source(s): 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (member since 1984)

Son of Chief Shafi Lawal Edu. Yomi Edu was born May 1946 in Lagos State. He is a qualified insurance broker and attorney, receiving his LLB, Barrister at Law, from the University of Buckingham, England in 1989. He has served on various boards including the Nigerian Industrial Development Bank, African Alliance Insurance Company, Kewalrams Nigeria Limited and Afcot Nigeria Limited. He was appointed Federal Minister for Special Duties in the Obasanjo Administration from 1999 to 2003. Mr. Edu currently runs an oil service company, Afrigate Energy Limited, and a real estate development company, Vickers Properties Limited.

Edu, Ademola

Source(s): 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (member since 1988)

Edu is Chairman of Evans Medical Plc and a Senior Partner of Irving and Bonnar, the oldest law firm in Nigeria. He is also the Chairman of Bristow Helicopters (Nigeria) Ltd.

Engelhard, Mrs. Charles W.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Mr. Charles W. Engelhard (1917-1971) was a founding trustee WWF-South Africa and vice president of the South Africa Foundation. Major financial patron of the Kruger Park. Owner of Engelhard Corporation. As a result of his company's need for gold acquisitions from South African suppliers, Charles Engelhard became a major investor in the country, acquiring gold, copper and coal mining ventures as well as investing in industrial concerns. He set up a publicly traded holding company in the U.S. that raised capital for investments in South African business. The company made investments alone and in conjunction with South African business tycoon, Harry Oppenheimer (1001 Club; South Africa Foundation) whose Anglo American plc dominated the South African mining industry. Director of Anglo-American. Sold most of his South African business interests to Anglo-American shortly before his death. Major owner in Thoroughbred horse racing. Good friend of Ian Fleming and said to have been the inspiration for the Goldfinger character in the James Bond movie Goldfinger.

As the story goes, Engelhard once discovered that John F. Kennedy was having an affair with a nineteen year old student at Radcliffe College. Engelhard had attempted to employ a private detective in Boston to obtain photographs of Kennedy with this student. The detective refused and informed Kennedy of what was going on and this resulted in Bellino organizing a wiretap on Engelhard Industries.

August 4, 1981, Wall Street Journal, 'Merger to Move Phibro Into Securities, The Biggest Commodity Market of All': "Engelhard Minerals and Chemicals Corp., a metal-refining and minerals processing concern. One legacy of that association was a link to Charles Engelhard, a shrewd investor widely reputed to be the model for Ian Fleming's Goldfinger. Another was a link to Anglo American Corp., a major Engelhard Minerals stockholder..."

d'Erlanger, Lady Gladys

Source(s): 1978 and 1987 lists; 2010 list

Biography of her husband, Sir Gerald d'Erlanger (1906-1962): Chartered Accountant, 1933; Partner in Myers & Co. and Member of Stock Exchange, 1935–39; Director of British Airways, 1935–40; Commanding Officer Air Transport Auxiliary, 1939–45; Member of Board of British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAS), 1940–46; Managing Director, British European Airways, 1946–47, Chairman, 1947–49; Member Air Transport Advisory Council, 1952 (Deputy-Chairman 1954), resigned, 1955; Chm. BOAC, 1956–60. Chairman; City & International Trust Ltd; General Consolidated Investment Trust Ltd; Moorgate Investment Co. Ltd; Dep. Chm. Provident Mutual Life Association; Director: John Mackintosh & Sons Ltd; Philip Hill Investment Trust Ltd. The daughter of Sir Gerald and Lady d'Erlanger, Minnie, married Winston S. Churchill, the grandson of the famous Winston Churchill, in 1964.

Leo d'Erlanger was a Pilgrim.

Finckenstein, Count Karl-Wilhelm von

Source(s): 2010 list (member since 1973)

German aristocracy. Descendant of his namesake Count Karl-Wilhelm von Finckenstein (1714-1800), who was Prime Minister of Prussia. Negotiated the Prussian-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the United States Ambassador to France Thomas Jefferson (1785–1789), and renewed it in 1799 after negotiations with United States Ambassador to Prussia John Quincy Adams (1797–1801).

Galen, Count Ferdinand von

Source(s): 2010 list (member since 1973)

Born in a German aristocratic family. Head of Schroder, Munchmeyer, Hengst & Co., one of Germany's most reputable private banks, located in Frankfurt. In 1983 he was arrested for fraud and went to jail. The bank was sold to Lloyds. (Hot Money and the Politics of Debt, pp. 121-122). Moved to the United States. Chairman of the Arizona Aerospace Foundation. Went to the Bohemian Grove in 2008. The family has intermarried with the Habsburgs.

Irish, Sir Ronald A.

Source(s): 2010 list (member since 1973)

1913-1993. Partner, Irish Young & Outhwaite, Chartered Accountants, retired; Chairman, Rothmans of Pall Mall (Australia) Ltd, 1955–81, retired.

Ford, Henry, II

Source(s): 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; May 2003, Capital Research Center, Foundation watch; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1917-1987. Grandson of the famous Henry Ford. He left Yale before graduating. Dir, Ford Motor Co., 1938–. President, CEO and chairman of Ford Motor Company 1945-1980. Chairman Finance Committee of the Ford Motor Company 1980-1987. Hired the later co-1001 Club member Robert McNamara. Director: Sotheby’s Holdings, Inc., 1983– (Vice-Chm., 1983–86) - where his good friend Max Fisher (important Zionist leader; close to the Israeli leadership) could also be found; Manufacturers Trust Co. of Florida, NA, 1983–85. Trustee, The Ford Foundation 1943–1976. Chm. Trustees, Henry Ford Health Care Corp., 1982–; Mem., St Mary’s Hosp. Adv. Bd of Trustees, 1984–. Member of the International Advisory Council of Chase Manhattan. At the beginning of the 21th century William Clay Ford Jr. (great-grandson of Henry Ford) was CEO of Ford Motor Company.

Fraga-Iribarne, Manuel

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (joined in 1975)

From Spain. Co-founder of the Alianza Popular (AP) in 1976. The AP was a federation of several parties, which were all fascist or borderline fascist. It opted for a "more gradual" change to democracy than Suarez and his allies had planned for. Some co-founders with Manuel Fraga were former Franco ministers Gonzalo Fernandez de la Mora, fascist Cercle member Silva Munoz, and Lopez Rodo (influential minister in the 1960s and early 1970s, who is said to have engineered the Opus Dei takeover of the Spanish government. When the new constitution was approved in 1978, turning Spain into a parliamentary democracy, most members of the AP, as totalitarian as they were, decided to accept the constitution. Fraga became president of the Alianza Popular at some point. Visited Le Cercle. Member 1001 Club.

Frommelt, Egmond

Source(s): Digital Who's Who; 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 (member since 1983)

Born in 1927. Engaged in various businesses in Liechtenstein 1953-1955. Bank employee at the private bank, Zurich, Switzerland, 1956-57. Trainee at a brokerage firm in New York City in 1957. Employee of the Bank in Liechtenstein AG [owned by the Prince Hans-Adam II family foundation] 1958-1963. Deputy managing director Bank in Liechtenstein 1963-1968. Managing director Bank in Liechtenstein 1968-1983. Minister of social affairs in the government of Liechtenstein 1978-1986. Chairman of the management board Bank in Liechtenstein 1983-1989. Chairman of the board of directors Bank in Liechtenstein 1989-1993. Honorary chairman of the board directors Bank in Liechtenstein since 1993. Has been a director of various corporate subsidiaries of Bank in Liechtenstein 1983-1993. Director in various chambers of commerce. Chairman First Liechtenstein Swiss Fonds. Member of the Lions Club and the WWF's 1001 Club. Member of the 3-person board of the Art Foundation of the LGT Bank in Liechtenstein, together with Prince Philipp of Liechtenstein (younger brother of Hans Adam II), the chairman, and René B. Ott, director of the LGT Bank in Liechtenstein. LGT is composed of the wealth management experts of the Princely House of Liechtenstein, and developed out of the Bank in Liechtenstein, which was founded in 1920. Its four core competencies are Private Banking, Trust Services, Asset Management and Alternative Investments. Per 30 June 2005 LGT had assets worth about $60 billion under management. LGT Bank has consistently been awarded the highest ratings ever given to comparable financial institutions. January 21, 1999, National Catholic Reporter, 'Catholic reformers launch investigation of church financial practices': "Interest in church finances was first galvanized two years ago by news that the Cologne archdiocese in Germany -- rumored to be among the richest in the world -- had deposited money in a bank in Liechtenstein infamous for its stringent banking secrecy laws. "Why should Cologne shift all of its money there if the purpose is not to hide how it is used?" Simon Bryden-Brook, secretary of the European Network and a member of Catholics for a Changing Church in England, said in a telephone interview... Network organizers had planned to stage a protest outside the Liechtenstein Global Trust Bank, where the funds from Cologne were deposited. The bank is wholly owned by the country's Catholic crown prince, Hans-Adam II." February 2, 2005, Apollo Magazine: "The purchase of the Badminton cabinet out of his own funds by Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein--the profits of whose Liechtenstein Global Trust Bank..." According to the "Sunday Times of India" for August 4, 1991, "Hans-Adam controls 97% of the voting rights and 85% of the share capital of the Bank of Liechtenstein, which in turn controls the $3.3 billion GT Management of London."

Member of the World Baden-Powell Fellowship (boyscouts), together with Herbert Batliner, Dr. E. Heinz Batliner, Prince Hans Adam II von Liechtenstein, and Prince Nikolaus von Liechtenstein.

Fung, Sir Kenneth Ping-fan

Source(s): Environmental Justice Foundation, 'List of Signers - Total number: 181 (NGOs); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Studied in Hong Kong and California. Founder Dransfield Group in 1936 (now DICHAIN Holding). Chairman and co-founder Cheung Chuk Shan College in 1969. Founded the WWF Hong Kong in 1981. Knight Bachelor and Commander of the Order of the British Empire, Knight of St. John of Jerusalem, Knight of Justice, and member of several other orders. Kenneth has been appointed by the People's Republic of China as a Senior Consultant for External Economy of the People's Government of Chongqing, and Honorary Director of the Beijing Municipal Development Centre of Science and Technology of Agriculture, Forestry and Animal Husbandry. He served four successive Governors and Deputy Governors, representing St. John Ambulance Brigade, as the first Chinese to hold this post. He was appointed by Queen Elizabeth II to serve on the Executive Council (Senate) and the Legislative Council (Congress) of Hong Kong. Upon his retirement from the Executive Council in 1972, Queen Elizabeth II granted Sir Kenneth the special privilege to retain in perpetuity the prefix "Honourable" to his name in recognition of his long and distinguished service to Hong Kong for almost four decades. Kenneth has been a supporter of the Environmental Justice Foundation (mentioned his 1001 Club membership), which thinks about solutions of a worldwide ecological crisis. Serious donator to the The Hong Kong America Center, chairman Hong Kong Arts Festival Society. The Sir Kenneth Fung Ping Fan Foundation Trust funds several environmental projects. Died in 2002.

Fung, Kenneth H. C.

Source(s): 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Apparently a close relative of Sir Kenneth Ping-fan Fung. Involved with the Asian Cultural Council, together with the Rockefellers. Trustee of the United College Board. 2004, Asian Cultural Council, Review Update: "On November 10, 2004, the Asian Cultural Council in New York will celebrate four decades of work in cultural exchange at a special Gala benefit, honoring distinguished chairman Elizabeth J. McCormack who has guided the Board of Trustees since 1990. ... Acclaimed television journalist Bill Moyers will appear as master of ceremonies and David Rockefeller, Sr. and Laurance S. Rockefeller will attend as Honorary Chairmen. The event Committee will be chaired by David Rockefeller, Jr. together with a prominent group of Co-Chairs including Time Warner’s Richard D. Parsons, Kenneth Hing-Cheung Fung of Hong Kong, Douglas Tong Hsu of Far Eastern in Taipei and Seiji Tsutsumi of the Saison Foundation in Tokyo."

Director BAT Hong Kong. Aside from family owned companies, Mr . Fung serves on the Board of six joint venture non-family companies and is currently holding only one non-executive directorship with Reader's Digest Association Far East Ltd . COMMUNITY/CIVIC SERVICE * Founder of the Hong Kong International Music Festival Society Ltd . (1969-72) . This was subsequently expanded to become the Hong Kong Arts Festival . * Fund-raising Chairman, Hong Kong Philharmonic Society Ltd . (1974-77) * Member of the 1001 Club of World Wildlife Fun d * Past President, Harvard Club of Hong Kong. He was recently elected/appointed by Beijing to become a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. Mr. Kenneth Fung being from one of the oldest and most respected Chinese families in town, has excellent contacts locally including the Hong Kong government . The Fung family is also well respected by the Chinese government . Several of the family's companies are doing considerable trade with China . Mr. Fung is an internationalist . He is intelligent and forthright.

Godrej family

Source(s): The Godrej company website; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008) (both lists mention Sohrab Pirojsha Godrej)

The Godrej family is a wealthy Parsi (Persian) Zoroastrian family living in Mumbai (Bombay), India. The late S.P. Godrej was the founder Trustee and President of WWF India. Adi Godrej is the chairman of Godrej Group, involved with Insecticides, Agro & Foods, Real Estate, Chemicals, Technology, Home Appliances, Office Equipment, Security Equipment, Machine Tools, and more. Adi has an estimated net worth of $1.9 billion. J. N. Godrej is chairman and managing director of the Godrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd., one of the largest privately-held engineering and consumer products corporations in India. The combined sales of the company, its subsidiaries and affiliates, during 2004, amounted to about US$ 980 million. Two family members are directors of the company. Its shares are not listed on any Stock Exchange. About one-fourth of the Company's share capital is held by Pirojsha Godrej Foundation, a public charitable trust. The website's company mentions: "We are also a member of the exclusive "1001: A Nature Trust", which is actively associated with preservation of nature, wildlife and the environment... We have been associated with TRAFFIC-India (Trade Record Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce), a division of WWF-India, which is responsible for monitoring and studying legal and illegal trade in wildlife and its derivatives, thus contributing to the enforcement aspects of bio-diversity conservation. "

Goldsmith, S. Gerald

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Officer in the New York Cosmos Bank. Gerald Goldsmith was a principal of and co-venturer with Ampton Investments since its inception until 1994. He now resides in Palm Beach, Florida and is a limited partner and serves actively as an advisor and consultant to the firm. After a career on Wall Street with Allen & Company (seems to have a tie to the Allen family since at least the 1950s), Wertheim & Co. and A.G. Becker, he was Chairman of I.C.D. (New York Stock Exchange) until 1976 and has subsequently been an independent investor. He is a present or former director of Nine West Group, Inc. (NYSE), American Banknote (NYSE), Meditrust (NYSE), Innkeepers USA (NYSE), and the closely held Property Corp. International and Palm Beach National Bank & Trust Company. Mr. Goldsmith has held numerous other directorships, including the Presidency of his family companies, Solomon-Goldsmith Cotton and Goldsmith Farms, NYSE directorships with the Florida National Bank, U.V. Industries, Abacus Funds, and Seven Arts Productions, as well as directorships of Royal Bank of Canada International and Sterling Trust Bank. He has been a director of numerous closely held real estate companies including those owning the Taft, Commodore and Drake Hotels. He is Chairman of the Good Samaritan/St. Mary’s Hospital Foundation in Palm Beach and an Emeritus Director of Pace University and has been a member of the zoning board and city council of Palm Beach. Mr. Goldsmith is a graduate of the University of Michigan and a graduate of the Harvard Business School and a former officer in the United States Air Force.

Goulandris, Basil P.

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

In 1950 he took over the management of the family shipping companies based in New York. For many years he held the position of honorary chairman of the Association of Greek Ship Owners and was also a director of the American Bureau of Shipping. In 1981 he was appointed the title of Knight of the Legion of Honour and in 1986 of Officer of the Legion of Honour.

John L. Goulandris of the United Kingdom was another member of the 1001 Club. Orion and Global Chatering Co. President Union of Greek Shipowners.

Grace, Charles M.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Brother of J. Peter Grace.

Grace, J. Peter

Source(s): 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1913. Bachelor of Arts from Yale University in 1936. President and CEO of the chemical giant W.R. Grace & Co. 1945-1992 (big in South-America). Said to have been involved in Operation Paperclip and relevant projects after 1945. Member Council on Foreign Relations since 1950s. Chairman of the Order of the Knights of Malta (SMOM) in the United States. Director Citibank. President Catholic Youth Organization for the Archdiocese of New York. Chairman National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine. Member Willard Garvey's International conference on privatizing education. Chairman of the American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD), set up in 1962 to control Latin America's labor unions. Special forces commanders colonel Lansdale and general Richard G. Stilwell wrote the blueprints for the AIFLD, while David Rockefeller was one of the trustees. Trustee American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism 1950 (Pilgrim Heinz II also). Involved with the CIA-sponsored Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. Chairman President’s Private Sector Survey on Cost Control (under Reagan). Chairman Advisory Committee of Americares 1982-1995, which also counted the involvement of Zbigniew Brzezinski (Le Cercle), General Stilwell (Le Cercle), the Bush family, and received a lot of support from the Knights of Malta. Director Friends of the Democratic Center in Central America (involved the Iran-Contra affair). Member Council for National Policy (CNP), Pilgrims Society, Newcomen Society, and 1001 Club. Died in 1995.

Grade, Baron Lew

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1906-1998. Russian Jewish family. Joint Managing Dir of Lew and Leslie Grade Ltd, until Sept. 1955; Chm. and Chief Exec., Associated Communications Corp. Ltd, 1973–82; Pres., ATV Network Ltd, 1977–82; Chairman: Bentray Investments Ltd, 1979–82; ACC Enterprises Inc., 1973–82; Stoll Moss Theatres Ltd, 1969–82; Chm. and Chief Exec., Embassy Communications Internat. Ltd, 1982–85; Dir, Supervisory Bd, Euro Disney SCA, Paris, 1988–. Vice Pres., British Olympic Assoc. Mem., Royal Naval Film Corp. Fellow, BAFTA, 1979. Comdr Grand Cross, Order of Malta, 1969. Chairman, The Grade Co., since 1985; Chairman for Life, ITC Entertainment Group, since 1995 (Chairman and Managing Director, 1958–82).

Who's Who of his nephew Michael, b. 1943 (the son of his brother Leslie): Daily Mirror: Trainee Journalist, 1960; Sports Columnist, 1964–66; Theatrical Agent, Grade Organisation, 1966; joined London Management and Representation, 1969, Jt Man. Dir until 1973; London Weekend Television: Dep. Controller of Programmes (Entertainment), 1973; Dir of Programmes and Mem. Bd, 1977–81; Pres., Embassy Television, 1981–84; Controller, BBC1, 1984–86; Dir of Programmes, BBC TV, 1986–87; Chief Exec., Channel Four, 1988–97; First Leisure Corporation: Dir, 1991–2000; non-exec. Chm., 1995–97; Chm., 1997–98; Chief Exec., 1997–2000. Chairman: VCI plc, 1995–98; Octopus Publishing Gp, 2000–01; Bd of Govs, BBC, 2004–06; Hemscott plc, 2000–06; Director: ITN, 1989–93; Delfont Macintosh Theatres Ltd, 1994–99; Charlton Athletic FC, 1997–; New Millennium Experience Co., 1997–2001; Camelot Gp, 2000–04 (Chm., 2002–04); Reel Enterprises Ltd, 2002–04; SMG, 2003–04; Television Corp., 2003–04. Chm. Develt Council, RNT, 1997–2004; Member: Council, LAMDA, 1981–93; Council, RADA, 1996–2004; Council, BAFTA, 1981–82, 1986–88 (Vice-Pres., 2004–); 300 Group; Milton Cttee; British Screen Adv. Council, 1986–97; Council, Cinema and Television Benevolent Fund, 1993–2004; Council, Royal Albert Hall, 1997–2004. Chm., Wkg Gp, Fear of Crime, 1989; Member: Nat. Commn of Inquiry into Prevention of Child Abuse, 1994–96; Panel on Fair Access to the Professions, 2009; Chm., Index on Censorship, 2000–04. President: TV and Radio Industries Club, 1987–88; Newspaper Press Fund, 1988–89; Entertainment Charities Fund, 1994–; Vice-Pres., Children’s Film Unit, 1993–97; Director: Open Coll., 1989–97; Cities in Schools, 1991–96; Gate Theatre, Dublin, 1990–2004; Internat. Council, Nat. Acad. of Television Arts and Scis, 1991–97; Jewish Film Foundn, 1997–99. Trustee, Band Aid; Dep. Chm., Soc. of Stars, 1995–; Hon. Treas., Stars Organisation for Spastics, 1986–92. FRTS 1991 (Pres., 1995–97); Fellow, BAFTA, 1994. Hon. Prof., Thames Valley Univ., 1994. Hon. LLD Nottingham, 1997. Chairman: Pinewood-Shepperton (formerly Pinewood Studios) Ltd, since 2000; Ocado, since 2006; Executive Chairman and Chief Executive, ITV, 2007–09. Member International Advisory Board of the British-American Business Council.

Guingand, Sir Francis Wilfred "Freddie" de

Source(s): November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (acquired several 1980s membership lists, according to Steinberg of EIR); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1900. A former British Major-General. Appointed head of the British Military Intelligence in early 1942, but soon went to Africa. Guingand served with general Montgomery from El Alamein to the surrender of the Wehrmacht in the West. Serving as his chief of staff he was responsible for the running of Montgomery's armies whilst they made the most glorious march in British military history, from Egypt to the Rhine. Montgomery appointed De Guingand soon after his arrival in the desert to supersede Claude Auchinleck. De Guingand was to prove indispensable to Montgomery, not only in battle, but also in relations with the Americans. De Guingand seems to have been blessed with considerable diplomatic skills, an area in which Monty was sorely lacking. Guingand is said to have gotten along especially well with General Walter Bedell Smith, Eisenhower's Chief of Staff, because they both had bad stomachs. Knight of the British Empire. Went into business in Southern Rhodesia in 1946. Chairman of Tube Investments and director and chair in several other companies. Chairman of the South African Jockey Club. Chairman of 1001 Club founder Anton Rupert's flagship company, Rothmans International. Co-founder, secretary, and president of the South Africa Foundation, a South African big business lobby that includes corporations as De Beers, Anglogold, Angloplatinum, GFL Mining Services, Shell, Siemens, Sony, etc. Also joined the board of WWF South Africa. Died in 1979.

Who's Who: Joined W. Yorks Regt, 1919; seconded to KAR, 1926–31; OC Troops Nyasaland, 1930–31; Adjt 1st Bn W. Yorks Regt, 1932–34; Staff Coll., Camberley, 1935–36; Mil. Asst to Sec. of State for War (Mr Hore-Belisha), 1939–40; Dir Mil. Intell., Middle East, 1942; Chief of Staff: 8th Army, 1942–44; 21st Army Group, 1944–45; Chairman: Rothmans of Pall Mall (UK); Carreras Ltd, 1967–68, and other Cos; Director and International Director of the Rothmans Group. Army and Navy, Royal Automobile, White’s; Rand, Country (Johannesburg). Died in 1979.

Gunzburg, Baron Alain de

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Lived in France. From an aristocratic family who owned a small private bank in Paris. Harvard MBA. Supposedly very arrogant in his younger years. Part of the Jewish Bronfman family through his wife Minda Bronfman (de Gunzburg; married in 1957), a sister of both Edgar M. Bronfman, Sr. and Charles R. Bronfman. This made him an uncle of both Matthew Bronfman and Edgar M. Bronfman, Jr. Apparently de Gunzburg proposed he be made head of the Bronfman's Cemp Investments, which was never really considered by the family. In the mid 1970s Minda and Alain tried to oust Edgar as head of Seagrams. May 19, 2004, New York Times, obituary of Alain de Gunzburg: "The 92nd Street Y Board and staff mourn the passing of Baron Alain de Gunzburg, father of former Board member Charles and his wife, Natalie, and of Jean and uncle of Matthew Bronfman, our devoted chairman. Our hearts and prayers are with them and the de Gunzburg and Bronfman families. ... The officers, Board of Directors, and staff of UJA Federation of New York mourn the passing of Baron Alain de Gunzburg, beloved father of Charles de Gunzburg; and father-in-law of Natalie de Gunzburg; treasured leaders of the Jewish community."

Samuel Bronfman (1889-1971): Fled from Czarist Russia with his parents to Canada. Long-time owner of Seagram Co. Ltd., an international distributor of alcoholic beverages, and a diversified conglomerate which included an entertainment branch. During the prohibition he dealed with the Chicago Outfit (mafia) and Al Capone. President of the Canadian Jewish Congress from 1939 to 1962. Apparently Samuel Bronfman was a legal client of the notorious 1001 Club member Louis Mortimer Bloomfield until the late 1960s and even after that maintained a business relationship until Sam Bronfman's death in 1971. It has also been mentioned that Roy Cohn (Permindex; linked to a child abuse ring by two known sources) was once a friend of Lewis Rosenstiel (Chairman of Schenley Industries. Mob connected (including Meyer Lansky). Major contributor to Nixon's political campaigns and has employed one of Nixon's closest friends, Louis Burrous Nichols, former assistant to the late FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. 1975, Marvin Miller, 'The breaking of a President': "Samuel Bronfman was to become Lewis Rosenstiel's chief rival in the legitimate liquor business after Prohibition, and they became bitter personal enemies. Lansky remained friends with both." December 6, 2002, The Straight Dope, 'Was J. Edgar Hoover a cross-dresser': "The story appears in Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover (1993), a gossipy biography by British journalist Anthony Summers, who has also written a JFK assassination conspiracy book. Summers says he got his info from Susan Rosenstiel, fourth wife of Lewis Rosenstiel, chairman of Schenley Industries, a liquor distiller with reputed mob connections. Ms. Rosenstiel claimed that in 1958 she and her husband went to a party at a New York hotel, where they met Hoover and McCarthy witch-hunt lawyer Roy Cohn. Hoover, whom Cohn introduced as "Mary," was supposedly wearing a wig, a black dress, lace stockings, and high heels. Hoover went into a bedroom, took off his skirt to reveal a garter belt, and had a couple of blond boys--one wearing rubber gloves--"work on him with their hands." Cohn and Hoover then watched while Lewis Rosenstiel had sex with the boys. A year later Ms. Rosenstiel attended another party at the same hotel; this time Hoover wore a red dress and a black feather boa. He had one of the blond boys, who were now dressed in leather, read to him from a Bible while the other "played" with him. Hoover then grabbed the Bible, tossed it down, and told the first boy to join in."; February 9, 1993, The Gazette (Montreal, Quebec), 'G-man in drag; PBS's Frontline makes case why Hoover was soft on mob': "Regardless of its scheduling motivation, Frontline has a very hot show this week. The commercial networks would have to go some to top The Secret File on J. Edgar Hoover. The documentary asserts that Hoover was a closet homosexual who had a 40-year love affair with his constant companion, Clyde Tolson. That's nothing new. There were whispers about Hoover and his "assistant" while the FBI boss was alive. But Frontline has broken new ground by establishing a link between Hoover's homosexuality and his peculiar view of organized crime. The FBI director - who firmly believed he and his agents were protecting the U.S. from a communist conspiracy poised to seize power - contended there was no national crime syndicate. Why did Hoover pretend the Mafia did not exist? Did the mob have proof that the great cop and his trusted adjoint were practitioners of the love that - at that point in history - dared not speak its name? ... Rosensteil says her bisexual husband took her to a room at the Plaza Hotel in New York, where they were greeted by an unusual sight. I won't ruin the surprise, except to say that the tableaux Rosensteil witnessed featured Hoover, Cohn, a short black chiffon dress, stockings, pumps, a wig, false eyelashes - it's all just too wacky." ... Moreover, Hoover was an utterly intolerant ogre. He expanded his anticommunist crusade to include bitter and insidious opposition to the civil-rights, women's and environmental movements. "As the years went on," former U.S. vice-president Walter Mondale tells Frontline, "(Hoover) became less and less a law-enforcement officer and more and more a political enforcer." Mondale says Hoover used the FBI to fight ideas he didn't like. And he used the vast evidence-gathering apparatus of the Bureau to amass files on the peccadillos of prominent politicians; it was no accident that successive presidents permitted the old thug to hang on to his FBI job past mandatory retirement age. ... The documentary includes testimony by numerous Runyonesque dems-and- dosers from whom one would not readily buy a used car, much less an assertion that the head of the FBI was a stooge of the Mafia. Hoover is not around to defend himself. Meyer Lansky and Frank Costello are dead. Roy Cohn died of AIDS, denying his homosexuality to the end."), who was in turn a friend of Sam Bronfman.

Samuel "Sam" Bronfman (1891-1971): He and his parents were Jewish refugees of Czarist Russia's anti-Semitic pogroms. Founder the Distillers Corporation in Montreal in 1924, specializing in cheap whiskey, and concurrently taking advantage of the U.S. prohibition on alcoholic beverages. Distillers acquired Joseph E. Seagram & Sons of Waterloo, Ontario, from the heirs of Joseph Seagram in 1928. April 7, 1995, Hollywood Reporter, 'Bronfman clan history stuff movies made of': "The founder of the Bronfman dynasty, the late Sam Bronfman, made his fortune the old-fashioned way: He was a Canadian-based, Prohibition-era, rum-running partner of infamous mobster Meyer Lansky. According to some accounts, Bronfman's Canadian operation was responsible for as much as one-half of the illegal booze that crossed the border into the United States during Prohibition. The Volstead Act went into effect in the United States on Jan. 16, 1920, ushering in 13 years of Prohibition. During those years, the manufacture and distribution of booze was legal in Canada, and Sam Bronfman took full advantage of the opportunity, setting up a lucrative distribution network with some of America's top gangsters and bootleggers. In "Blood and Power," author Stephen Fox's account of organized crime in America, Lansky is said to have been introduced to Sam Bronfman by Arnold Rothstein, the gambler and underworld figure who reportedly fixed the 1919 World Series. "Perhaps through Rothstein," Fox wrote, "Lansky started bootlegging with the Bronfman brothers (Sam, Allan and Harry). Sam Bronfman came to New York and courted Lansky with fancy dinners, and Lansky in turn arranged tickets for Bronfman to the Dempsey-Firpo fight in New York in 1923. The two men embarked on a durable partnership." Toward the end of his life, Lansky gave extensive interviews to author Uri Dan. In "Meyer Lansky: Mogul of the Mob," which Dan co-authored with Dennis Eisenberg and Eli Landau, Lansky is quoted as saying: "So why am I considered the criminal today, because I was also part of the bootlegging business? Why is Lansky a 'gangster' and not the Bronfman and Rosensteil families? I was involved with all of them in the 1920s, although they do not like to talk about it and change the subject when my name is mentioned." Lansky was not Sam Bronfman's only gangland connection. He and his brothers did business with nearly all the major bootleggers operating out of Chicago, Detroit, New York, Boston and New Jersey, including the likes of mobsters Frank Costello and Dutch Schultz. Bronfman also sold booze to Joseph Kennedy, the father of President John F. Kennedy. Underworld figure Longy Zwillman, a prominent New Jersey racketeer who was a ranking member of the Lansky/Bugsy Siegel gang, was another Bronfman customer. Called before the Kefauver rackets hearings in 1951, Zwillman denied that he had any financial interest in the Bronfman distilleries in Montreal, but acknowledged that in 1940, he'd sold the Bronfmans his one-sixth interest in a liquor company called Browne Vintners." November 23, 1991, Toronto Star, 'The legendary whiskey king as an angry old man': "Samuel Bronfman (1891-1971), self-styled "king of the Jews," president for life of the Canadian Jewish Congress, and the greatest whiskey baron of all time - Seagram, Distillers Corporation Ltd. - was a very angry man. The Bronfman family's official biographer, Michael Marrus, says that Bronfman "when exasperated with his co-religionists could issue pungent denunciations that could fill the armory of a fervent anti-Semite . . . (his) explosions of temper seemed utterly out of proportion to whatever might have caused offence." ... Though Sam only sold his whiskey to American bootleggers who then did the necessary distributing, a guilt-by-association scenario immediately set in. Henry Morgenthau, the first Jew to sit in an American presidential cabinet (Roosevelt's), branded the Bronfmans "gangsters and mobsters." In the famous televised Kefauver hearings into organized crime in the 1950s, legendary crime figures - Lucky Luciano, Frank Costello, and Meyer Lansky - dropped the names of Sam and the Bronfmans so often one would have thought the Bronfmans were fellow members of the Mafia social register. It was stuff like that that made Sam mad. Ingratitude also made him do more than a slow burn. For years he was easily the top financial contributor to the federal Liberal Party of Canada. From the Liberals, Sam, on several personal visits to C. D. Howe among others, asked only for a tiny boon - a resplendent seat in the Upper Chamber, and the simple title: Senator Bronfman."

Edgar M. Bronfman, Sr. (b. 1929): Son of Sam Bronfman. Head of Seagram's American subsidiary since 1957. Purchased a controlling interest in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. (MGM) in 1966 (and was briefly chairman of the board in 1969). Followed up his father as president at Seagrams Ltd. in 1971 and stepped down as CEO in 1994. In the 1980s Edgar was chair of the Board of Overseers of B'nai B'rith International, together with Edmond Safra (1001 Club; major money launderer for Mossad and Russian mafia) and Max Fisher (highest level connections in the US and Israeli governments). President of the World Jewish Congress from 1981 to 2007. According to Joel Bainerman, in 1991 he was appointed to the International Jewish Committee for Inter-religious Consultations to conduct official contacts between the Vatican and the State of Israel.

Charles R. Bronfman (b. 1931): Son of Sam Bronfman. Co-founded the Zionist charity Birthright Israel. Became head of Seagrams Canada in 1957. Former co-chair of Seagram. Chairman Koor Industries Ltd., one of Israel's largest investment holding companies, from 1997 to 2002. First Chairman of the United Jewish Communities 1999-2001. Co-chairman McGill Institute for the Study of Canada. Member Privy Council of Canada. Co-chairman of the international council of the Joint Distribution Committee, of which Edgar M. Bronfman, Henry Kissinger, David de Rothschild are members. It's headquartered in New York and sometimes referred to as "the Joint".

Minda Bronfman de Gunzburg (1925–1986): Daughter of Sam Bronfman. Married 1001 Club member Baron Alain de Gunzburg.

The sister of Charles and Edgar, Phyllis (b. 1927): Daughter of Sam Bronfman. Was married to Baron Jean de Lambert in France, a Rothschild agent, from 1949 to 1954.

Matthew Bronfman (b. 1959) : Became a director of 92nd Street Y Board in 1994. Employed with Goldman Sachs. Chair BHB Holdings. In 2006 he led a group that acquired the controlling interest in Israel Discount Bank. In March 2007 he acquired 19.8 percent stake in Super-Sol, Israel's biggest supermarket chain. Owner of IKEA franchise in Israel. Chairman World Jewish Congress governing board where he also chaired the Budget and Finance Commission. Invited to speak to the Israel Council on Foreign Relations in 2005.

Edgar Bronfman, Jr. (b. 1955) : CEO of Seagrams since 1994. Vice-chairman of Vivendi Universal. CEO of Warner Music Group since 2004.

Gunzberg, Jean-Louis de

Source(s): 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of Baron Alain de Gunzburg. Trained at the Institut Pasteur in Paris (France), and the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. From 1979 to 2005, Jean de Gunzburg led an academic scientific research career as a cell biologist specializing in the field of cancer, with government and public institutions in France. Director Burston and Texas, London firm. In his last research position held from 1997 to 2005, Jean de Gunzburg was Research Director at the CNRS (French National Research Centre) and the director of a research laboratory comprising 25 people jointly funded by Inserm (the French national medical research institute) and the Institut Curie (the leading French private foundation devoted to research and treatment of Cancer) in Paris, where it was located. Dr. Jean de Gunzburg moved to the UK in the summer of 2005, and switched from academic research to entrepreneurial investing, principally in the field of biotechnology. He has since become a partner and senior scientific advisor in a start-up biotechnology company, Da Volterra, that develops products to curtail the daunting public health issue of resistance to antibiotics. President of the World ORT, the world's largest Jewish education and vocational training non-governmental organisation.

Gutermuth, Clinton Raymond

Source(s): Digital Who's Who; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1900. Went to the University Notre Dame, the American Institute of Banking. Assistant cashier at the St. Joseph Valley Bank in Indiana 1922-1934. Worked in conservation in Indiana 1934-1945. Executive secretary of the American Wildlife Institute in Washington 1945-1946. Trustee and secretary of the North America Wildlife Foundation, Inc. 1945-1974. Vice president Wildlife Management Institute 1946-1971. Director and advisor at the Wildfowl Foundation Inc. since 1956. Co-founder of the Natural Resources Council of America (NRCA) in 1946, which included in its leadership people from the Sierra Club, the Wilderness Society, and British agent Russell Train (head of the WWF and an intelligence associate; cousin of Pilgrims Society member John Train, who was a financial advisor to Pilgrims vice president and CIA-associate John Hay Whitney). Secretary of the NRCA 1946-1957. Chairman of the NRCA 1959-1961. Chairman of the annual North America Wildlife and Natural Resources Conferences 1946-1971. Founding director of World Wildlife Fund of the U.S. 1961-1973 and a later president. Honorary president of the WWF since 1973. Director National Rifle Association 1963-1973, president 1973-1975, and on the executive council since 1975. International trustee and on the executive committee of the World Wildlife Fund International 1971-1975. Director and president of the National Institute for Urban Wildlife 1976-1985. Fellow American Association for the Advancement of Science. Honorary member American Committee for International Wildlife Protection. Member African Safari, the Wildlife Society (honorary trustee since 1951), National Audubon Society, Wilderness Society, the Nature Conservancy, the 1001-Nature Trust, the Polar Institute of North America, the Soil Conservation Society of America, the Arctic Institute of North America, the Safari Club International, and the Zoological Society of New York. Member of the Cosmos Club and a 32° Knights Templar Freemason.

Gyllenhammar, Pehr Gustaf

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Gyllenhammar is a native of Gothenburg, Sweden, born in 1935. Through his mother, Aina Kaplan, he is a descendent of a well known Jewish clan in Sweden. His father had the same name as him. Gyllenhammar graduated from Lund University in 1959 with a Bachelor of Law degree. He also pursued studies in international law in Great Britain, vocational studies at law offices in the United States and studies at the Centre d’Etudes Industrielles in Geneva. He began his business career in the insurance industry, joining Amphion Insurance Company in 1961. Deputy managing director of Skandia Insurance Company 1968-1970. Managing director of Skandia Insurance Company 1970-1971, taking over the position from his father. Managing director and CEO of Volvo AB 1971-1983, under the chairmanship of his father-in-law Gunnar Engellau. Member of the International Advisory Committee of Chase Manhattan Bank 1972-1995 (also said to have been a trustee of the Rockefeller University). Director of United Technologies Corporation from 1981 to about the mid 1990s. Chairman and CEO of Volvo AB 1983-1990. Made Commander of the Ordre National du Mérite in France in 1980 & Commander of the Legion of Honour in 1987. The idea of founding the ERT dates back to a speech of Pehr Gyllenhammar to 1,200 leading US businessmen at a 1982 dinner at the Waldorf Astoria in New York. Earlier, Etienne Davignon challenged Gyllenhammar to organize a group of the top European businessmen to lobby the European Commission. The Gyllenhammar group was to become the highly influential European Round Table of Industrialists (ERT), drawing up policy for Europe. Chairman of the ERT from 1983 to 1987. Director of Kissinger Associates from 1984 to 1997 and therefore involved with the 1989 BNL Affair, in which $4 billion of unauthorized loans were made to Iraq. Executive chairman of Volvo AB 1990-1993. Gyllenhammar left Volvo in 1993 after a planned merger with Renault failed and has since been active in London. Member of the Committee of Common Market Automobile Constructors and the board of the Federation of Swedish Industries. In 1995, he was a director of FMC Corp. (Chicago), Pearson, Reuters Founders Share Company since 1997 (now Chairman), Reuters Holdings, the Supervisory Board of Philips Electronics NV, and chairman of the MC European Capital SA, a merchant bank in London. Senior Advisor to Lazard Freres & Co. LLC 1996-1999. Became a trustee of Reuters in 1997 and went on to became chairman of the trustees, through the Reuters Founders Share Company. Director of Aviva plc, the UK's largest insurance company, from 1997 to 1998 & chairman since 1998. Senior partner and managing director of Lazard Partners since 1999. Member of the Supervisory Board of Polygram N.V. Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Cofinec SA and chairman of RFS Co. since 1999. First chairman of the European Financial Services Round Table, which was founded in March 2001. Vice-chairman of Rothschild Europe, a division of N.M. Rothschild & Sons, since 2003 and chairman of the Rothschild pension funds. Also became a Senior Advisor to the Rothschild Group worldwide at the same time. Chairman of the Board of Investment AB Kinnevik, a Swedish investment group, since 2004. Chairman of MAF Holding LLC since 2005, a Middle-East company that mainly develops shopping centres, commercial projects, hotels and planned communities. Chairman Swedish Ships Mortgage Bank. Member of the supervisory board of Lagardère SCA, a media and technology company. Used to be a deputy chairman of the Aspen Institute. The son of Pehr Gyllenhammar's sister, Peter Hjörne, is the owner and chief editor of Göteborgs-Posten, the fourth largest newspaper in Sweden and the only paper in Sweden's second largest city, Gothenburg. When Steven Spielberg's movie Schindler's List reached the screens Hjörne personally put down the money to show the movie to all senior high school students.

Haji-Ioannou, Sir Stelios

Source(s): 2010 list (joined in 1992)

Born in 1967. Joined Troodos Maritime, 1988; Founder: Stelmar Tankers, based in Athens and London, 1992; easyJet Airline Co. Ltd, 1995 (Chm., 1995–2002; non-exec. Dir, 2005–10); easyInternetcafé (formerly easyEverything), 1999; easyCar, 2000; easyValue.com, 2000; easyMoney, 2001; easyCinema, 2003; easyBus, 2004; easy4men, 2004; easyPizza, 2004; easyMusic, 2004; easyHotel, 2005; easyMobile, 2005; easyCruise, 2005; easyWatch, 2005; easyVan, 2006, easyOffice, 2007. Founder: Cyprus Marine Envmt Protection Assoc., 1992; Stelios Philanthropic Foundn. Founder, and Chairman, easyGroup, since 1998.

May 26, 1996, The Independent, 'Profile: Stelios Haji-Ioannou: Travel's agent orange; He's not yet 30, he owns a shipping line and he faces a manslaughter charge. David Bowen meets a very unusual airline proprietor': "Stelios Haji-Ioannou knows how to enjoy himself. He likes to spend his weekends on his 110ft yacht, scuba-diving around the Greek islands. Weekdays he spends in Luton Airport. The stocky, cheerful Haji-Ioannou is the latest in a long line of entrepreneurs who have decided to shake up air travel. He started his own airline, easyJet, last November and is busy raising its profile in the most aggressive way he can. His headquarters at Luton are painted orange; so are his aircraft, the only ones in the world with huge telephone numbers on their fuselages. His (orange) advertising is less than subtle, too: it is designed to irritate travel agents - whom he does not use - and to tell you loudly that easyJet will sell you a flight ticket for just pounds 29. But Haji-Ioannou is unusual in other ways. He is probably the only airline proprietor who also owns a shipping line. He is probably the only airline proprietor who has yet to reach his fourth decade - he is 29. And he is certainly the only airline proprietor who has a possible 12-year sentence for manslaughter hanging over him. Which leads us back to that yacht. EasyJet has so far spent pounds 25m, all of which has come from Haji-Ioannou's family. His father, Loucas, came from a poor family in the Troodos mountains of Cyprus. He bought his first ship in 1959 and, with a stroke of bold counter-cyclical buying in the 1980s, built up the biggest tanker fleet in the world. As a result Stelios, his brother Polys and his sister Clelia were born with solid platinum spoons in their mouths. This explains the yacht, but does not explain why he works 16 hours a day rather than wallowing full time in the good life. "I've always been conscientious and hardworking," he says. "I've never wasted time." There is also, he says, an element of proving himself to dad. The next question is: why has he moved into airlines, an industry that has destroyed more bold ambitions than any other? Why, in particular, has he decided to "do a Laker" - a doom-laden expression if there ever was one - by competing entirely on price? To answer that, we need to look at Haji-Ioannou's career so far. He was brought up in Athens and, when he was a teenager, decided he wanted to set off on a well-trodden path for wealthy Greeks - to London, and specifically to the London School of Economics. After getting an economics degree, he took a masters in shipping, trade and finance at City University Business School. In the process he was so indoctrinated in business school practices that he grew impatient with the Greek way. "I like organised things," he says. "I don't like the corruption and slowness of Greece." Leaving London in 1988, he joined his father's business. "I imagined I would spend all my life in shipping," he says. But he had been seriously infected with business-schoolitis and soon found himself drawing up a plan for his own company. It would be for up-market tankers, which would carry more valuable products and thus charge higher rates. Where most business school graduates would leave their model on the computer, he was in a position to translate it into solid steel. Dad came up with $ 50m and, in 1992, Haji-Ioannou set up Stelmar. The year before this, however, disaster struck. A giant Troodos Maritime tanker, the Haven, blew up in Genoa harbour killing five crewmen and creating one of the Mediterranean's biggest environmental disasters. Stelios, still only 23, found himself accused with his father and another executive of manslaughter. The Italian legal process is still grinding through. "Early on, it was like a sword of Damocles," he says. Now he is more relaxed; he expects the civil action to be settled in about six months and the criminal case to be dropped at the same time. Haji-Ioannou claims the accident has made him obsessive about safety. "It taught me that you should always prepare for the worst." He spent a couple of years building up Stelmar before the market flattened and then decided it was time to do something a little more exciting. Friends in Athens who ran a Virgin franchise asked him to invest in their operation. He was unimpressed but sufficiently intrigued to start producing business models for a possible new airline. He travelled to the United States where he was particularly taken by the relentlessly profitable South West Airlines in Dallas. It used a combination of rock-bottom costs and rock-bottom fares to attract people who otherwise would not be able to fly. Haji-Ioannou reckoned the same approach could work in Europe because, as he explains in business-speak, "the elasticity of demand for air travel is greater than one". In other words, cut the price and extra passengers will more than make up the revenue. He returned to his spreadsheet and developed the business concept that became easyJet. Once again his father agreed to help him, with pounds 8m to capitalise the company. EasyJet started flying between Luton and Scotland last November and has already sold 250,000 seats. It is now expanding its routes - to Amsterdam, Nice and Barcelona. "My father doesn't know about airlines but he's proud of me," Haji-Ioannou says. The phone number on the fuselage is a clue to his central tenet: cut out the travel agent. "The traditional ticketing system is great if you need flexibility but it adds a layer of cost," he says. Unless you intend to change planes, you do not need the flexibility a traditional IATA ticket brings. Get rid of the ticket and you have escaped the airline reservation systems and, with them, the travel agents plugged into them. "The whole concept of the travel agent is absurd," he says. "They appear to be agents of the traveller but are actually agents of the airlines." EasyJet, he says, is the only airline that has never paid a penny to travel agents. Without agents, he has to rely on direct sales - which explains the phone numbers and the pounds 2m he has spent on advertising. Passengers ring up, pay by credit card, and are sent a receipt with a confirmation number. When they turn up at the airport they give the number, show identification, and off they go. His obsession with abolishing paper goes beyond tickets. Every document that comes into his headquarters is scanned into the computer system, then binned. His entire administrative staff of 12 people fits in one room - he in one corner, his finance department of two in another. The other big cost saving is to use Luton, which has been losing scheduled airlines and is offering rock-bottom landing fees. "The differential with Heathrow is pounds 10 per passenger," Haji-Ioannou says. The pricing system is real business school stuff. If you book early for a Scottish flight, you pay pounds 29 one way. The later you book, the more you pay - up to pounds 59. EasyJet ratchets up the more popular flights fast, so to get a pounds 29 ticket on a busy Friday flight, you would have to book weeks ahead. On a mid-week flight, you might still get it the day before. Haji-Ioannou says that half the tickets sold so far have gone for pounds 29 - though passengers might be upset to find that there is also a pounds 5 airport tax. The choice of routes is important. "We aim for those with high prices, reasonable volume and little competition," he says. UK domestic routes fit the bill but why the highly competitive London-Amsterdam? "It's the biggest route from London after Paris," he says. "And our price - pounds 35 - is particularly cheap for people flying from Holland." Nevertheless, some travel industry experts are worried that easyJet may be expanding too fast into routes in which it does not have a sufficiently clear price advantage. Haji-Ioannou has just paid pounds 17m for a relatively youthful Boeing 737, and is keen to emphasise the safety of his three-strong fleet. "If you think safety is expensive, try an accident," he says with some feeling. He is not, he says, concerned that he will crash land as did Freddie Laker ("a bit of a legend for me"). His computer tells him his model works better on short-haul than long-haul flights, and he does not believe he will be troubled by dirty tricks from other airlines. "BA has learned its lesson," he says. When easyJet is established, history suggests he will look for something else to do. "When we get to eight or 10 aircraft, it could be the right time to float," he says. Judging from his other interest, it seems likely he will head off computerwards. This weekend he is flying to Athens and hopes to spend time on his yacht. He will travel with British Airways. Would it not be convenient if easyJet flew to Athens? "It doesn't fit into our model," he says. Business school 1; Greece 0."

Son of shipping magnate Loucas Haji-Ioannou.

June 10, 1988, Journal of Commerce, 'New Golden Greeks Hold Sway in Shipping': "The names Loucas Haji Ioannou and John A. Hadjipateras don't roll off the tongue quite like Aristotle Onassis or Stavros Niarchos. And they don't make it into the gossip columns the way the original Golden Greeks did in their heyday. But Mr. Haji Ioannou and Mr. Hadjipateras are today's pacesetters, a new breed of risk-taking Greek shipowner that is again riding high after a slump in ocean freight rates that has wiped out scores of shipowners from Norway to Hong ong since the mid-1970s. The legendary names are still around and thriving. The Onassis group ranks fifth in the Greek shipping league with a fleet of 25 ships of 2.6 million deadweight tons at the latest count. The Niarchos fleet ranks ninth, with 26 vessels of 1.8 million dwt. But most of the running and the spectacular deals are done by the newcomers or the successful sons of the lesser known Greek owners. Mr. Haji Ioannou, a Greek-Cypriot, controls the world's largest independent fleet, 45 tankers, totaling just over 6 million dwt. Half of them were acquired in the past three years. Instead of the gossip columns, Mr. Haji Ioannou, or rather his company, Troodos Shipping, frequently makes it into news dispatches from the Persian Gulf. The giant Troodos tankers shuttling crude oil between Iran's Kharg Island export terminal and the Strait of Hormuz were an easy target for Iraqi jets. The two largest vessels, the Pivot and the Haven, were severely damaged and put out of action earlier this year. Not all Greek operators have such a determined approach to business. But one thing is sure: the Greek shipping industry is thriving again and stronger than it was before the freight markets began to crumble in the wake of the first oil shock back in 1974."

Haes, Charles de

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; May 2003, Capital Research Center, Foundation watch; wrote some of the statutes of the 1001 Club

Born in Belgium, but moved as to South Africa when still young. An economist, lawyer, and Rothmans (of Anton Rupert) executive, Charles de Haes was born in Antwerp in 1938. He first became involved in WWF in the early 1970s when asked by International Trustee Anton Rupert to help create 'The 1001: A Nature Trust'. Through this, HRH Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands – WWF founder President – and one thousand other influential individuals agreed to each contribute US$10,000 to WWF. This was designed with a view to achieving financial independence for the secretariat. From 1975, Charles de Haes went on to serve 18 years as Director General of the WWF, including two and a half years as Joint Director General with his predecessor, Fritz Vollmar. During this time, he helped initiate international fundraising and awareness campaigns, and further develop the WWF network through initiatives such as the partnership with IUCN and UNEP in the World Conservation Strategy, which links conservation and development. Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Men': "One place where South Africa's clout has been felt is in the office of the director-general, the man who runs WWF. Since 1977 that man has been Charles de Haes. Much of de Haes's past is vague, which seems to be by design: he has chosen to reveal very little about his background and some of what the organisation does say publicly about him is at odds with the facts. On WWF's public list of officers and trustees, de Haes is identified as being from Belgium, and he was born there, in 1938. But as a young boy, he moved with his family to South Africa. After graduating from Cape Town University with a law degree, he got a job with Rothmans International, Rupert's tobacco company. De Haes's Official resume - that is, the one WWF distributes - makes a point of noting that he went to work for the tobacco company 'although himself a nonsmoker.' It then says de Haes 'helped establish companies' in Sudan, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. What it does not say is that these were companies that sold cigarettes. Maybe de Haes didn't smoke, but he made money by encouraging others to do so. De Haes was brought to WWF through the back door by Anton Rupert in 1971. He was first assigned to be personal assistant to Prince Bernhard. One of his tasks was to implement the 1001 Club project. He was tremendously successful. Ten thousand dollars was worth even more back then, yet it took de Haes only three years to find one thousand donors. Prince Bernhard provided the letters of introduction, but de Haes was the salesman who clinched the deals. Even de Haes's fiercest critics - and they are many - use the word 'brilliant' when describing his fund-raising skills. In 1975, with the backing of Rupert and Prince Philip de Haes was named joint director-general of WWF, and two years later he had the top position to himself. De Haes had no education or experience in conservation, other than his few years at WWF, yet he was now in charge of the most prestigious and influential conservation organisation in the world. It was a position that would have appealed to the most qualified and eminent individuals in the field, yet no effort was made to recruit any of them. WWF may have taken on someone without conservation experience, but then, it cost the organisation nothing: Rupert agreed to pay de Haes's salary - which, according to a British trustee, goes far in explaining why de Haes got the Job. WWF never said at the time that Rupert was paying de Haes, and it still tries to conceal this fact. The organisation's chief spokesman, Robert SanGeorge, stated emphatically during an interview in 1991 that de Haes had not been seconded from Rothmans to Prince Bernhard and WWF during the early years. But an internal WWF memorandum signed by the organisation's executive vice-president in 1975 talks specifically about 'Mr. de Haes's period of secondment to WWF.' What this means, of course, is that de Haes was still employed by a South African corporation while working for WWF. 'I thought it was a scandal,' says a former board member from North America, Who added that it was only by accident that he learned that Rupert was paying de Haes. This board member did not like the arrangement. 'Who does the director general serve'? Is the interest of a South African tobacco company synonymous with the world conservation movement? Even more troubling to this director was the fact that it was kept a secret. 'lf it was such a good thing, why weren't they willing to say so in the annual report?' In a similar vein, the organisation treats as a state secret the question of who paid de Haes after he became director-general. It was 'an anonymous donor' SanGeorge says. Even board members have been in the dark. When on occasion one asked, he was told that the donor wished to remain anonymous. ... Over the years there has been increasing dissatisfaction with de Haes's leadership. One of the most serious challenges to his rule came in the early 1980s, when the heads of the WWF organisations in Britain, the Netherlands and Switzerland began to discuss among themselves changes they thought were necessary in the organisation. These organisations should be able to effect change because they provide most of the funds for the International - WWF-UK alone contributes nearly one-third of the International's budget, and Switzerland and the Netherlands rank second and third. The way WWF was set up, two-thirds of the money raised by the national organisations goes to the International, while one third remains with the national organisation. The 'dissident' leaders of the three national organisations objected to this because there was no accountability over how the International spent the money. They also did not like the fact that the WWF-International board of trustees doesn't represent the national organisations. The board is a self-selected body - that is, those on the board decide whom to place on it - and the national organisations, even though they give the money, have no right of representation. In short, the heads of the British, Dutch and Swiss organisations felt that too much power was concentrated in Gland - the Swiss town where WWF-lnternational's headquarters is located - and that the local organisations should have more autonomy. Sir Arthur Norman, the head of WWF-UK at the time, was particularly disturbed by the manner in which WWF-International set up chapters in other countries. He thought they should 'be triggered off by local people, local enthusiasm, and not by someone in Bland saying 'it's time'."

Habsburg, Francesca von

Source(s): 2010, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Peter Carr in September 2010)

Daughter of Baron Hans Heinrich von Thyssen-Bornemisza, who also was a member of the 1001 Club. Married Otto von Habsburg's oldest son, Karl Habsburg (b. 1961) in 1993. They had three children in the 1990s, whose godmother is Gloria von Thurn und Taxis, the wife of the late Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis (another 1001 Club member). Karl is president of the Pan Europa Union in Austria and currently serves as the elected OVP Party representative of Austria to the European Parliament. His son Georg von Habsburg is a Hungarian diplomat to the EU and his daughter, Countess Walburga Douglas, is a Pan Europa representative, politician and author.

Founder Advisory Board member of the art company Phillips de Pury & Co. with the wife of the late Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis.

Her father-in-law, Otto von Habsburg, was one of the most important founders of the international private intelligence group Le Cercle in the 1950s. The family is closely tied to Opus Dei and the Knights of Malta.

Hakimzadeh, Mrs. Reza

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Apparently the husband of Dr. Mohammad Reza Hakimzadeh, who died in 1979 after three open heart surgeries:

Kahrizak Charity Foundation in Iran, founded in 1971 by the late Dr. Mohammad Reza Hakimzadeh, began as a tiny charity and has blossomed into a financially independent and successful institution that provides housing and support for the disabled and elderly, people who were once stigmatized by society and a source of shame for their families. By providing classes that teach residents skills such as sewing, painting, and carpet weaving, Kahrizak has enabled them not only to make a living through selling the goods they produce, it has also contributed immensely to their well being and sense of self-respect.

Hanes, John W., Jr.

Source(s): 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

The elderly John W. (1892-1987). Comes from a influential bankers family. Senior partner Charles D. Barney & Co. (now Smith Barney, Harris Upham & Co.); member Securities and Exchange Commission, Jan.-July 1938; assistant secretary of Treasury, July-Nov. 1938; under secretary, November 1938-Dec. 1939. Member executive committee and personal trust committee, Bankers Trust Corp.; member pension trust committee, Johns-Manville Corp.; director, chairman executive committee U.S. Lines Co.; director Olin-Mathieson Chemical Co. Member New York Racing Association (chairman 1960). Both his father was a John W., as was his son.

The junior John W. (b. 1925): Deerfield Academy 1943. U.S. Army. BA from Yale in 1950. Had an interest in ornithology. Joined the State Department in 1950. Economic specialist with the Office of High Commissioner (John J. McCloy), Germany 1950-1952. CIA 1952-1953. Returned to the State Department under John Foster Dulles, and was his Special Assistant from 1953 to 1957. Administrator at Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs at the State Department 1958-1961 [reportedly a position under the control of the CIA]. Chairman of the (John F.) Dulles Manuscript Committee after Dulles' death in 1959. Resigned from the State Department to enter private business in 1961. Donated heavily to the Princeton University Library together with the Rockefeller Foundation and Herbert Hoover. Established the Carol Hanes Scholarship Fund in 1984. Board member of the Nature Conservancy since 1988. Anno 2010 a member of the President’s Conservation Council of the Nature Conservancy. Key management adviser for several conservation groups, including The Nature Conservancy, Boone & Crockett Club and World Wildlife Fund. Pilgrims Society.

Advisory Board member in 1984 of the National Strategy Information Center (a hard-right, anti-communist think tank, founded in 1962) with Joseph Coors, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, and others. Prescott S. Bush, Jr. and Admiral Thomas H. Moorer were directors at the time. William Casey, Joseph Coors, and Heritage Foundation chair Frank Shakespeare were among the founders of the NSIC.

December 3, 2004, Paul Gallagher for EIR, ''Hit Men' vs. LaRouche's Fusion Energy Foundation': "A critical case in recent U.S. history, of a vicious attack ... was the 1978-86 war of Wall Street investment banks and their agents against the Fusion Energy Foundation (FEF) of Lyndon LaRouche. ... The Nuclear Club of Wall Street was launched when a group of New York investment bankers met in the boardroom of the Dreyfus Corporation, under the direction of, among others, Arthur Ross, Sr., a British Intelligence-connected banker whose son was, at the time, a collaborator of LaRouche's movement. The purpose of the meeting, according to participants and published materials, was to create an ostensibly pro-nuclear covert intelligence operation to gain dominant financial control over the borrowing of the American and other nuclear industries, and prevent nuclear expansion especially to the developing sector. Several "Club" members had direct connections to the Mossad and other Israeli interests, and, as EIR discovered through investigation, the Club was also involved in conduiting U.S. nuclear secrets to Israel. ... Ross was perhaps the most senior member, who had served in various covert "financial" British intelligence subversive operations, including a direct connection to Maj. Louis Mortimer Bloomfield's Permindex ... Also present at the meeting was John Wesley Hanes, Jr., of the textile fortune that bears his name, whose father was a leading operative of the House of Morgan, and an ally of Averell Harriman's banking interests in the British establishment's British American Tobacco Company, whence the family fortune. Hanes, Jr. was deployed into John Foster Dulles' State Department, as liaison with the notorious 5412 Committee, the so-called Special Group that controlled covert operations as a joint White House-Defense-State taskforce. Eventually, Hanes gained control over all consular appointments and all embassy posting of CIA operatives. At the time of the initial meetings of the "Club," Hanes was the General Partner of Wertheim and Co., an exclusive investment bank then owned by London's Schroeder Bank, and played a key role in the Olin Foundation."

John W. Hanes, Jr. also seems to have been involved in setting up private militia in Virginia. April 18, 1995, EIR report: "Loudoun's [Virginia] scandal-plagued Sheriff John Isom finds himself in hot water again about his involvement with the bizarre paramilitary organization that he cofounded, the Armored Response Group U.S. ... According to the Internal Revenue Service, the ARGUS Foundation was initially granted tax-exempt status in 1986 under its old name, the Law Enforcement Assistance Foundation. ... The Armored Response Group U.S. was created in 1986 with funds and participation from two Hunt Country families--Magalen Ohrstrom Bryant and private investment banker John W. Hanes. ARGUS's official mission was to acquire special armored equipment for use in anti-terrorist, anti-drug, and other crisis situations; and to provide both equipment and paramilitary training to law enforcement in the Mid-Atlantic region. To build its respectability, support was arranged from several U.S. Senators, including John Warner (R-Va.) and Strom Thurmond (R-S.C.). ... But career intelligence officers have suggested that ARGUS fits the profile of a private intelligence ``asteroid,'' an established business entity which provides cover for off-line, private intelligence operations. When this news service attempted to investigate ARGUS's financial filings with the state of Virginia and IRS, there were numerous possible violations of reporting. Mr. Isom's secret patrons, Magalen Ohrstrom Bryant and John W. Hanes, were the money bags for ARGUS. According to IRS documents, during 1986-1989 alone, ARGUS received a quarter of a million dollars from the combined wealth of both families. Mrs. Ohrstrom Bryant and Mr. Hanes were more than financial patrons. Both played an active role in directing ARGUS's affairs. Mrs. Ohrstrom Bryant was a founding member of the board of directors. Hanes served as CEO of the executive board and board of directors. Annual board meetings were convened at his shooting club in West Virginia, and his Belle Haven Country Club in Alexandria, Virginia. Most important, Mr. Hanes was the treasurer of ARGUS. ... In 1986, while creating ARGUS, both the Hanes Foundation and the Ohrstrom Foundation were funding a myriad of ``off-line'' private intelligence projects, including George Bush's secret drug and weapons project known as Iran-Contra. The Ohrstrom Foundation funded PRODEMCA (for a related article, see page 5), while the Hanes Foundation funded the National Endowment for the Preservation of Liberty (NEPL), both support operations for Ollie North and the Contras. In recent years, the Hanes Foundation has been a major funder of the {American Spectator,} the U.S. neo-conservative journal which has attempted to collapse the Presidency of Bill Clinton. ... As Sheriff of Loudoun County, Isom secretly purchased equiptment for ARGUS using county funds and gave ARGUS the use of Sheriff's department facilities. In 1993, it was leaked to the press that the FBI was investigating Isom and ARGUS. At the same time, the Loudoun board of supervisors held hearings on ARGUS. John Isom testified. As a result of their findings, the board demanded that all county departments sever its ties to ARGUS. ... Private investment banker John W. Hanes, is a leading member of an exclusive political and financial elite which operate on behalf of the British Royal family. Hanes, like the Kleinwort family which handles the Ohrstrom Foundation, is a member of the 1001 Club. ... what exactly happened to all of ARGUS's military surplus equipment, including a C-120 transport aircraft."

May 10, 1992, Washington Post, 'FBI Probes Self-Styled Police Force': "Since 1985, a Middleburg millionaire named J.C. Herbert Bryant Jr. has built an armored task force amid the rolling farmland of Loudoun County. Vowing to help fight terrorism and urban crime, he collected a small fleet of armored vehicles to lend to law enforcement agencies and proclaimed himself commander of the quasi-police force called ARGUS. Short for the Armored Response Group United States, ARGUS quickly became Bryant's great passion. He poured more than $ 230,000 of family money into the effort. He sometimes dresses in a military-style uniform and cap, carries a 9mm handgun in his waistband and describes himself in promotional materials as a highly decorated authority on drug smuggling, terrorism and organized crime. Now, the FBI is asking questions about ARGUS and its zealous commander, who has won praise on the floor of Congress for his work and had support from a long list of federal, state and local officials, especially Loudoun County Sheriff John R. Isom, a co-founder of ARGUS. The questions center on ARGUS's relationship with Isom's office, which is the focus of a broad federal grand jury probe. A subpoena asked for records about the office's finances, jail operation and relationship with ARGUS, according to Bryant and sources. ... When they began ARGUS, Bryant and Isom envisioned lending the vehicles to police across the country. "There is a real need for an organized effort to combat violent crimes associated with narcotics, sniper, hostage, prison revolts and other life threatening criminal activities," an ARGUS brochure says. ... The group has received a range of government services and assistance, but received virtually no oversight. Loudoun County Acting Administrator Kirby M. Bowers discovered only recently that ARGUS has used several county-owned and insured vehicles, stored an armored car on county property and received free 24-hour radio dispatch service through Isom's office. "I think it's inappropriate," he said. ARGUS also received federal surplus equipment, free vehicle storage space, training on a National Guard C-130 cargo plane and hundreds of hours of free time from a $ 37,828-a-year federal employee who is ARGUS's training director. Sen. John W. Warner (R-Va.), a Middleburg neighbor who has received a political contribution from Bryant, said letters he wrote to then-Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and others to help Bryant secure military equipment were no different from services he would offer any other constituent. "I don't know much about ARGUS," Warner said last week. Four members of ARGUS's board, including state Sen. Charles L. Waddell (D-Loudoun), say they have disassociated themselves from ARGUS or not attended meetings in years. "In retrospect, it may have been a mistake lending my name to it," Waddell said. ... Bryant's father was an industrialist and owner of the O'Sullivan Corp., a plastics product manufacturer based in Winchester, Va. One of Bryant's grandfathers was a senator and a founder of Ford Motor Co., Bryant said. Bryant said he wasn't suited to run the family business, now headed by his brother. But he made an unorthodox name for himself in police work. Among other jobs, he worked briefly as an administrator for Interpol, the international police agency. In the mid-1970s, he worked as a deputy and undercover drug investigator for the Palm Beach County, Fla., sheriff's department, where Bryant drove his own Rolls Royce while toiling to trap South Florida drug dealers."

Hartmann, Dr. Alfred

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (member since 1972)

From Switzerland. Director of Swiss Military Intelligence. Joined UBS in 1952. General manager of UBS from in the 1960s and 1970s, followed by the post of director general. In 1976 he became vice chair of Hoffman-La Roche, a Swiss-based pharmaceutical company which, amongst other products, sold tranquillizers as valium and librium. The company has had its share of controversies over the years (see bio of 1001 Club member Dr. Lukas Hoffman). Became CEO of Hoffman-La Roche in 1978 (Dr. Adolf Jann had been chair and CEO until then; Fritz Gerber became chair). Chair Swiss Society of Chemical Industries. In 1980 he led a delegation to the Soviet Union to promote Swiss export to the Soviet Union. Appointed general manager of the Rothschild Bank in Zurich in 1983 by Baron Elie de Rothschild. Resigned from Hoffman-La Roche in 1984. Worked for Rothschild Concordia, Rothschild Holding, Rothschild Management, and Rothschild Continuation Holdings at various times. Formed Trendinvest in 1986 with the shady Charles Keating. Chairman of the Swiss branch of the Banco Nazionale del Lavaro (BNL), which booked the overnight transactions between the Bank of Iraq and the BCCI. Forced to resign from the BNL in 1991 after the Iraqgate affair. Vice-chairman of the Bank of New York-Inter Maritime Bank of Geneva, headed by Bruce Rappaport (Swiss-Israeli businessman; widely suspected to be working with/for the Mossad and the CIA; frequent golfing partner CIA director William Casey of Le Cercle; important stakeholder in the Bank of New York and through this bank was involved in laundering billions of dollars in cooperation with Russian banks). Ironically, when BCCI was closed, its Swiss affiliate was almost immediately sold to a Turkish banking group, Cukorova, whose subsidiary, EndTrade, was BNL's partner in the illegal arms sales from the U.S. to Iraq, and part of the federal investigation into BNL. Chairman of BCCI-owned Banque de Commerce et de Placements (BCP) in Geneva.

October 05, 1991, Los Angeles Times, 'BCCI Official in Venture With Keating': "Trendinvest, which traded foreign currencies, listed both Keating and Hartmann as directors, the National Mortgage News found in reviewing public records that were filed in a House Banking Committee hearing two years ago on Lincoln's April, 1989, collapse. ... Hartmann is emerging as a major figure at BCCI. He was chairman of BCCI-owned Banque de Commerce et de Placements in Geneva until it was sold in July, and he quit recently as its president. The first U.S. indictment of BCCI officials on [Medellin Cartel] drug-money laundering charges in Tampa in 1988 stated that some of the drug proceeds were transferred into accounts at BCP. A federal investigator has described BCP as "a major link" in the BCCI chain, according to the Financial Times of London. Hartmann also was chairman of a Zurich-based subsidiary of Banco Nazionale del Lavoro, an Italian-owned bank that routinely handled overnight transactions between BCCI and the central bank of Iraq, according to the National Mortgage News. The FBI raided the Italian bank's Atlanta branch in July after learning that it had made more than $3 billion in illegal loans to Hussein's government. Hartmann also is chairman of the Swiss Society of Chemical Industries and has been a vice chairman of F. Hoffman-La Roche & Co., the giant Swiss drug and chemical company. ... BCCI, part of the Abu Dhabi-controlled banking empire, has been accused of a multinational fraud and of financing terrorists and drug cartels. It is the target of numerous criminal and civil actions and investigations."

September 13, 1991, Wall Street Journal, 'Close links existed between BCCI, BNL': "BNL, he [Rep. Henry Gonzalez] said, "became Baghdad's banker in the U.S. before our regulatory cops at the Federal Reserve could locate Iraq on the map." The most prominent link between the banks [BNL and BCCI] involves Alfred Hartmann, a successful Swiss banker and businessman, who until recently was a BCCI director and the chairman of its Swiss unit, Banque de Commerce et Placements S.A., or BCP. Following the seizure of BCCI by Western regulators on July 5, Mr. Hartmann resigned from BCP, which has been sold to a Turkish group. In addition to serving BCCI in those capacities, Mr. Hartmann also serves as the chairman of BNL's unit in Zurich, known as Lavoro Bank AG. Finally, Mr. Hartmann is vice chairman of a small, joint-venture institution in Geneva called Bank of New York-Inter Maritime Bank. ... Mr. Hartmann links to these institutions were established by P. Network, a research service based in Geneva. ... employees at his [Hartmann's] various offices confirmed his roles in BNL and BCCI's Swiss units and at Bank of New York-Inter Maritime Bank. ... The involvement of the BCCI-BNL banker in the Bank of New York-Inter Maritime Bank is particularly intriguing. The chairman of that bank is Bruce Rappoport, an international oilman who has been thought for years to have close ties to the U.S. and Israeli intelligence communities. ... According to published profiles, Mr. Rappaport was a friend and golfing companion of William Casey, the late director of the Central Intelligence Agency. He also employed E. Robert Wallach, an old friend of former Attorney General Edwin Meese, as his lawyer for a massive but ill-fated Iraqi oil pipe line project. ... BNL was far and away Iraq's largest source of foreign credit. Its Atlanta branch loaned or pledged more than $4 billion to Iraq between 1985 and the summer of 1989, about $2 billion of which went for farm goods. "

October 5, 1992, Wall Street Journal, 'Beyond BCCI, Smersh?': "To take one particular, it's important to recognize the intimate relation between the two financial scandals in current headlines -- BCCI and BNL, the financing of the Iraqi armament program by the Atlanta branch of Italy's Banca Nazionale del Lavoro. Swiss banker Alfred Hartmann was on the board of both institutions, and there were numerous cross-dealings. As the Kerry report details, the two banks worked hand-in-glove, with BCCI milking its international connections to make overnight loans to BNL to finance Iraqi weapons. In addition, BCCI had a rich collection of other financial connections. The Kerry report raises the suspicion that BCCI helped Charles Keating move funds abroad in the midst of his Savings and Loans depredations. The report calls for further investigations of David Paul of CenTrust, and also raises questions about figures such as Marc Rich, the fugitive commodities giant, and William Casey, former Director of Central Intelligence."

October 16, 1991, American Banker, 'N.Y. probes whether BCCI used First American to launder money': "The Manhattan district attorney's office is investigating whether the Bank of Credit and Commerce International used First American Bank of New York to launder money. ... The transfers from Panama to First American in New York were carried out on behalf of accounts belonging to Geneva-based Banque de Commerce et de Placements, which BCCI controlled... "We are looking at a situation where BCCI, which covertly owned First American, used it as its correspondent bank in the United States," said a spokesman for the district attorney's office in New York City. ... In March, U.S. regulators disclosed that BCCI had secretly acquired control of $11 billion-asset First American Bankshares. Evidence of substantial wire transfers between First American of New York and BCCI affiliates have also thrown the spotlight on Banque de Commerce and the bank's new owner, Turkey's Cukurova group. Istanbul-based Cukurova, a Turkish industrial and financial conglomerate, acquired control of Banque de Commerce from BCCI on July 19. ... "The speed of the sale raises questions as to whether due diligence could have possibly taken place," Mr. Winer said. "It makes it possible that the acquirer may have been acting at the behest of some other entity in making the swift decision to buy BCP." A Cukurova representative in New York was unavailable to comment on Mr. Winer's remarks. At the center of questions about Banque de Commerce's relationship with BCCI and the quick takeover by Cukurova is the role played by the Swiss bank's chairman, Alfred Hartmann, who also sat on the board of BCCI's parent company, BCC Holdings."

2001, David Whitby and Alan A. Block, 'The Organized Criminal Activities of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International', p. 38: "Hartmann had been a director of Banco Ambrosiano's holding company in The Bahamas. Also chairman of Lavoro Bank A.G. (BNL's Swiss Bank in Zurich), director [Bank of New York] Inter Maritieme Bank (Bruce Rappaport). Royal Bank of Scotland (Switzerland). Hartmann was chairman of BCCI's international audit committee (Luxembourg) but has never been investigated by the SFO or FBI."

June 30, 1994, The Independent, 'Former BCCI directors claim Sheikh's family behind fraud': "One of the three behind the legal action, Alfred Hartmann, a senior Swiss banker, sat on various BCCI boards from 1982 to 1991. ... Dr Hartmann resigned from his chairmanship of Banca Nazionale del Lavoro's Swiss arm in September 1991, and also his chairmanship of the troubled Swiss bank Rothschild at the end of 1992. He helped to negotiate the swift sale of BCCI's Banque de Commerce & de Placement to the Turkish group Cukurova in July 1991, just over two weeks after BCCI was closed by bank regulators worldwide."

May 25, 1989, Jerusalem Post, ''BUY GOLD'': "If you want to put your shekels in something secure, something that will bring a solid return on your investment, forget about gold - buy dollars. This was the advice given yesterday by Dr. Alfred Hartmann, vice chairman of the board of Rothschild Bank AG Zurich, at a Tel Aviv University seminar titled "Personal Asset Management." Gold's value is inching ahead slowly because the world's gold supply is increasing by nearly 10% a year, Hartmann said."

May 25, 1989, Jerusalem Post, 'Israel must soon integrate into world finances': ""Israel is an interesting country for foreign investors. You have the labour, brains and so many things that make you attractive for them. You should break down the financial barriers that stand in the way," Dr. Alfred Hartmann, vice chairman of Rothschild Bank in Zurich told The Jerusalem Post. ... Hartmann, who is also president of the Swiss Foundation for microtechnique research, lectured on current problems of banking at Haifa University's Scientific Academic Forum. He said that "within 10 years Israel must integrate into international finances. You must endeavour to join the financial community.""

August 8, 1992, The Independent, 'Former Rothschild manager arrested ': "Juerg Heer, until recently a senior manager of NM Rothschild's Swiss private banking arm, has been arrested for banking irregularities, according to the Zurich prosecutor, Marco Ruggli."

May 28, 1993, Globe and Mail (Canada), 'Surreal Estate': "Dr. Jurg Heer, Baron Elie de Rothschild's personal assistant."

November 3, 1992, Wall Street Journal, 'Rothschild Bank accused of helping flight of capital': "Juerg Heer, a former Rothschild Bank AG credit manager, claims that the prestigious Swiss private bank assisted in massive capital flight from Italy; says he helped set up a network of front companies outside Italy that hid the true ownership of Italian industrial holdings, thus allowing wealthy Italians to avoid taxation."

December 11, 1992, Wall Street Journal, 'No Secrets': "Peter Gumbel article discusses Juerg Heer, former senior executive with Rothschild Bank AG in Zurich who is now under criminal investigation; the bank is suing Heer, charging that he deceived directors by making improper loans and received kickbacks; Heer is fighting back by telling Rothschild banking secrets; one of his most damning allegations is that Baron Elie de Rothschild participated in schemes to help rich Italian families evade capital controls and taxes."

December 20, 1992, The Toronto Star, 'Scandal rocks secret world of a Swiss bank': "Heer says one of his blackest moments was the day in 1982 when he paid off the killers of Roberto Calvi, the Italian banker from Banco Ambrosiano found murdered in London. He tells of receiving a phone call from an Italian whom he won't name, but who he says was a close aide to an official of the secretive P2 Masonic Lodge. The message was short: We need your services for a "very secret" action. Heer agreed, and a leather suitcase was delivered to the bank, along with an envelope containing half a dollar bill. About a week later, Heer says two men he describes only as "rather odd" arrived at the bank in an armored Mercedes with the other half of the dollar bill. Heer handed over the suitcase. Later, he says, he asked the P2 Lodge official's aide what the whole affair had been about. He says he was told: "This money was for the killers of Calvi.""

December 20, 1992, The Toronto Star, 'Scandal rocks secret world of a Swiss bank': "Sir Evelyn has been moving to clean up the situation he found when he became chairman, replacing some directors, tightening procedures and sacking the auditors. And last week the bank announced the retirement of its vice chairman and former general manager, Alfred Hartmann, who was Heer's boss for years and signed off on all the bank's loans."

November 30, 1992, Der Spiegel, 'Trübe Quelle': "The Zurich Rothschild Bank is fighting for its reputation: A former director tells all about dubious transactions. When the Zurich bank manager Jürg Heer, 56, visited wealthy clients in Italy, it often went as seen in cheap thrillers: The customer picked up Heer with an armored limousine, dealings took place in remote places, discretion was paramount. The director and his partners were not so careful without reason. Heer offered its customers a special service - help with flight capital."

March 6, 1993, Courier Mail, 'The $155 million hole in Rothschild': "Juerg Heer, a member of a rich Zurich banking family best known for its art collection, was credit manager at Rothschild Zurich for 20 years. Last year he was arrested on evidence from the Rothschilds and other outsiders after a $155 million hole was discovered in the bank's balance sheet. ... For all their riches and the distinction of being the world's foremost banking family, these are not good times for the Rothschilds in Switzerland. As one senior Swiss banker whispers behind guaranteed anonymity: ""They are foreigners and the location of their bank up there barely within the city boundaries is symbolic of their status here. They are foreigners, and foreigners never make it in Zurich." ... While Mr Heer's allegations make him persona non-grata among Zurich's socialites, assuming he returns, he can take comfort that the Rothschilds were never welcome in the first place. ""The Rothschilds wouldn't be able to join the golf or the tennis club either - all the places to meet clients," the Swiss banker said. He and his clique hope they will lose their banking licence too."

** March 7, 2001, The New York Press, 'Money Changes Everything': "When the cops finally nabbed Juerg Heer on Oct. 4, 1997, he was warming his bones in the southern Thai resort town of Hat Yai. ... During that time [five years on the run after making many accusations against the Rothschild Bank in Switzerland], the 61-year-old former senior Swiss banking officer chugged through Italy, Turkey and Azerbaijan before settling in Thailand. ...

"Herr Heer saw himself as a scapegoat, a sacrificial lamb offered up by the bank's new broom, chairman Sir Evelyn de Rothschild, who took over from longtime chairman Baron Elie de Rothschild in July 1991. Released from "investigative arrest" in October 1992, Heer fought back, disregarding the Swiss financial fraternity's unwritten vow of silence: he blabbed to U.S., German, Swiss and Italian newspapers about a multitude of convoluted and hair-raising improprieties, irregularities and outright illegalities at the bank, which reached all the way up to Baron Elie and vice chairman/former general manager Alfred Hartmann.

"Heer launched his opening salvo in November, telling the Swiss paper Sonntagszeitung, "I was part of a criminal system," then proceeding to relate how the Zurich bank, renowned for managing the accounts of Europe's richest families, had routinely concealed the assets of its clients, many of them Italian, by setting up shell corporations under its trusteeship.

"According to Heer, it worked like this: a client signed over his assets to a trustee–sometimes someone at the bank such as Baron Elie, Hartmann or himself, sometimes a dependable outside associate–with the proviso that they could be bought back in the future at an agreed-upon price. Then the assets were transferred to a holding company established by the bank. One such phony firm, the Panama-based Orion, was a popular destination; Orion, in turn, begot offshore subsidiaries for similar purposes. In this way clients avoided taxes and other monetary controls back home, while bank officers, Heer included, netted millions in handsome commissions for services rendered. This, Heer asserted, was standard operating procedure, as were the labyrinthine loans he made to von Wersebe and others.

"Occasionally foreign tax officials became suspicious. In one case, Heer recalled, he flew to Rome, where he knowingly lied in court in an effort to allay concerns about the true ownership of Italy's sixth-largest insurer. When Baron Elie declined to comply with a similar summons, Heer added, the Italian judges flew instead to London, where the baron plied them with food and drink and falsehoods before sending them on their way singing "For he's a jolly good fellow." Heer also tarred Hartmann, who in addition to his positions at the Zurich bank served as chairman of the Swiss branch of the notorious and now-defunct Bank of Credit & Commerce International; Heer alleged that Hartmann used the familiar dummy-company stratagem to funnel BCCI money from Nigeria.

"Just warming up, Heer got personal, accusing Baron Elie of keeping a stable of mistresses, one of whom bore him a child.

"Most sensationally, Heer recounted a potboiler indirectly connecting his bank to the death of Roberto Calvi, chairman of the collapsed Banco Ambrosiano, who was found dangling under London's Blackfriars Bridge in June 1982, his pockets filled with bits of bricks and $15,000 in sundry currencies. Later that same year an associate of a higher-up in Italy's banned P2, the shadowy Masonic lodge with ties to the Mafia, phoned Heer requesting his participation in a secret mission. After giving his assent, Heer received at the bank an envelope containing half of a torn dollar bill, plus a leather suitcase. A few days later two men arrived at the bank driving an armored Mercedes; one of them produced the matching half of the dollar. Heer duly delivered the suitcase. Shortly thereafter, in a conversation with his P2 contact, Heer inquired as to the nature of the mysterious exchange, and was informed that the suitcase had been stuffed with $5 million in P2 cash–"money for the killers of Calvi."

"Not surprisingly, Rothschild Bank AG Zurich senior staffers went into damage-control overdrive denying Heer's allegations. "It's all nonsense," one groused to London's Sunday Times in February 1993. "This man is a compulsive liar."

"True or false, Heer's revelations succeeded in sending some of the bank's more jittery clients scurrying for the exits, as they withdrew their money and deposited it elsewhere. Sir Evelyn reacted swiftly, hiring a p.r. firm to quell the brouhaha. "What Heer is saying is blackmail," he huffed to The Wall Street Journal in December 1992, while suggesting that Heer's intent was to steer the bank toward a substantial out-of-court settlement. "He's trying to muddy the waters to [imply] that it was all crooked. But it wasn't."

Relatively silent report: October 1, 1998, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 'Former Swiss banker jailed for embezzling 46 million dollars': "A court in Zurich Thursday convicted the former head of the Swiss bank Rothschild in Geneva, Juerg Heer, of embezzling 64 million Swiss francs (some 46 million dollars) and jailed him for four years. The district court in Zurich also imposed a fine of 10,000 marks. ... Heer was arrested in Thailand last December after evading the authorities for five years. As former head on the loan department, he had demanded high commissions from his clients between 1986 and 1992 and pocketed large portions of the commissions."

BRUCE RAPPAPORT:

January 27, 1977, Wall Street Journal, Page 6, Column 3: "Amer Express Co subsidiary Amer Express Internatl Banking Corp informs 35 banks participating in $150 million loan to Indonesia that Indonesia may technically be in default on loan because of its failure to meet payments owed by its state oil co Pertamina [overseen by 1001 Club member Gen. Sutowo] on disputed tanker contracts with Geneva shipping charterer Bruce Rappaport."

January 31, 1988, New York Times, 'Pipeline deal: Intrigue in high places': "Shortly after Rear Adm. John M. Poindexter became national security adviser in December 1985, a predecessor in the job offered him sober advice about a billion dollar Iraqi oil pipeline project that was supported by the National Security Council and by President Reagan. William P. Clark, the Administration's second national security adviser and a close friend of the President, warned Admiral Poindexter and his aides, ''This project has become a nightmare.'' Self-interested intermediaries were trying to manipulate the national security policy of the United States to their advantage, he told them, officials familiar with the project recounted. ... The special prosecutor, James C. McKay, is investigating the relationship between William J. Casey, the late Director of Central Intelligence, and Bruce Rappaport, a Swiss businessman with ties to Israel who was a principal in the project, according to officials. They add that Mr. McKay is also examining how information about Mr. Rappaport contained in Central Intelligence Agency files was not provided to some officials who had questions about him and had asked the C.I.A. for backround on him. The agency's highly classified dossier on Mr. Rappaport raised questions about his business dealings and referred to him as a representative of Israel, officials said. But that information was not provided to another agency that had made an official request through proper channels. ... American officials said Mr. Rappaport was closely aligned with Shimon Peres, then Israel's Prime Minister. ... Until 1985, the Administration's approach was to seek an end to the hostilities in the region and to support neither side in the protracted Iran-Iraq war. Israel, on the other hand, was quietly encouraging continued conflict between Iran and Iraq. By the fall of 1985, after months of dealing with Israeli representatives, the Administration's approach to the war in the Persian Gulf had shifted to a contradictory policy that appeared to some analysts to be tantamount to backing both sides at once. Israel apparently was doing much the same. Even as the Administration set in motion its first arms sales to Iran with the assistance of Israel, its official justification for backing the pipeline was that increased sales of crude oil by Iraq would help Iraq them finance the weapons they needed for the war against Iran, according to officials. ... The key actors included Mr. Rappaport, who was born in Palestine before it became Israel. He later moved to Geneva and became an international businessman reputed to have earned more than a billion dollars through dealings in energy, shipping and finance. One American official said Mr. Rappaport often boasted of his ties to the Israeli Government. There were also rumors, which were persistent enough to have been the subject of questions by the special prosecutor, that Mr. Rappaport had ties with the Mossad, the Israeli intelligence agency, according to officials. Mr. Rappaport declined to be interviewed, despite repeated requests by phone and telex. His attorneys said he had a policy of not talking to reporters. ... The prospect of building the huge pipelines attracted the Bechtel Group Inc. ... Bechtel officials also concluded they would need to make contact with the Israeli Government, and so in February of 1985, they reached a tentative agreement to form a partnership with Mr. Rappaport. Tom Flynn, a spokesman for Bechtel, said Mr. Rappaport had been referred by Japanese business interests, adding, ''We were led to believe he had some experience in Israel.'' Within two weeks, Mr. Rappaport delivered. Mr. Flynn said he produced a letter from Shimon Peres, who was then the Israeli Prime Minister, that promised Israel would not interfere with the pipeline. ... With the help of a phone call by Mr. Meese, Mr. Wallach arranged a meeting with Mr. McFarlane. The session took place at the White House in June. Present were Mr. McFarlane, Mr. Rappaport and Mr. Wallach. ... Sometime later, Mr. Rappaport held a small party honoring Mr. Casey at the luxurious Fourways Washington Restaurant. The evening was apparently part of an effort to persuade officials that the deal had high-level support. The guests included officials involved in the deal, and the conversations centered around the pipeline and Mr. Rappaport's open display of his ties to Mr. Casey, according to one guest. ... They said the terminal in the Gulf of Aqaba would be controlled by Mr. Rappaport, who had touted himself as the Israelis' man in the deal."

August 22, 1999, New York Times, 'Russian Money-Laundering Investigation Finds a Familiar Swiss Banker in the Middle': "Born in Haifa, now Israel, Mr. Rappaport has used his base in Geneva to pursue investments and business in a wide range of places, including Oman, Liberia, Nigeria, Haiti, Thailand, Indonesia, Belgium and the United States. Mr. Rappaport opened Inter-Maritime in Geneva in 1966. ... [Rappaport] was recently appointed Antigua's Ambassador to Russia. ... Menatep, according to Western law-enforcement officials, has also had dealings with Mr. Rappaport. ... Federal investigators are trying to determine whether some of the money that may have been laundered through the Bank of New York came from Menatep. Menatep, and related companies in Russia, are suspected by Western investors and Russian regulatory authorities of having looted money from the country."

23 juni 1992, De Tijd, 'BRC kan verder ondanks ontploffing': "Ik heb in drie legers gediend: het Amerikaanse, het Britse en het Israëlische', zo stelde Bruce Rappaport zich gisteren voor aan de pers. ... Zijn naamkaartje vermeldt dat Rappaport "chairman of the board' is bij de Bank of New York - Intermaritime Bank, een joint venture van de Amerikaanse bank met Rappaports oliegroep in Genève. Bankieren is een deelaktiviteit; Rappaport werd eigenlijk rijk met oliehandel. Dat blijft ook nu nog zijn basisaktiviteit. BRC is nu de derde grootste raffinaderij van het land; het is ook de enige "onafhankelijke'. De groten zijn Fina en Esso"

-- Russian Money Laundering --

August 22, 1999, New York Times, 'Russian Money-Laundering Investigation Finds a Familiar Swiss Banker in the Middle': "Most recently, Mr. Rappaport's bank was sued by the Justice Department in 1997, to recover proceeds that the Government asserted were from drug sales that had been deposited in the Bank of New York-Inter Maritime on the Caribbean island of Antigua by a known money-launderer. A Federal judge dismissed the case last year, though, citing lack of jurisdiction. The Government is appealing the decision."

24 augustus 1999, De Tijd, 'IMF-geld mogelijk betrokken in fraude': "Sinds 1992 kende het IMF al 20 miljard dollar steun toe aan Rusland. Daarvan zou 200 miljoen dollar zijn afgeleid via drie banken in Europa en de VS naar een rekening bij een Russische bank in Guernsey. Die bank zou de politie op de hoogte hebben gebracht. De voorbije dagen zijn huiszoekingen gebeurd in de hoofdkantoren van Bank of New York in Londen en New York. De fraude zou leiden naar de Rus Semyon Yukovich Mogilevich, een van de godfathers van de Russische maffia. Ook aandeelhouder Bruce Rappaport van Bank of New York, die zijn Inter Maritime Bank verkocht aan Bank of New York, zou verdacht worden van medewerking aan de fraude. Volgens een onderzoek van Price Waterhouse zou de voorbije jaren overigens 1,2 miljard dollar IMF-hulp door de Russische centrale bank zelf zijn doorgesluisd naar een rekening in Jersey."

August 29, 1999, Ha'aretz, 'Top News: Jews and Israelis in Global Money-Laundering Scheme': "Several Jews, including some with Israeli citizenship, have been questioned in connection with a worldwide probe into an alleged money-laundering operation. In what may be the biggest such case in history, investigators are trying to find out whether Russian mobsters funneled billions of dollars through accounts at the Bank of New York. ... The Swiss are also investigating the financial dealings of two companies associated with the Russian national carrier, Aeroflot - Andava and Forus Services. The Swiss suspect the companies used the airline to transfer money to private bank accounts abroad. This month, the accounts in Switzerland of Boris Berezovsky, a Russian businessman who in the early 1990s obtained Israeli citizenship but apparently gave it up about two years ago in order to take a government position in Russia. Among those said to have profited from the bank accounts and the bribes from Mabetex are President Boris Yeltsin, his wife Naina, their daughters Tatyana and Yelena, and Yelena's husband, Valery Okulov, the managing director of Aeroflot. ... The name of Israeli-born businessman Bruce Rappaport, the founder of Geneva's Inter Maritime Bank, has been mentioned in connection with the transfer of funds via offshore accounts in banks in Antigua. Rappaport is Antigua's ambassador to Russia. Also named in the scandal are Alexander Krasnenker, Roman Abramovich and the Runikon company, which is jointly owned by Abramovich and three companies owned by the Lev brothers and Michael Chernoi - Israeli citizens with dealings with the Bank of New York."

September 3, 1999, Jerusalem Post, 'A mess of mafia money - fact or fancy?': "Israel is facing the fact that its liberal immigration laws and bank secrecy policies have made it one of the major financial 'laundromats' in the developed world. ... In the latest scandal, a Ukrainian Jewish gangster named Semyon Mogilevich is at the center of an alleged plot to launder up to $ 10 billion in crime proceeds and money skimmed by government officials - including International Monetary Fund aid designed to rescue the Russian economy - through a series of shell companies, Swiss banks and the Bank of New York. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Mogilevich, who acquired Israeli citizenship in the early 1990s, has allegedly been engaged in arms dealing, drug smuggling, prostitution, contract murders and international art theft. ... British authorities began investigating Mogilevich's group over four years ago, seeking to unravel a worldwide network of shell companies implicated in money-laundering, contraband sales, stock manipulation and investor fraud. The FBI began investigating Mogilevich's apparent relationship with the Bank of New York last year after a tip from Britain's National Criminal Intelligence Service. ... Indeed, several Russian Jewish "oligarchs" besides Mogilevich figure prominently in the Bank of New York investigation. Among them are Mikhail Khodorkovsky, a leading banker and oil executive; Boris Berezovsky, a former Yeltsin aide with close ties to the president's family; and Vladimir Guzhinsky, president of the Russian Jewish Congress and a part-owner of Ma'ariv Holdings, which owns, among other things, the Ma'ariv daily. All three headed Russian banks implicated in the Mogilevich investigations. Also under investigation is Bruce Rappaport, an Israeli citizen and Swiss financier."

September 8, 1999, AFP, 'Key points in the "Kremlingate" corruption scandal':
"January 22: Swiss anti-mafia investigator Carla del Ponte orders a search of the premises of Mabetex, a Lugano-based Swiss firm suspected of paying millions of Swiss francs in bribes to senior Russian officials in exchange for lucrative contracts to refurbish the Kremlin.
April 1: Prosecutor Yury Skuratov charges that senior Russian officials are receiving mafia payments into Swiss bank accounts. President Boris Yeltsin signs a decree calling for Skuratov to be sidelined pending an investigation into a sex-and-videotape scandal in which a person resembling Skuratov is seen consorting with prostitutes.
July 1: Swiss investigators search the premises of two investment agencies set up by Boris Berezovsky, the millionaire Russian businessman with close ties to Yeltsin.
July 14: Swiss investigators open an investigation into Pavel Borodin, the Kremlin property manager close to Yeltsin and his family. They order a freeze on accounts in banks in Geneva alleged to have been opened in the names of Borodin and 23 other members of the Yeltsin entourage.
August 19: The New York Times reports that billions of dollars of Russian mafia funds have been laundered by the Bank of New York. US investigators name shadowy Russian businessman Semyon Mogilevich, as a channel for the laundered funds. August 23: The Wall Street Journal says investigators are also looking into the possible diversion of 200 million dollars worth of IMF loans to Russia.
August 25: The Italian daily Corriere della Sera says Swiss investigators probing Mabetex found credit cards made out in the name of Yeltsin and his two daughters, Tatiana Dyachenko and Yelena Okulova.
August 26: US investigators, cited by USA Today, say as much as 15 billion dollars, including some IMF loans, were diverted through New York bank accounts by Russian organized crime and members of Russia's political and business elite. The New York Times says 4.2 billion dollars transited through Benex, an investment bank linked to Mogilevich, to the Bank of New York.
August 27: Dismissal of Lucy Edwards, director of the London branch of the Bank of New York for "gross misconduct," violation of the bank's internal rules, falsification of bank records and failure to cooperate with inquiries. She is married to Peter Berlin, head of Benex. Felipe Turover, a Russian-born Spanish businessman, accused Yeltsin of direct involvement in financial wrong-doing.
August 28: Russian businessman Mikhail Khodorkovsky tells the New York Times that much of the money laundered through the Bank of New York was sent abroad by Russian political leaders prior to the ruble crash of
August 1998. August 31: Mogilevich denies having links to Benex and dismisses the accusations made against him in the US media. September 1: Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov says western media are "using unconfirmed facts to cast a shadow over our country."
September 2: The Bank of New York fires clerical worker Svetlana Kudryautsev after she refuses to collaborate with the bank's investigations.
September 3: Moscow Mayor Yury Luzkhov says the government must get to the bottom of the corruption allegations engulfing Russia's political and business elite. Mabetex head Bexhet Pacolli dismisses the kickback allegations.
September 6: Russian authorities decide to send a delegation to the United States to look into the money-laundering allegations.
September 8: The Washington Post says Swiss investigators have linked Yeltsin and other high-ranking Russian officials to 10 million to 15 million dollars in kickbacks paid by Mabetex."

December 2002, Konkret, interview with Felipe Turover: "Turover: Mabetex is a construction company based in Lugano in Italian Switzerland. It belongs to the Kosovo Albanian Beghijet Pacolli who now has a Swiss passport. In the 1990s Pacolli and his business partner Viktor Stolpovskich won some two billion euros-worth of orders from the Kremlin, supposedly for building and restoration work in the government and presidential complex. It has been proved that billions of dollars vanished from Russia through this operation, with millions being spent on bribes in Moscow in return. Pacolli acted as guarantor for credit cards for Yeltsin and both his daughters, according to the Banca del Gottardo which issued the cards. Carla del Ponte, at that time a Swiss public prosecutor contacted me in 1997 and asked me to be ready to testify in the case. Later she invited the Russian investigating prosecutor Yuri Skuratov to Switzerland and put me in touch with him. At that time she already had a reputation as a great fighter for justice and I therefore did as she asked. That was an almost fatal error. ... I was dependent on her honesty and had made it clear to her from the start that my testimony placed my life in danger. I was still at the time working as an advisor to the Russian authorities, i.e. for the very people I was incriminating with these documents. So what did Ms del Ponte do? She gave my full name and job to the press. This was as if I had given information to the US Drug Enforcement Agency about the Escobar Clan out of Medellin and then, while still in the lions' den, read in the New York Times that I was the chief witness against Escobar. In my case, it was Moscow rather than Medellin and the newspaper was the Corriere della Sera but the effect was the same. I was in big trouble and saved my life by hurriedly getting out of Moscow. Since then, for the past three years, I have been living undercover. I have Carla del Ponte to thank for this. She told the hit-men where to find me. ... Both the Corriere journalists got all their information from del Ponte, including my mobile phone number. They told me so themselves, because they knew my life was in danger. Elsässer: Del Ponte has denied that. Turover: Then she's not telling the truth. And I've already said this many times and she has never threatened to sue for slander. The reason is simple: she has no proof, but I do. Elsässer: Mabetex boss Pacolli is not only a construction magnate, but is also said to have close ties to the Kosovo Albanian KLA terrorists. Turover: That's right. He himself has stated that at least until 2000 his group owned the Kosovo Albanian daily "Bota Sot" which even the OSCE condemned for racist articles. Its agitation was aimed mainly at the Serbs, but it also made an anti-Semitic attack on me as the "Jew Turover". Elsässer: If it were the case that the Yeltsin clan had received Kosovo Albanian bribes, this might explain his behaviour in spring 1999. As NATO prepared for war against Yugoslavia, he didn't lift a finger to help the Serbs, his supposed brother people. At the Rambouillet Conference, when the NATO states took an extremely biased pro-Albanian position, Moscow didn't protest, although its diplomats were at the negotiating table. Did the Kosovo Albanians buy Yeltsin's passivity? Turover: That's possible. We're looking here at a symbiosis of politics, plunder and money laundering on a large scale. Elsässer: And del Ponte? Turover: All the preliminary inquiries in the Mabetex case in Switzerland were politically abandoned at the highest level. Moreover, the documents that del Ponte had received from her Russian colleague Skuratov somehow ended up in Pacolli's possession. He reported back to his Russian friends Yeltsin and Borodin and subsequently Skuratov, an honest and competent lawyer, was shunted aside, in spite of three almost unanimous resolutions in his support from the Russian Senate. The end of Skuratov was also the end of the Moscow Mabetex case - the proceedings were finally abandoned in December 2000. Elsässer: Was del Ponte acting to protect the Albanian Mafia or the Yeltsin clan? Turover: Neither. She acts only in her own interest. She is indifferent to political goals. Look at the point in time when she made public what she knew about the Mabetex case, including my name - the end of August 1999. That was a blow not only to me, but to Yeltsin too. It's true that she later failed to follow through on the case, but at that moment her revelations did serious damage to Yeltsin. The immediate background was the spectacular coup by Russian elite units in Kosovo in summer 1999; after the ceasefire they occupied Pristina airport, getting there before NATO. According to the British head of KFOR, Michael Jackson, this could have led to world war three. Moscow was playing for high stakes. It wanted its own occupation zone in Kosovo to protect the Serbs. In this situation Yeltsin had to be repudiated. The current US Foreign Minister, Madeleine Albright, therefore met del Ponte at London Heathrow airport in July 1999 and probably spelt all this out to her. So then del Ponte went public with her revelations about Yeltsin in Corriere della Sera and in mid-September Albright in a statement on CNN stoked up the heat about Russian government corruption. Yeltsin had to fear an effort to impeach him and then prosecution. He was let off the hook by two bombings in Moscow, allegedly by Chechen terrorists. Russian troops went into Chechnya and public attention was diverted from Russiagate. Elsässer: Was del Ponte acting as an agent of Washington in this situation? Turover: She is no more pro-American than she is pro-Albanian. She acts in Swiss interests, i.e. in the interests of the Mafia in Switzerland. Elsässer: Explain. Turover: Switzerland and the Swiss banks live mainly off money laundering. All the world's dictators and major criminals deposit their money here. Above all the canton of Tessin is exceptionally well placed for this. People simply carry millions in suitcases and glove compartments over the border from Italy. Every politician in Tessin knows about it and benefits from it. And as the canton's public prosecutor del Ponte protected this activity even before the Mabetex case at the end of the 1990s. Take the case of a company in Chiasso accused of money laundering for the Italian Mafia. She stopped the proceedings. But basically del Ponte is pro-del Ponte. She would do anything for her career, even bring a case against George W. Bush. She is in any case a useless lawyer. To my knowledge she has never won a case in her entire career. Her only talent is self-promotion, self-marketing. Elsässer: Her agreement with Albright in any case proved profitable. A little later she became the Chief Prosecutor at the Hague, at Washington's behest. The Zurich Weltwoche expressed surprise: "why the Americans wanted her to succeed the difficult and prematurely ousted Louise Arbour remains a puzzle. After all they had made no secret of the fact that they regarded the Court as a useless waste of time". Turover: Del Ponte and the Swiss government helped Albright and the Americans - they're honest people, they pay their bills - therefore rewarded her with the Hague job. Here too she has sold herself brilliantly. With her, the trial is a total disaster. She has nothing on Milosevic, and legally he ought therefore to be released immediately. And so Milosevic, who himself is nothing but a bandit and con man, can present himself as an innocent victim of persecution and Serb nationalism is on the rise as the recent elections showed[1]. Do people in the Hague really not know that the Swiss Federal Government has appointed a special investigator to look into the del Ponte affair? How can a woman who is herself the subject of judicial investigation at the highest level because of serious crimes stay on as Chief Prosecutor at the UN war crimes tribunal? ... Elsässer: You are living in hiding, constantly moving house. How long will you keep this up? Turover: I have to, otherwise I'm dead because of del Ponte. I have of course insured myself by making sure that in the event of my demise even more explosive information than hitherto will be revealed. But that does not provide me with real security. So far at least five prosecution witnesses in the Mabetex case have been cleared out of the way. The most recent victim was Pacolli's personal secretary, a 32-year old woman, who was found dead in the bathroom, allegedly from a blood clot. There was no autopsy and she was cremated the next day."

April 21, 2002, Associated Press, 'Russia still investigating fate of 1998 IMF loan': "Russian prosecutors are still investigating what happened to a $4.8 billion IMF loan received in 1998 that some claim may have been laundered through a New York bank, the head of the Russian parliament's audit agency said. "This work is not finished," Sergei Stepashin, an ex-prime minister who now heads the State Duma's Audit Chamber, said Saturday on Russia's state-controlled Mayak radio." The sum remains very serious. It's more than $4 billion that we cannot seem to find." He predicted that the investigation by the Russian Prosecutor-General's office would be complete this year. Russian investigators have not commented publicly on the case. Stepashin also said Audit Chamber investigations revealed financial violations by government officials at the time the International Monetary Fund loans were received in 1998 - just months before Russia defaulted on tens of billions of dollars in debt and plunged into financial crisis. Stepashin gave no details of the violations. ... The audit came after U.S. federal prosecutors alleged in 1999 that the Bank of New York had served as a conduit for $7 billion in Russian money. Some reports alleged the funds included IMF loans."

March 31, 2000, The Scotsman, 'All Roads Lead to Offshore in the Pursuit of Dirty Money': "THE scale of economic crime and money laundering is staggering; according to a recent report in the International Herald Tribune, up to $ 8 trillion now passes through offshore jurisdictions. ... No-one knows how much of this is illicit, because secrecy laws in many of these jurisdictions make it a crime to ask. For example, the government website of the tiny Caribbean island of Antigua tries to attract offshore investors by bragging that it is bucking the trend "toward greater disclosure" of financial information. "The emphasis on nondisclosure provides a high comfort level," it says. Anguilla's website says companies can incorporate there in just 24 hours, while Dominica boasts of the "absence of tax treaties or exchange agreements with any other country". The Cayman Islands has just 30,000 citizens but nearly 600 banks - making it the fifth-largest banking centre in the world. Bigger than Chicago, Rome, Frankfurt, Paris, Los Angeles and Dallas. One senior US official has said that some of these small countries, which offer both strict banking secrecy and an easy change of identities, are creating "one-stop shopping" for criminals. Investigators are already looking into how $ 7 billion of International Monetary Fund (IMF) loans was apparently laundered from Russia via the Bank of New York. The investigation has prompted the Russian government and presidency to angrily deny any involvement. In Russia, almost 100 bankers have been murdered during the past five years, which police believe is a direct result of organised crime and money laundering. Investigations can reach the highest level. Indonesia's former president Suharto was, until recently, under suspicion of laundering billions of dollars out of his country."

July 26, 2000, The Australian (The Times), 'Russian PM linked to missing billions': "SWISS officials are eager to question Russia's new Prime Minister about allegations that he helped funnel a $US4.8billion ($8.2 billion) loan from the International Monetary Fund into several foreign bank accounts after the August 1998 financial crash. Moscow newspaper Novaya Gazeta, citing sources close to the Swiss chief prosecutor in Geneva, reported that Mikhail Kasyanov, appointed Prime Minister earlier this year, was involved in a complex series of transfers by which the loan never reached Russia but was "absorbed" by commercial accounts in the West. The vanishing billions, lent by the IMF to prop up the rouble in late 1998, have been the subject of investigations by the FBI and Swiss officials, linked to the even larger Bank of New York scandal involving the alleged laundering of up to $US10 billion in dirty Russian money. ... American inquiries into the Bank of New York affair have established that much of the missing money, including most of the IMF loan, ended up in US accounts belonging to 18 commercial Russian banks, many of which have since ceased trading. Several of them have admitted to buying IMF dollars from the Russian Central Bank and keeping them in US accounts. ... According to Novaya Gazeta on August 14, 1998, the $US4.8 billion was transferred from the New York Federal Reserve to accounts at the Republic Bank of New York controlled by Edmund Safra, the billionaire Lebanese banker who died in a fire in Monte Carlo last year. The Russian Central Bank defaulted on most of its short-term debt three days later, triggering the crash."

April 26, 2000, TASS, 'US Congress to team up with Russia against money-laundering': "Leach called on the two states to cut currency flows to countries with underdeveloped banking systems that often have offshore zones. For example, about 600 billion U.S. dollars have been transferred through the banks of the tiny island state of Nauru. Moreover, 50 percent of this money was involved in the scandal around the Bank of New York." Nauru denied that even 70 billion had passed through its bank.

August 24, 2000, USA Today, 'Swiss judge traces trail of laundered Russian funds': "The Swiss magistrate is following the trail of a $ 4.8 billion loan in 1998 to Russia from the International Monetary Fund. ... Last month, Kasper-Ansermet asked Deputy Prosecutor General Vasily Kolmogorov to question Russian central bank officials about the case to determine whether IMF funds had been improperly diverted to the Bank of New York and then to Swiss accounts. ... Russian officials deny they are stalling the money-laundering investigations, which have threatened to taint former president Boris Yeltsin's two daughters, Tatyana Dyachenko and Yelena Okulova. Yeltsin himself has been granted immunity from any prosecution."

Heinz, Mrs. Henry J., II

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Wife of Pilgrims Society member Henry J. Heinz II. Her husband's bio:

Yale Skull & Bones 1931. Chairman of the family's firm H.J. Heinz Company (very large international food manufacturer). Chairman Howard Heinz Endowment. Very close with Carnegie and Mellon interests. Trustee American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism 1950 (together with Pilgrim and Knight of Malta head J. Peter Grace). Member Council on Foreign Relations. Went to the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954. He was an organizer of the Bilderberg meetings, which he regularly attended, National Review, March 27, 1987: "He was an organizer of the Bilderberg meetings, which he regularly attended." 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pp. 448-449: "In late 1959 we were guests of Stavros [1001 Club] and Eugenie Niarchos for a week's sail through the Aegean aboard their three-masted schooner, The Creole... I had met Stavros six years earlier when he came to Chase's headquarters for a business meeting... Even though Stavros and I had little in common, we developed a good personal relationship and became business partners in many real estate deals in the United States, including the purchase of Rockefeller Center.... Our friends Jack [H.J. Heinz II; Pilgrims Society and Bilderberg organizer] and Drue Heinz of Pittsburgh were also on that 1959 voyage, as were Hans (Heini) Heinrich and Fiona Thyssen-Bornemisza [1001 Club], whom we met for the first time. Heini was the grandson of the famous August Thyssen, the "Rockefeller of the Ruhr," founder of Germany's Vereinigte Stahlwerke... Our cruise brought out the fact that we were all interested in art... The following May [1960]... we all flew to Lugano to spend the weekend with the Thyssens. When we arrived at Heini's home, the Villa Favorita, we were awestruck... It was the most beautiful private [art] collection we have ever seen." He is the father of Teresa Heinz Kerry's (born in Mozambique, brought up in South Africa, Carnegie trustee, global environmentalist sponsor, and considers herself a "world citizen") first husband, John Heinz III (who died in a plane crash). Teresa remarried with 1966 Skull & Bones member John F. Kerry, who became the main presidential opponent in 2004.

Herrhausen, Dr. Alfred

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1930. Managing director of Deutsche Bank. From 1971 onwards he was a member of the bank's board of directors. Important advisor to Chancellor Kohl. Regularly went to Bilderberg in the 1970s and 1980s (steering committee). Surpervisory board vice chairman AKZO in the late 1980s.

August 22, 1979, American Banker, 'Two Elected to Board of EAB': "Alfred Herrhausen and Fobertus Hoogendijk have been elected to the board of directors of European American Bancorp and its primary subsidiaries, European American Bank & Trust Co. and European American Banking Corp."

February 13, 1985, American Banker, 'West German Executives': "Alfred Herrhausen, 55, has been appointed as one of two chief executive officers of Deutsche Bank AG, Frankfurt..."

June 18, 1988, Washington Post, 'Volcker Group Calls for New Initiative on Third World Debt': "Paul A. Volcker, former chairman of the Federal Reserve board, and nine other leading financial experts yesterday called for a new initiative on Third World debt that appears to go well beyond the current strategy championed by Treasury Secretary James A. Baker III, in order to avert "risks to vital Western political and economic interests." "The growth potential of Third World countries has not been restored," the group said. "Most debtor countries owe substantially more than at the start of the crisis, and interest payments continue to consume a debilitating share of available economic resources." These comments were included in a set of recommendations for the Toronto economic summit by Volcker and the others -- mostly former high officeholders in Europe, Japan, and Canada -- and published in the current issue of The Economist magazine. The summit starts tomorrow. ... In addition to Volcker, the other signatories are: Henry Kissinger, former U.S. Secretary of State; Anthony Solomon, former president of the New York Federal Reserve Bank; Gerald Bouey, former governor of the Bank of Canada; Guido Carli, former Bank of Italy governor; Etienne Davignon, former Common Market commissioner; Daniel Lebegue, former French Treasury official; and Tomomitsu Oba, a former Japanese Ministry of Finance official. The 10th member of the group is Alfred Herrhausen, head of the Deutschebank..."

December 1 1989, The Times, 'Dr Alfred Herrhausen; Obituary': "But in 1970 he was persuaded to join Deutsche Bank as a deputy board member by Wilhelm Christians alongside whom, 15 years later, Herrhausen became joint managing board chairman or 'co-spokesman'. In May 1988, when Christians retired, Herrhausen's fellow board members elected him their sole 'spokesman'."

May 12, 1988, FT Energy Newsletters - Power Europe, ' RWE may buy Texaco unit': "Alfred Herrhausen and Wilhelm Christians are on the board of the Deutsche Bank, the former [was] also chairman of the supervisory board of Deutsche Texaco and the latter chairman of the supervisory board of RWE."

October 24, 1988, UPI, 'West German leader arrives in Moscow': "Alfred Herrhausen, head of the Deutsche Bank, West Germany's biggest bank, was scheduled to sign again ceremonially an agreement granting the Soviet Union a credit of $1.67 billion to expand Soviet food processing and consumer goods production."

November 30, 1989, Associated Press, 'Herrhausen a Giant Among Bankers': "Herrhausen was a friend and economic adviser to Chancellor Helmut Kohl, who was in tears over the murder. Kohl often sought Herrhausen's advice and asked the banker to accompany him on several foreign trips. ... Herrhausen repeatedly had called for a restructuring of the massive debts of Third World nations. During Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev's visit to Bonn in June, Herrhausen said it could take 20 years or more for the outmoded Soviet economy to achieve Western standards. He put the time at five to 10 years for East Germany. Herrhausen engineered the largest industrial restructuring in West German history, the merger of Daimler-Benz with aerospace giant Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm. He used the bank's 28 percent share in the country's No. 1 conglomerate, Daimler-Benz, to push the behemoth behind cars and trucks into electronics, aerospace and even outer space ventures. Kohl praised Herrhausen's sense of social responsiblity, perhaps a reflection of the bank chief's lifelong devotion to philosophy. Herrhausen was concerned by the public's lack of knowledge about the huge financial deals taking place in the bank's twin glimmering towers overlooking Frankfurt and brought in a former radio executive to improve communication with ordinary citizens. "Abroad, Herrhausen was one of the shining examples of German management," said Thomas Schiessle, a banking analyst with the Berliner Handels-und Frankfurter Bank. "As such, he was an exceptional figure who cannot be replaced." Herrhausen was born on Jan. 30, 1930, in Essen in the grimy Ruhr industrial area and attended a Bavarian school, called the Napola, set up by the Nazis for gifted children. He graduated from the University of Cologne with a degree in economics and business and later received a doctorate in economics. Herrhausen originally pursued a career in industry, working as a manager at Ruhrgas AG, West Germany's largest gas company. He also worked as board member at Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke AG, a power company. In 1969, he was recruited by the Deutsche Bank, where he worked in the economics department and in its important North American operations. He become co-chairman in 1985 and the sole chairman in 1988."

June 1, 1990, Business Magazine, 'Europe's lost leader': "He gave the impression of a man who was exhausted by his travels and his triumphs. At exactly four o'clock, he excused himself to prepare for a meeting and dinner with a delegation of Soviet officials led by deputy prime minister Ivan Silayev. As Herrhausen left the room, a waiter appeared, bearing glasses of champagne for the British reporters. Less than 18 hours later, he was assassinated. The bomb that blew up Herrhausen was attached to a sophisticated trigger mechanism and cable that had been laid in a gap chiselled out of the pavement, then recovered with asphalt and painted over so that the whole area looked untouched. Police say the two men dressed in jogging suits and wearing headphones had probably been in radio contact so that one of them could switch on the apparatus a second after the lead car in Herrhausen's convoy crossed over the hidden cable. When the second car passed, a photoelectronic mechanism triggered a homemade land mine. A sheet of white paper found near the site of the explosion bore the words 'Kommando Wolfgang Beer' and the familiar five-pointed star of the Red Army Faction terrorist organization. A few days later, a note from 'Kommando Wolfgang Beer' (the name refers to a terrorist who died in 1980) claiming responsibility for the attack was received by a news agency."

Herrhausen fell victim to a sophisticated roadside bomb shortly after leaving his home in Bad Homburg on 30 November 1989. He was being chauffeured to work in his armoured Mercedes-Benz, with bodyguards in both a lead vehicle and another following behind. The bomb had been hidden in a saddle bag on a bicycle next to the road that the assassins knew Herrhausen would be traveling in his three-car convoy. In the bag was a 20 kg bomb that was detonated when Herrhausen's car interrupted a beam of infrared light as it passed the bicycle. The bomb and its triggering mechanism were quite sophisticated. The bomb targeted the most vulnerable area of Herrhausen's car—the door where he was sitting—and required split-second timing to overcome the car's special armour plating. The bomb utilized a Misznay-Schardin mechanism. A copper plate, placed between the explosive and the target, was deformed and projected by the force of the explosion. It is unlikely that this improvised explosive device had the precise engineering required to form the liner into a more effective slug or "carrot" shape (as in a shaped charge or an EFP) but in any case, the detonation resulted in a mass of copper being projected toward the car at a speed of nearly two kilometers per second, effectively penetrating the armoured Mercedes. Herrhausen's legs were severed and he bled to death. No one has ever been charged with the murder. For a long time, the German federal prosecutor office listed Andrea Klump and Christoph Seidler of the Red Army Faction as the only suspects. The Federal Criminal Police Office (Germany) presented a chief witness Siegfried Nonne who later retracted his statements in which he claimed to have sheltered four terrorists in his home. His half-brother Hugo Föller (died 23 January 1992) furthermore declared that no other persons had been at the flat at the time. German Television on 1. July 1992 broadcast Nonne's explanations how he was coached and threatened by the Verfassungsschutz, the German internal intelligence agency, to become the main witness. In 2004 the federal prosecutor dropped the charges against the Red Army Faction; the investigation was to continue without naming a suspect. There's been speculation that the CIA or related US intelligence agency was behind the bombing and that the assassination was linked to Herrhausen's ideas to rebuilt East Germany.

Hersov, Basil E.

Source(s): 2010 list (joined in 1995)

Born in 1926 in Johannesburg. Son of A. S. "Bob" Hersov. Chairman and CEO Anglovaal Group 1973-2001. President South African Foundation 1977-1993. Chairman Barclays South Africa. Honorary member Rotary Club, Johannesburg. Governor Hichaelhouse School, Balgowan. Board member National Business Initiative. Member of Pik W. Botha's defence council (ruled 1977-1994). Member Thabo Mbeki's economic advisory panel (ruled 1999-2008). 1001 Club and Le Cercle. See Cercle for more info.

Hersov, R. L.

Source(s): 2010 list (joined in 1986)

Alternate director of Anglo-Transvaal Consolidated Investment Company Limited in the late 1960s. Shareholder and director of Tilley Lamp in the 1970s.

Hertzog, Dirk

Source(s): 1978 and 1987 lists

The most important partner of Anton Rupert in the Rembrandt for decades. Visited Le Cercle.

September 12, 2005, Africa News, 'South Africa; Building an Empire From Humble Beginnings: Anton Rupert': "ANTON Rupert's study of world markets, as well as his own observations during the depression, convinced him that "tobacco and liquor had the best growth potential because I noticed during the depression of the 1930s that people didn't smoke less and, if anything, they probably drank more". ... In the initial years Rupert focused more on tobacco while Dirk Hertzog mostly attended to the liquor unit. Hertzog tended to keep a lower profile -- it was better that way, he often told friends and relatives, as a team could only have one captain: "Anton is the masthead."" March 24, 2006, Africa News, 'South Africa; Extraordinary Man of Many Parts': "The [Michael] O'Dowd legend lives on in the memories of colleagues at Anglo American, where they would take turns researching obscure subjects to casually drop into conversations to see if they could find something on which he could not contribute authoritatively. They never did. ... For most of our history as one of Africa's leading independent think tanks he was our chairman (1978-2005). More than that, he was a father figure and mentor. He became head of the Free Market Foundation after he and Dirk Hertzog reconstituted the foundation with the support of Harry Oppenheimer and Anton Rupert 30 years ago to combat the interventionism that characterised the 1970s and caused SA's declining economic fortunes." January 27, 2006, Financial Mail (South Africa), 'Obituary - Anton Rupert.': "His brother, Jan, was a senior group executive, and though Rupert had reservations about bringing family members into firms, he later recruited his son, Johann. This allowed Edwin, the son of Rupert's original and lifelong business partner Dirk Hertzog, to join Rembrandt as well and build up the group's hospital interests."

Hoffmann, Dr. Lukas "Luc"

Source(s): November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (acquired several 1980s membership lists, according to Steinberg of EIR); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Descendant of Fritz Hoffmann-La Roche, the founder of the Hoffmann-La Roche pharmaceutical company. Heir to the fortune and a director of the company.

Founded the Station Biologique de la Tour du Valat in 1954, a private research institute devoted to ornithological studies. In 1974, he created the Tour du Valat Foundation whose mission is to study the functioning and protection of natural wetlands. Directed the MAR project in 1958 (IUCN, IWRB, ICBP), which aimed to promote waterbird monitoring and wetland censuses. Its major outcome was the signature of the international Ramsar Convention in 1971 for the conservation of wetlands. Played a key role in the creation of WWF International and in major conservation projects in Spain, Greece, and Madagascar. Created the International Banc d'Arguin Foundation in 1985 whose mission is to protect the Banc d'Arguin, a world heritage Ramsar site in Mauritania. Awarded the Conservation Medal of the Duke of Edinburgh (WWF International), the Kai Curry-Lindahl award of the Waterbird Society (1994), and the Légion d'Honneur of France. Currently President of WWF-France and Director emeritus of Wetlands International. Past vice-president of the IUCN (1966-1969), WWF International (1961-1988), and Wildfowl Trust (1979).

Hoffman-LaRoche background:

Hoffman-LaRoche is a Swiss-based pharmaceutical company that amongst other products sold tranquillizers as Valium and Librium. It also has been a major supplier of synthetic vitamins. In 1987 it was the third largest pharmaceutical company in the world.

In 1973 Germany, Holland, France, Great Britain, Sweden, South Africa, Australia, and the United States had began investigating Hoffman-LaRoche for charges prices that were anywhere from 40 to over a 1000 per cent above what should be market prices. Investigative committees claimed that Hoffman-LaRoche and other pharmaceutical companies were exploiting the National Health Services. Prices soon had to be slashed considerably. In 1975 the company paid back 3,75 million pounds in excess profits to the government of Great Britain.

There was an additional November 25, 2001, The Observer, 'Blowing the final whistle': "Never has the European Commission seen such a serious example of concerted price-fixing between giant corporations. Usually timid, the Commission last week let rip. Some of the world's biggest drug companies, including giant Swiss pharma, Roche, were fined a record £523 million. Mario Monti, the European Commission's competition director-general, said that 13 companies illegally colluded to raise the price of vitamin pills and vitamins added to foodstuffs. He added that the cartel could be dubbed 'Vitamin Inc' and was the most damaging case the commission had ever investigated, as it continued throughout the entire Nineties and involved substances vital for healthy living. To Stanley Adams, Monti's ruling came as no surprise. He's seen it all before. The 74-year-old blew the whistle on Roche nearly 30 years ago. It was Adams who handed over documents to the European Economic Community, as it was then, detailing how Roche kept the price of vitamins high with the explicit collusion of its supposed rivals. Some things never change. Adams said he would help the EEC with its investigation in return for anonymity. But the EEC bungled badly. It allowed a Roche official to photocopy some of the incriminating documents. The documents came from Adams's office. They had his signature on them. He was sunk. The Swiss authorities arrested him and called him a spy. Adams's wife was told that he faced a 20-year jail term for industrial espionage. She committed suicide. In the end, Adams served six months in a Swiss prison. But it took the Maltese-born whistleblower more than 10 years to wheedle compensation from Europe through the courts. In 1985 the European Union agreed to pay Adams £200,000 - £300,000 less than he wanted."

Hoffman-LaRoche owned the Icmesa chemical company in Italy which in 1976 exploded, with a toxic cloud as a result. This became known as the Seveso Disaster. 3,300 animals were found dead within several days and 80,000 were eventually slaughtered. Several hundred people were hospitalized and a number of women decided to abort their babies as a precaution. Several thousand acres of land ... Executives of Icmesa and its parent company Givaudan were sent to jail in 1983, because an Italian court was of the opinion that the accident could have been prevented. Hoffman-LaRoche, the owner of Givaudan, contested the verdict.

Hoffman-LaRoche led the clean up of the Icmesa site. By 1982 authoraties started to wonder where the Dioxine waste had been stored. Hoffman-LaRoche had given the drums with Dioxine to the company Manessmann, but only after eight months - and while under arrest - did the owner of Manessmann disclose where the drums were located: in an abandoned warehouse in Northern France. After this was revealed Hoffman-LaRoche decided to process the waste themselves.

Hoffmann, Andre

Source(s): 2010 list (member since 1990)

Son of Lukas Hoffmann. From 1985-1991, Mr. Hoffmann was with James Capel and Co., London, rising to Manager for European Mergers and Acquisitions, before joining Nestlé UK, London as a brand manager. Vice-Chairman of the Board of Roche Holding Ltd. (came to the board in 1996 when Lukas retired) as well as of the Board of Givaudan Ltd.; a member of the Board of Brunswick Leasing Ltd, Amazentis SA, MedAssurant Inc., INSEAD and Genentech, Inc. He is Chairman of Nemadi Advisors Ltd, the Living Planet Fund Management Co. and Massellaz S.A. Vice president of WWF International. Chair of the Steering Committee of the Campaign for a Living Planet. Senior advisor to the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) anno 2010.

Hunt, Nelson Bunker

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

His father, Haroldson Lafayette Hunt, Jr., was a wealthy Texas oil man, who founded Hunt Oil and headed the American Council of Christian Churches. March 18, 2009, Athens Daily Review, 'Dick Dwelle: An impact still felt today': "The two Athenians [Clint W. Murchison Sr. and Sid W. Richardson], along with H. L. Hunt and Hugh Roy Cullen, are the four principals in the book which Peppard says is about "a band of Texas oil titans who amassed a fortune that eclipsed those of the Rockefellers and Mellons and enjoyed their wealth with a hedonistic abandon that crafted a view of Texas that still holds in the remotest reaches of the globe."" Clint Murchison, Sr. [whose son, John D., also was a member of the 1001 Club and whose other son was on the board of FIDCO, a company with numerous ties to U.S. intelligence and the global drug trade] and H. L. Hunt largely funded the Douglas MacArthur for President campaign in 1951 and 1952, but MacArthur eventually decided not to go into politics. With Reverand Billy James Hargis H.L. Hunt was the founder of the International Committee for the Defense of Christian Culture, which existed from 1961 to 1964 and received overseas support from Konrad Adenauer (a member of Cercle Pinay). Hunt worked closely with General Charles Willoughby (chief of General MacArthur's military intelligence staff in WWII and Korea; friendly with Mussolini and Franco; MacArthur called him his "pet fascist") in this operation. Just as the Murchisons, a great supporter of Senator McCarthy, the John Birch Society, and many other extreme right "patriotic" groups in the United States. Involved with the Suite 8F Group, just as the Murchisons.

August 17, 1964, New York Times, 'H.L. Hunt: Magnat with a mission': "Mr. Hunt spent $150,000 to support ... Douglas MacArthur for the 1952 Republican Presidential nomination, $100,000 to back the Kennedy-Johnson ticket in 1960, and a wad of money to support the candidacy of Governor Wallace. ... One of Mr. Hunt's four sons says his father makes no contributions because "90 percent of the people he would support wouldn't be elected." ... [Hunt:] "I feel public affairs education--freedom education--is vastly more important than political action [contributions]." ... Mr. Hunt lists among those Americans whom he admires as patriots, Gen. Robert E. Wood ... a member of the Life Line advisory board; Gen. A. C. Wedemeyer ... once a member of the John Birch Society advisory committee, and a Life Line advisory board member [Hunt's radio program]; Robert H. W. Welch, Jr., founder of the John Birch Society; Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker; Governor Wallace, Senator Goldwater and President Johnson. Mr. Hunt says he has met Mr. Welch and talked with him by telephone. But he says he is not a member of the John Birch Society and never has attended its meetings. ... Leaflets around the Hunt Oil office promote two pro-Goldwater books that are being distributed by John Birch Society members. They are "A Choice Not an Echo," by Phyllis Schlafy, and "None Dare Call It Treason," by John A. Stormer... Other leaflets are promoting anti-Johnson books, including A Texan Look at Lyndon," by. J. Evatts Haley [JBS member; associate LBJ; about Billie Sol Estes' and his claim that LBJ was connected to a number of murders.]. ... Life Line was organized in September, 1958, as the successor by a charter amendment to Facts Forum, Inc. ... Mr. Hunt and Life Line have been accused of being anti-Negro, anti-Jewish, anti-Roman Catholic and antiunion. Mr. Hunt has enjoined Life Line from criticizing minority groups or unions. He says he does not believe any of them represent a threat to American society. ... Mr. Hunt, after spending $3,5 million of Facts Forum, folded the venture in November, 1956, without explanation. Mr. Hunt is a registered Democrat, but he has no party loyalties. … As an oilman, the depletion allowance sometimes overrides his philosophic considerations. … Mr. Hunt financially supported President Dwight D. Eisenhower during the 1952 and 1956 elections, but not very enthusiastically. … “General Eisenhower, he now believes, did the most harm and was the worst of presidents. … Friends say Mr. Hunt finds it hard to break away publicly from Mr. Johnson because the President for years was such a staunch friend of the oil industry. But Mr. Hunt says Mr. Johnson has “made terrible mistakes” as president, including the selection of Chief Justice Warren to head the inquiry into President Kennedy’s assassination. … He believes Mr. Goldwater “votes right,” but seems to have doubts about the Senator’s judgement."

H.L. Hunt has been named as a financier of Permindex. Hunt partially underwritten the cost of a large anti-Kennedy newspaper advertisement that appeared in the Dallas Morning News the day of the assassination. Hunt's oil profits were said to be threatened by Kennedy's announced plans to end the oil depletion allowance. A note written by Lee Harvey Oswald addressed to "Mr. Hunt" has raised speculation as to whether it was intended for the oil tycoon, one of his sons, or the CIA agent E. Howard Hunt. The "oil people I knew and the CIA" killed Kennedy it has been claimed..

Nelson's brother, Ray L. Hunt, has been U.S. Secretary of Commerce, sat on the board of Halliburton (named as a financier of Permindex), Electronic Data Systems Corporation (founded by Ross Perot) Pepsi Cola and the American Petroleum Institute.

Nelson himself was a John Birch Society financier and council member since at least the 1970s. In more recent years, at least from 2008 and on, he again was a council member. Financier, vice-president, and president (1983-1984) of the secretive Council for National Policy, a major supporter of the Campus Crusade for Christ, a main financier of the Wycliffe Bible Associates. The CNP doesn't release membership lists or allows any media coverage of what they discuss. A significant portion of the names that have been exposed represent America's hard-right. Among it's members you can find John Ashcroft, Pete du Pont, Milton Friedman, Jack Kemp, Trent Lott, Jerry Falwell, Oliver North, Edward Teller, John C. Whitehead and Stanley Monteith of Liberty Radio (said he counters the propaganda). In 1951, Bunker Hunt and Wallace Johnson, founder of Holiday Inns, worked with and funded Bill Bright's Campus Crusade for Christ donating $15.5 million. In 1967, Hunt formed the Christian World Liberation Front (CWLF) as a covert front for Campus Crusade, which split off and became a leading ministry in the Jesus People movement. Bunker Hunt arranged a retreat for more than 500 millionaires who pledged $20 to Campus Crusade. He once organized a paramilitary force called "Americans Volunteer Group" which he intended to use as a "death squad" against political opponents. [Hougan 55-56; Saloma 53; Diamond 51-56, 250] In 1967, Nelson Bunker Hunt provided Cameron Townsend, founder of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) and the Wycliffe Bible Translators, property in Dallas for a new international translation center. Thy Will Be Done, by Gerard Colby and Charlotte Dennett, documents the business and political connections between Wycliffe Bible Translators, the Rockefeller family, and the CIA. The result of the dealings was the genocide of indigenous tribes in the Amazon basin, although Cam Townsend denied the deaths. In 1966, H.L. Hunt was approached for funding Vatican anti-communist operations in Latin America. Bill Bright persuaded Nelson Bunker Hunt to underwrite the $6 million cost to produce the 'Jesus' movie in the 1970s. Donated $10 million to Pat Robertson's (CNP president, just like Hunt) Christian Broadcasters Network in 1970. Hunt contributed to the contras through NEPL, $484,500. He also illegally tried to corner the silver market in the 1970, but this went wrong and the family ended up bankrupt. In August of 1988 the Hunts were convicted of conspiring to manipulate the market. Hunt is a member of The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus (Templar-inspired militant christian organization). Financier of the World Anti-Communist League (WACL).

Lost many millions in 1973 when his Bunker Hunt Oil in Lybia was nationalized. June 12, 1973, Washington Post, 'U.S. Oil Firm Nationalized By Qaddafi': "The American oil companies operating in Libya, producing more than 90 per cent of its petroleum, have been growing increasingly apprehensive since Oct. 4, when the government demanded a 50 per cent share in Bunker Hunt's operations [and other American operations]. ... The oil companies strongly opposed this demand and negotiations broke down in December. Then on April 30, the Qaddafi government escalated its demand to "full control" of the American companies' operations in Libya." June 13, 1973, Washington Post, 'Energy Experts Fear Use of Oil as Weapon': "Libyan President Muammar Quaddafi's explicit linkage to of U.S. support for Israel with Libya's nationalization of an American-owned petroleum company caused mounting concern yesterday among energy experts who saw the move as the consumation of a threat to use oil as a political weapon." June 21, 1976, Sports Illustrated, 'Standing Knee-deep In Clover': "If anyone in the parking garage recognized Bunker Hunt—once the owner of an eight-million-acre oil concession in Libya; a man who hired John Connally to go to Washington as his personal lobbyist in an effort to persuade the government to undo the effects on Hunt of the Libyan revolution; defendant with brother Herbert in a celebrated wiretap case that Bunker said was CIA revenge for his refusing to allow agents to pose as his employees in the Middle East; a man who probably owns more silver than the Bank of England and is chairman of the biggest sugar-beet-growing outfit in the world—if anyone recognized him, you couldn't tell it." The Hunts sold their Placid Oil company to Occidental Petroleum Corporation (owned by Armand Hammer until 1990) for $250 million in 1994.

September 27, 1987, New York Times, 'The Hunt Brothers': "For a time, in the 1960's, Bunker Hunt was the world's wealthiest man, worth an estimated $16 billion. He made and lost more money in the oilfields and in the commodities markets during the last two decades than his legendary daddy, H. L. Hunt, did in a lifetime. And despite softening oil prices and a plethora of legal problems, including bankruptcy, the three Hunt brothers are still among the world's superrich, with interests in more than 200 trust funds, corporations, partnerships and personal property, much of which involve their siblings, children and grandchildren. ... In 1973, Bunker and Herbert were indicted on charges of wiretapping several former employees who the Hunts believed had cheated them. The conservative Bunker - he has been on the John Birch Society national council and was a financial backer of the Nicaraguan contras - hired a civil liberties lawyer who had previously represented the black militant H. Rap Brown. After telling their side of the story to a Texas jury, Bunker and Herbert were acquitted. (Bunker Hunt was also charged with obstructing justice in an attempt to cover-up the wiretapping; he pleaded nolo contendere.)"

Jahre, Anders

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Anders Jahre was a prominent Norwegian shipowner, lawyer and benefactor. Quite early, he saw the tremendous commercial potential of whaling. In 1918 he initiated a modern whaling concept and from then onwards played a major role in the development of industrialized, large scale whaling. He was the first to build industrial-scale mother whaling ships. In 1928 he founded the shipping company Anders Jahre and throughout 1929-30 several other subsidiary whaling companies. In the 1930'ies he started the oil refinery Sandar Fabrikker as well as the chemical factory Jahres Kjemiske Fabrikker. These were amalgamated into Jahres Fabrikker in 1963. Anders Jahre was for many years board chairman of Kosmos and Jahres Fabrikker as well as several other shipping companies. It was found out after his death he had committed tax fraud.

July 2, 1979, Oil & Gas Journal, p. 76: "Coral Navigation Inc. and Anders Jahre, Norway, have formed a partnership to build and operate two tankers that will carry crude to Down Chemical Co.'s Oyster Creek division crude processing plant being built at Freeport, Tex. Coral is a Dow subsidiary. Nippon Kokan, Japan, will build the tankers, each of which will be rated at about 60,000 dwt." February 4, 1980, Oil & Gas Journal, p. 32: "Anders Jahre Shipping and Morco AS will form a company to drill mainly in Arctic waters. The firm will operate an Aker H-4.2 design semisubmersible under construction through a joint arrangement between Aker Group and IshikawajimaHarima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo. Anders Jahre is a unit of Aksjeselskapet Kosmos, and Morco is a unit of Norcem Petroleum Services, both of Norway."

Nov. 29, 1968, Time Magazine, 'Norway: The End of Big Blubber': "As he gazed down at the harbor of Norway's biggest whaling port, Jahre knew that there was only one way his decision could go. Finally, and sadly, Norway's last active whaling-fleet owner passed the word. After 40 years of expeditions to the Ant arctic, Jahre's Kosmos Co. was going out of the whaling business. Since Norway's six other major whaling firms had previously made the same decision, the announcement put the country itself out of a proud and profitable business. It left the Antarctic to the Japanese and Russians. Small Catch, Slim Prices. Jahre made his choice on economic grounds. To outfit and dispatch the factory ship and catcher boats that make up a whaling expedition costs about $3,000,000 a season. In a good year, the catch of whales can return many times that amount in meat and oil. But despite the efforts of an international whaling commission, whalers have so depleted the Antarctic that catches today are uneconomically small. Ten years ago, factory ships sent to sea by Norwegian owners processed 905,000 barrels of oil from 31,000 whales in one season. Last year the country's ships were able to bring back only 80,500 barrels from 15,000 whales, which now run quite a bit smaller than they used to."

Janssen, Baron Daniel

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1936. Part of one of the more influential Catholic blue blood families of Belgium, together with the Solvays, Boëls, Davignons, and Lippens. Graduated as Civil Engineer from Brussels University in 1958, and received his Certificate in Nuclear Physics in 1959. Cabinet Attaché at the Euratom Commission 1959-1960. MBA from Harvard University 1962. Joined UCB in 1962, a Belgian pharmaceutical company that produces antiepileptics, antiallergics, tranquillizers, etc. Lecturer at Brussels University from 1965 to 1972. Chairman of the Executive Committee of UCB from 1975 to 1984. Still vice-chairman of the Executive Committee and Board of Directors of UCB. Chairman of the Federation of Belgian Chemical Industries from 1976 to 1979. Chairman of the Federation of Belgian Enterprises from 1981 to 1984. Chairman of the Executive Committee of Solvay SA 1986-1998. Solvay is a very large producer of chemicals (like fluor), pharmaceuticals (like antidepressants), and plastics. President of European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) 1991-1992. Chairman of the Board of Directors of Solvay SA since 1998. Chairman of the Advisory Board of the Solvay Business School. Director of Fortis SA/NV and Sofina. Founding member of the Belgian Commission on Corporate Governance in 2004, which is headed by Maurice Lippens. The Janssen's main investments, besides Solvay, are in Financiere de Tubize, Financiere d'Obourg, and UCB (own about 18%). Often went to the Trilateral Commission, together with his brother Paul-Emmanuel. Member of the European Round Table of Industrialists (Etienne Davignon's idea). Has been chairman of the ERT's industrialists' working group on competitiveness. Visited Bilderberg multiple times. Trustee of Friends of Europe, of which the president is Etienne Davignon. Has spoken at Forum Europe. Associate member Club of Rome. He sits on the Board of the Belgian American Educational Foundation and is a patron of INSEAD (together with representatives from all the large international banks). Brother of Baron Paul-Emmanuel Janssen, who is a member of the CFR, the Trilateral Commission, and a former governor of the Atlantic Institute if International Affairs. His brother has also been a chairman of Generale de Banque until 1998. Both are close associates of Viscount Etienne Davignon. Janssen has been accused by the late Count Yann de Meeûs d'Argenteuil of involvement in drug trafficking and child abuse.

Jones, Thomas V.

Source(s): 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Who's Who: Engineer El Segundo div. Douglas Aircraft Co., 1941-47; tech. adviser Brazilian Air Ministry, 1947-51; professor, head department Brazilian Institute Tech., 1947-51; staff consultant Air Staff of US Air Force, Rand Corp., 1951-53; assistant to chief engineer Northrop Corp., Los Angeles, 1953, deputy chief engineer, 1954-56, director devel. planning, 1956-57, corp. vice president, 1957, senior vice president, 1958-59, president, 1959-76, chief executive officer, 1960-89, chairman board. Board directors MCA Inc., Universal City, California. Board directors Los Angeles World Affairs Council, California Nature Conservancy; trustee Institute for Strategic Studies [that would be IISS], London. Bohemian Grove.

Convicted of giving Nixon's chief fundraiser, attorney Herbert Kalbach, $75,000 in $100 bills for use as "hush money" for the CIA connected burglars who were caught breaking into the Watergate building. Good friend of Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. Jones and his wife socialized with the Reagans both at the White House and at their own functions. Longtime chairman, chief executive and president of the Northrop Corporation, also during the time the B2-Spirit was developed. Had some problems when it was revealed that his company paid 30 million dollars in bribes to government officials and agents around the world in exchange for contracts. One of these bribes involved fellow club member Prince Bernhard. Supposedly kicked out of the 1001 Club in 1975, but his name appeared in the 1987 membership list. Jones has a five-acre vineyard at his Bel Air mansion. In the summer of 1986 Jones and his wife hosted a barbecue at their Los Angeles estate for Ronald and Nancy Reagan and their friends.

December 20, 1979, New York Times, 'Executive Schanges': "MCA Inc names Thomas V Jones and Felix Rohatyn directors (S)". May 8, 1990, PR Newswire, 'MCA Inc. holds annual meeting': "Lew R. Wasserman, chairman of the the board and chief executive officer of MCA Inc., (NYSE: MCA) announced that the MCA Inc. stockholders, at their annual meeting today, elected Thomas V. Jones, Robert S. Strauss and Thomas Wertheimer as directors of MCA Inc. ... The board appointed its members to committees of the board as follows: Executive Committee -- Lew R. Wasserman, Sidney Jay Sheinberg and Thomas Wertheimer; Audit Committee -- Howard H. Baker Jr., Mary Gardiner Jones, Thomas V. Jones (chairman) and Felix G. Rohatyn..."

March 1, 1976, Newsweek, 'Digging for the Real Dirt': "But at Northrop Corp., which had admitted to $30 million in commissions and bribes to foreign officials and agents, Thomas V. Jones, who had been stripped of his chairmanship at the height of Northdrop's notoriety, was reinstated in the top job."

June 23, 1975, Newsweek, 'INVESTIGATIONS: Cleaning House': "At the two days of hearings in Washington, top officials of the Northrop Corp. publicly apologized to the Saudi Arabian Government for attempting to bribe two Saudi generals. The $450,000 payment was due to a misunderstanding, according to Northrop chairman Thomas V. Jones. Northrop was trying to sell its F-5 jet fighter planes to Saudi Arabia, and on a trip he made to that country several yeats ago, said Jones, "mention was made of a problem with a general." Jones then responded that Northrop intended to meet any obligations it had - and from that vague reference, the executive claimed, the bribe proposal grew. Actually, though Northrop admits paying the $450,000 to an intermediary, there is no evidence the money ever reached the generals. Dummy: Northrop had also set up a Swiss firm, Economic and Development Corp., as a vehicle to channel commissions to influential foreigners who helped the U.S. plane-maker sell its jet fighters. According to the company's auditors, Northrop's dummy sales firm was patterned after a successful operation established by Lockheed Aircraft Corp. Lockheed denied the allegations. "We never, even in the most general terms, had anything like what Northrop was referring to," said a spokesman. But Lockheed did disclose that it had made a $20,000 political contribution in a foreign country. The payment was legal, according to the company - which refused to reveal where it was made."

September 3, 1976, New York Times, '': "Prince Bernhard's links to Northrop and his friendship with its chmn Thomas V Jones seen likely to be investigated (L)."

2009, Bert Kreemers, 'Hete Hangijzers', introduction of publisher Balans: "Prins Bernhard was niet alleen betrokken bij aankopen van de Amerikaanse vliegtuigfabrikant Lockheed voor de Nederlandse krijgsmacht, maar spande zich ook in voor de aanschaf van de opvolger van de Starfighter voor de Nederlandse luchtmacht. Dat blijkt uit het proefschrift waarop Bert Kreemers vandaag aan de Universiteit Leiden is gepromoveerd. Eerst zette de echtgenoot van koningin Juliana zich in voor de Cobra van Northrop. De president-directeur van Northrop, Thomas V. Jones, logeerde bij bezoeken aan Nederland op paleis Soestdijk en maakte gebruik van een dienstauto van de inspecteur-generaal van de koninklijke luchtmacht, een functie van prins Bernhard. Thomas V. Jones had eind januari 1974 een door de prins gearrangeerd gesprek met minister van Defensie Henk Vredeling. Enige tijd later werd de minister door prins Bernhard uitgenodigd voor een lunch op paleis Soestdijk. Daar was – tot ongenoegen van de onwetende minister Vredeling – ook de topman van Northrop aanwezig. Na de keuze van de Amerikaanse luchtmacht voor de F-16 verlegde prins Bernhard zijn inspanningen voor de aanschaf van een Amerikaanse opvolger van de Starfighter naar General Dynamics, de bouwer van de F-16. Hij waarschuwde op 22 maart 1975 de Amerikaanse minister van Buitenlandse Zaken, Henry Kissinger, dat problemen rond de landingsrechten van KLM in de Verenigde Staten moesten worden opgelost om de keuze op de F-16 als opvolger van de Starfighter in de Nederlandse luchtmacht mogelijk te maken (”The F-16 sale looks good to him if there are no political developments to cloud our bilateral relations.”). Prins Bernhard was in die tijd lid van de raad van commissarissen van KLM. Vredeling was niet op de hoogte van de lobby van prins Bernhard. De Nederlandse regering besloot op 25 mei 1975, drie maanden na het gesprek van Bernhard met Kissinger, de F-16 aan te schaffen. De eindonderhandelingen met General Dynamics en de Franse vliegtuigbouwer Dassault over de aanschaf over een opvolger van de Starfighter waren eind maart 1975 nog in volle gang. De Nederlandse regering kreeg op 18 april 1975 een nieuw aanbod van Dassault en probeerde die dag van de Amerikanen extra concessies voor de aankoop van de F-16 los te krijgen. Dat laatste zou uiteindelijk tot niets leiden."

September 21, 1990, New York Times, 'Bribe Charges Backed As Northrop Era Ends': "Thomas V. Jones survived a foreign bribery scandal at the Northrop Corporation in the 1970's and went on to build the company into one of the nation's largest military contractors. Now he is retiring as chairman amid allegations that he may have presided over the payment of bribes by Northrop in the 1980's in an effort to sell a fighter jet in South Korea [first accusations made in 1988]. The company and Mr. Jones have denied all suggestions of wrongdoing. But on Wednesday, the day Northrop announced Mr. Jones's retirement at the age of 70, reports appeared that an international arbitration service had concluded that the company paid a Korean business executive $6.25 million to help influence the sale of the F-20 fighter plane. ... Northrop hired Mr. Park in 1983 as part of an effort to persuade South Korea to buy the F-20, a newly designed fighter that Northrop was struggling to sell both in the United States and abroad. The next year, Northrop agreed to create a joint venture with Mr. Park to build a hotel and office complex in Seoul in keeping with the common practice of reinvesting some of the proceeds from any sale into the local economy. But the complex was never built, and Northrop never sold any F-20's to South Korea. Northrop eventually canceled the F-20 after the United States Air Force decided not to buy the plane. ... After allegations in the early 1970's that it had made improper payoffs to sell warplanes abroad, Northrop, with Mr. Jones as chairman, signed a consent decree with the Government in 1975, pledging not to make any further payoffs. Mr. Jones also pleaded guilty in the early 1970's to a single felony count of making illegal contributions to Richard Nixon's 1972 re-election campaign. In recent years, Mr. Jones and his successor as chief executive and now chairman, Kent Kresa, have endured a series of investigations into other charges of wrongdoing by the company on a variety of military contracts. Earlier this year, Northrop pleaded guilty to 34 counts of failing to test parts for fighter jets and missiles and agreed to pay a $17 million fine."

August 8, 1994 , Newsweek, 'Nixon's Endgame': "In another call, [Watergate burgler E. Howard] Hunt talked about the burglary of Ellsberg's psychiatrist. But all he said, he explains on camera, was that "dire consequences for the administration could result. Just a plain statement of fact, not a threat." To gather hush money for Hunt and the others, Nixon's political fund raiser, Herbert Kalmbach, crisscrosses the country; at one point Northrop Corp. chairman Thomas V. Jones hands him $ 75,000 from his desk drawer, no questions asked."

May 21, 1981, Washington Post, ' Behind the Scenes at Reagan's Night Out': "The man who came to dinner last Thursday night was none other than Ronald Reagan -- making his first social appearance outside the White House since the assassination attempt seven weeks ago -- but the man who gave the dinner was Thomas V. Jones, chairman and the chief executive officer of Northrop Corp., who pleaded guilty in 1974 to violating federal campaign contribution laws. Both the White House press office and Nancy Reagan's press office said they did not know who Tom Jones was other than that he was the host of the party at the George Town Club, but a Northrop spokesman later confirmed that it was indeed the same Tom Jones of Northrop. The White House said it did not have the guest list for the party. Tight security pervaded the arrival and departure of the president and Mrs. Reagan, complete with Secret Service sharpshooters poised on rooftops overhead. One dinner guest said later, "I thought there was a car wreck what with all the cops outside." The dinner party was in honor of the Reagans' good friend Jack Wrather, who was in town to host a premier of his movie "The Legend of the Lone Ranger." The Wrathers, Joneses and Reagans are all friends, according to the Northrop spokesman. Jones' secretary said Mrs. Jones and Mrs. Wrather drew up the guest list. The adventures of Tom Jones began in 1974 when Jones pleaded guilty to felony charges of making illegal donations of $150,000 to former president Richard Nixon's 1972 reelection campaign. Both the firm and Jones were fined $5,000 each. The Watergate special prosecutor's office brought the case under a 1940 statute prohibiting political contributions by government contractors.According to information filed in court against Northrop and Jones, the money was contributed to the Nixon reelection campaign by funneling corporate funds through a European consultant of Northrop's. Prosecutors also charged that Northrop backdated certain documents to cover the contributions and that the entire illegal transaction was aided and abetted by Jones. In another legal action, in 1975, the Securities and Exchange Commission filed a complaint alleging among other things that Northrop and Jones had maintained a secret corporate fund in excess of $476,000, a substantial portion of which had been used for unlawful political contributions and related expenses. Jones and Northrop consented to the entry of an order enjoining them from future violations without admitting or denying the allegations of the complaint. Northrop is still a top defense contractor. In 1980, Northrop was the country's 11th-largest defense contractor with $1.2 billion in defense contracts, according to a Defense Department spokesman, including two MX missile contracts, and it is currently producing parts of the F18 Navy fighter plane. The two congressmen on the guest list were Rep. G. V. (Sonny) Montgomery (D-Miss.), a member of the House Armed Services Committee, and Rep. Charles Wilson (D-Tex.), on the House Appropriations Committee. Montgomery said Tuesday he didn't know either the Wrathers or the Joneses but Sen. Lloyd Bentsen (D-Tex.) and his wife were friends of the Wrathers and they recommended he be invited. "Charlie Wilson and I are both Democrats and both bachelors. There were single ladies there and that was why we were invited," Montgomery said. "It was a friendship party; there was no talk of defense contracting. I'm on the Armed Services Committee and I would have heard any talk about it." Wilson, who says he was there to "even up the count," agreed that the dinner was "all of Reagan's old friends . . . reminiscing about old Hollywood days. It was the first time some of them had been in Washington since the inauguration and they were complaining all they ever got to see was the inside of the White House and the Madison Hotel." Aside from Montgomery and Wilson, the guest list was stellar Republican, with such Reagan friends as the Alfred Bloomingdales, Attorney General William French Smith and Wyatt and Nancy Dickerson. As one of Jones' secretaries put it, "They've all been out here a long time and all have known each other for years.""

June 28, 1975, Facts on File World News Digest, 'Northrop admits bribes': "The executive committee of the board of Northrop Corp., an exporter of U.S.-built fighter planes, admitted June 5 that the firm had paid nearly $470,000 in bribes, including $450,000 in payments to two Saudi Arabian generals, but denied allegations o widespread wrong-doing related to Northrop's earlier admission that $30 million was paid in agents' fees and commissions in connection with overseas sales. ... The auditor's report on the overseas payments was prepared by Northrop's outside auditor, Ernst & Ernst, after the Securities and Exchange Commission accused Northrop of maintaining a slush fund for "unlawful political contributions and other unlawful purposes." Northrop, which had earlier pleaded guilty to making an illegal $150,000 donation to the Nixon re-election campaign, settled the SEC complaint without admitting or denying the charges. ... The Senate subcommittee did release the confidential section, however. It revealed that Northrop secretly employed politicians, generals and other high-level government contacts, including some whose identities were unknown even to top Northrop officials, to penetrate foreign markets and win lucrative defense contracts. Highlights of the report: Khashoggi and the Saudi Arabian bribes -- According to Northrop officials, money intended for two Saudi Arabian generals was solicited by Adnan Khashoggi, a Saudi Arabian businessman with close ties to the royal family. [See p. 117E1] As chairman of the Triad Financial Establishment Co., a unit of his Luxembourg-incorporated, Beirutbased Triad Holding Corp., Khashoggi also served as consulant in the Middle East for Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Chrysler Corp., and Raytheon Corp., according to the Wall Street Journal June 6. ... Through a Washington spokesman, Khashoggi denied that he had acted as arintermediary for the Northrop bribes. Northrop officials told the auditors they could not be certain the bribery money given to Khashoggi was ever paid to the generals. According to the auditor's report, Khashoggi asked for $250,000 in 1971, in addition to his usual fee, to pay off a Saudi minister who could make "difficulties" for the firm. Northrop's sales there totaled $200 million at the time. Khashoggi later told Northrop officials the money was "passed along to the general." In 1972, Khashoggi asked for another $150,000 to pay off a second general. When Northrop officials resisted, the general reacted to company personnel "in a hostile fashion," the report stated, and increased his demand to $200,000. That sum was paid in August 1973 through Triad after the consulting firm agreed that both payments would be applied against possible commissions earned on future arms sales. In testimony before the Senate subcommittee June 9, Richard W. Millar, chairman of Northrop's executive committee, apologized to the Saudi Arabian government "for an embarrassment caused by the bribery payments." The auditor's report stated that Khashoggi also paid a portion of his agent's fee to an unidentified Saudi Arabian prince, a registered commercial agent, who "approached" Northrop for a commission. Representatives of the Saudi Arabian government also interceded with Northrop officials there on the prince's behalf, according to the report. More than $500,000 was paid to the prince's firm in 1971 and 1973 for "unspecified services." The Journal June 6 identified the prince as Khalid bin Abdullah. The Senate subcommittee also was studying a $45 million commission paid to Khashoggi by Northrop after Saudi Arabia purchased 60 F-5E fighter planes valued at $750 million. Gen. Stehlin a secret consultant -- Gen. Paul Stehlin, former chief of staff of the French air force and until 1974, a vice president of the French National Assembly, was secretly on the Northrop payroll from 1964-1974, reporting to Northrop chairman and president Thomas V. Jones, the report stated. [See 1974, p. 968E2] Stehlin received up to $7,500 a year in consulting fees. "He has usually been able to spot and identify changes in national policy as they affect defense months and even years ahead of others," Jones said of Stehlin when questioned by auditors. In a letter to Jones in January 1973, Stehlin claimed he had provided Northrop with "exploitable elements of a good strategy," and said that during parliamentary debates, he had "made good use of the information you [Jones] have been providing me." According to Jones, Stehlin's "primary responsibility" as a Northrop consultant was in preparing an "analysis of all political, economic and military situations in Europe, with changing relationships between principal countries and emphasis on defense-related programs." Stehlin's "secondary responsibility," Jones added, "is the alerting of Northrop to business opportunities in the defense-related areas as they arise." Northrop, General Dynamics and the French company which built the Mirage F-1 fighter plane, had been the chief competitors for contracts to sell fighter planes to NATO countries. In January, Northrop failed in its bid to win the U.S. contract when the Pentagon selected General Dynamic's F-16 model, a plane that later also was chosen by most other European nations in the arms deal. [See p. 406A2, p. 57A3] Stehlin died June 22 after being hit by a bus June 7 in Paris. His widow rejected speculation that Stehlin's death was a suicide. Other highly-placed contacts -- The report also revealed that Kermit Roosevelt, grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt, worked on Northrop's behalf in the Middle East, where he had formerly served with the Central Intelligence Agency and allegedly arranged a coup in 1953 that reinstalled Shah Riza Pahlevi in Iran. The auditors stated that Roosevelt was "perhaps the key figure in establishing the very high-level of activity northrop now has in the Middle East, with contract values in this area in the past seven to eight years running close to a billion dollars." Roosevelt, who had quit the CIA before 1959, currently was paid $75,000 annually by Northrop. (He also served as a consultant to Raytheon.) Letters from Roosevelt to high Northrop officials were submitted with the report, showing that in 1965 Roosevelt claimed he had foiled Lockheed Aircraft's attempts to sell its F-104 fighter plane to Saudi Arabia when he told the late King Faisal that Lockheed had bribed certain Saudi Arabian officials in an effort to win the government contract. Saudi Arabia subsequently purchased Northrop's F-5 fighter plane. In his letters, Roosevelt also claimed he had used his CIA contacts in Saudi Arabia and Iran on Northrop's behalf. The report also identified other Northrop consultants: Hubert Weisbrod was a Swiss consultant who, Jones said, gave Northrop "an unusual visibility into the highest councils of NATO, the Common Market and the many official and unofficial discussions between the highest officials in Europe." Weisbrod was paid $125,000 annually, the report stated. A Dutch consultant, Johannes Gerritsen, acted "as a trusted communications channel between the highest levels in the Dutch government and the president of Northrop," Jones said. According to the auditor's report, senior members of the Dutch government invited Northrop to appoint a special company "ambassador" who could act as a laison in arms deals between the aerospace firm and the Netherlands. Gerritsen's name was suggested "by several of the highest levels in the Dutch government," Jones said. Secrecy was maintained in Gerriten's high-level contacts, he said. Wilhelm Franz-Josef Bach, a former member of the lower house of the West German parliament, was paid for his services to Northrop through a Swiss consulting firm secretly set up by another Northrop advisor. Gen. Adolf Galland, a former Luftwaffe combat ace in World War Two, relayed political information to Jones in code, the report stated."

Juffali, Sheikh Ahmed

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Head of Juffali & Brothers. Having started in 1960 with the Daimler-Benz agency for Saudi Arabia, Juffali's company by the 1980s was considered the best-managed and most modern in the country. It is hard to go anywhere in Saudi Arabia without coming across EA Juffali & Brothers. Co-founded in 1946 by Sheikh Ahmed Juffali, it began as a contractor building electric power utilities but today operates in all sectors of Saudi business, with big-name partners such as Dow Chemical and Siemens. The business is run by the sheikh’s sons, Khalid and Walid, above. With strong oil revenues and record infrastructure spending in the Middle East, particularly Saudi Arabia, EA Juffali can only grow in profitability and size. As an example, its Mercedes dealership was the Middle East’s top-seller in 2006. The family, easily worth £1 billion, has strong links to Britain and spends much time here.

Today Walid Juffali, a successor to Sheikh Ahmed, is also the chairman of the Saudi American Bank; Deputy Chairman of the Board, Jeddah Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Honorary Consul-General for Her Majesty the Queen of Denmark; Chairman, The Help Centre, an Ahmed Juffali Charitable Foundation for Mentally Challenged Children; and Trustee member, International House, Rockefeller Foundation.

Kagan, Lord Joseph

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1915-1995. Labour party donor. Founder of ‘Gannex’-Kagan Textiles Limited (rain coat manufacturing firm), 1951, thereafter Chairman and Managing Director. Convicted of theft and conspiracy to defraud the British tax service. Was the conduit for the money from Lockheed to Prince Bernhard.

Kamil, Tan Sri A. Nik

Source(s): 1978 list

Malaysia. Politician. Director Shell Refining Co. and other companies.

Keith, Baron Kenneth

Source(s): October 28, 1977, The Argus (Fremont), 'Dutch prince loves nature', Page 16; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Trained as a Chartered Accountant. 2nd Lt Welsh Guards, 1939; Lt-Col 1945; served in North Africa, Italy, France and Germany (despatches, Croix de Guerre with Silver Star). Asst to Dir Gen. Political Intelligence Department, Foreign Office, 1945–46. Partner, 1946, Dir, 1948, Man. Dir, 1951, Philip Hill & Partners Ltd; Chairman: Philip Hill Investment Trust Ltd, 1967–87; Hill Samuel Group Ltd, 1970–80; Chm. and Chief Exec., Rolls Royce Ltd, 1972–80; Vice-Chm., BEA [British European Airlines], 1964–71; Director: Beecham Gp Ltd, 1949–87 (Vice-Chm., 1970–87, Chm., 1986–87); Eagle Star Insurance Co., 1955–75; Nat. Provincial Bank, 1967–69; Times Newspapers Ltd, 1967–81; British Airways, 1971–72; Standard Telephones and Cables, subseq. STC, 1977–89 (Chm., 1985–89); Bank of Nova Scotia Ltd, 1978–87. Member: NEDC, 1964–71; CBI/NEDC Liaison Cttee, 1974–78; Pres., BSI, 1989–94; Vice-Pres., EEF. Chairman: Economic Planning Council for East Anglia, 1965–70; Governor, Nat. Inst. of Economic and Social Research. Council Mem. and Dir, Manchester Business Sch. President: Royal Norfolk Agricl Assoc., 1989; RoSPA, 1989–93. FCMI; FRSA. Hon. Companion, RAeS. White's.

Chairman of Tanker Investment Trust in the 1950s. Trizec in 1960 (Bronfmans came on board in 1970).

"Sir Kenneth Keith moves between the secret world of British intelligence and the opium politics of the Far East."

Kellogg, Francis L.

Source(s): October 28, 1977, The Argus (Fremont), 'Dutch prince loves nature', Page 16; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1917. Kellogg grew up in New York City and Bar Harbor, Maine; his father was general manager of the Electric Storage Battery Company of Philadelphia, and the family had philanthropic interests in the Metropolitan Museum and the New York Botanical Garden. Graduated from Princeton in 1940. Enlisted in the Army in 1940, and served with the Field Artillery Transportation Corps. At the end of the war he briefly was a member of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Married Fernanda Wanamaker Munn in 1942, great-granddaughter of the department store's founder. Joined the Wanamaker board in 1946, and then became vice president of the New York operation. After the main New York store was shuttered in 1954, Kellogg became CEO of the national department store. He eventually divested the company's department store holdings and went into minerals, petroleum, and port operations, renaming the company International Mining Corporation (IMC). IMC acquired the Canton Corporation of Baltimore in 1960, the fourth largest shipping company (iron ore, other bulk cargoes, and general cargo) on the Atlantic Seaboard at the time. At this time, IMC had disposed of its last department store, and owned a 25% interest in natural gas royalties, minerals, and fee properties along the Gulf Coast of Southern Louisiana, and holdings in Placer Development, a large Canadian-based international mining corporation. It also had investments in oil and real estate. Founding director of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in 1961, together with Julian Huxley, Prince Bernhard, and Prince Philip. By 1962, IMC operated as a subsidiary of the South American Gold and Platinum Company. Attended a New York ball in 1966, with Mrs. Edwin F. Russell (co-chair; formerly Lady Sarah Spencer-Churchill and daughter of the 10th Duke of Marlborough) and Bernard M. Baruch Jr. also attending. He still was president of the IMC in 1967. Left his business directorships in 1970 to join the Nixon administration. First Nixon's delegate to various international conferences. Then became special assistant to the secretary of state (William Rogers and Henry Kissinger) for refugee and migration affairs. Member of and adviser to the U.S. delegation to the General Assembly of the United Nations until 1974. Served as president of the WWF from 1971 to 1976. President of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy (hon. chairman is Paul Volcker) for 12 years and was treasurer at the time of his death in 2006. Director of the Afghanistan Relief Committee. Founding member of the Charles & Anne Lindbergh Foundation, which was established in 1977 through an effort of friends of the Lindberghs at The Explorers Club in New York City and a national campaign led by General James H. Doolittle and Astronaut Neil Armstrong. Served as president of the Lindbergh Foundation for some time. In the 1980s, Kellogg acted as chief of protocol for Queen Sirikit of Thailand during her visits to the United States. Founded and until his death was chairman of the Thai Support Foundation. Knight Grand Cross of the Most Noble Order of the Crown in Thailand. Received the title Commander of the Order of Merit of the Knights of Malta. Founding member of the Garden Conservancy in 1989. Director of the Veterans Office of Strategic Services. Trustee of the U.S. Committee for Conservation Nepal. Trustee of the William J. Donovan Foundation. Died in 2006. A short biography issued by his office, stated: "For a number of years, simultaneously with his other activities, Kellogg was on special assignment with the Central Intelligence Agency [CIA]."

Kent, Mrs. Geoffrey J. W.

Source(s): 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Wife of Geoffrey J. W. Kent. Geoffrey Kent's bio:

Chairman and CEO of Abercrombie & Kent. Founded in 1962 by Colonel and Mrs John Kent and their son Geoffrey as a safari company in Nairobi, Kenya, Abercrombie & Kent has become a name synonymous with top quality in the tour travel industry. As an international group of companies, A&K provides upscale adventures and luxury travel in more than 100 countries on all seven continents. In 1965 Geoffrey Kent became Managing Director of the company and the following year, Colonel and Mrs Kent retired from active participation. In the 1970s he met, and later entered into full partnership with Jorie Butler of Oak Brook, Illinois, opening offices in the United States and London to service European and American markets. A few years later they married. Today Mr & Mrs Kent spend a good part of every year making reconnaissance in outlying parts of the world to evaluate the economic and environmental potential for high-quality tour operations. The A&K Group of Companies comprises 45 worldwide and satellite offices, including London, Paris, Cairo, Nairobi, Arusha, Kampala, Johannesburg, New Delhi, Bangkok, Hong Kong, Melbourne, Lima and Phnom Penh. The significance of operating its own offices in the USA and abroad cannot be overstated. Employing more than 3000 travel professionals worldwide, A&K overseas locations are staffed by local residents of each country who quite naturally impact an intimate knowledge of their culture, and love for their homeland, to visiting travelers.

Keswick, David J.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1901-1976. Member of the Keswick family connected to Jardine Matheson. Asst Private Sec. to Governor-Gen. of New Zealand, 1924–27; Private Sec. to Sir Thomas Inskip, KC, MP, Attorney-Gen. 1927–29; director Samuel Montagu & Co., Bankers, 1930-1969 (advisor to the bank from that point). Commissioned KOSB Sept. 1939; employed on staff duties; demobilised, 1946. Mem., Royal Company of Archers (Queen’s Body Guard for Scotland). JP Dumfriesshire 1958. Boodle's.

Keswick, Sir Henry N.L.

Source(s): November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (acquired several 1980s membership lists, according to Steinberg of EIR); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Brother of Simon Keswick. Son of Pilgrims Society member Sir William Johnston "Tony" Keswick. Tony was the grandson of William Keswick, the person that took control of Jardine Matheson in 1886 (1834-1912). Jardine Matheson has its origins in the 1830s, when founders William Jardine and James Matheson invested their substantial returns from opium trade in China. According to EIR, they are still involved in the drug business today. Hugh Matheson founded Rio Tinto Zinc (RTZ) in 1873, which the Rothschilds owned for 1/3 in 1905.

Henry Keswick joined Jardine in 1961 and was assigned to the firm's offices in Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. Director of Jardine Matheson 1967-1970. Senior managing director of Jardine Matheson 1970-1972. Chairman of Jardine Matheson 1972-1975. Re-appointed a director of Jardine Matheson in 1988. Chairman of Jardine Matheson anno 2006. Former chairman of the Hong Kong Association and today still its vice chairman. Henry and Simon Keswick, who control the group from London, are said to have pushed Chris Patten's appointment as governor-general of Hong Kong in 1992, a post that would disappear in 1997.

Commnd Scots Guards, Nat. Service, 1956–58. Director: Sun Alliance and London Insurance, 1975–96; Robert Fleming Holdings Ltd, 1975–2000; Rothmans Internat., 1988–94; Hongkong Land Co., 1988–; Mandarin Oriental Internat., 1988–; Dairy Farm Internat. Hldgs, 1988–; Royal & Sun Alliance (formerly Sun Alliance) Gp, 1989–2000; The Telegraph, 1990–2001; Mem., Adv. Bd, Telegraph Gp Ltd, 2002–04; Rothschilds Continuation Hldgs AG, 2006–. Member: London Adv. Cttee, Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp. (HSBC), 1975–92; 21st Century Trust, 1987–97. Proprietor, The Spectator, 1975–81. Trustee: Nat. Portrait Gall., 1982–2001 (Chm., 1994–2001); Royal Botanic Gdns, Kew, 2008–. Pres., RHASS, 2003–04; Mem. Council, NT, 2005–07. Chm., Hong Kong Assoc., 1988–2001. Chairman: Matheson & Co. Ltd, since 1975; Jardine, Matheson Holdings Ltd, Hong Kong, 1972–75 and since 1989 (Director, since 1967); Jardine Strategic Holdings, since 1989 (Director, since 1988). White's.

Sir John Keswick, Henry's uncle, is a backer of the WWF, a former chairman of Hambros Bank (Peter Hambro is a member of the Pilgrims Society), and a director of the Bank of England.

In June 2005, it was announced that Jardine Strategic Holdings would acquire a 20% stake in Rothschilds Continuation Holdings AG for $185 million from British insurance company Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Plc. The Keswicks are the only family outside the Rothschilds to hold a stake in the holding company. It's is supposed to be a long term investment.

December 15, 1979, The Economist, 'Jardine, Matheson; Chinese chequers': "Conglomerate Jardine, Matheson, one of the British-run ''Hongs'' which dominate Hongkong business, is worried that bits of its empire (especially those in property) may come under attack from local Chinese interests. Hence its recent attempts to tighten its control over two local companies--Hongkong Land, (the colony's biggest property group) and Hongkong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown (which owns prime land at the western tip of the Kowloon peninsula). All three companies have the same chairman in Mr David Newbigging."

Opium trade:

April 13, 2002, The Age (Melbourne, Australia), 'Shanghai, by Jimmy': "Shanghai has a very gory history. It was here that two of the world's most famous drug traffickers, William Jardine and James Matheson, built what became one of Asia's largest trading concerns. Jardine, who encouraged investment in opium as "the safest and most gentleman-like speculation I am aware of", supplied more than one-third of all the opium sold to China in the 1830s. It was Jardine who urged the British Government to declare war on China, and when the navy took Shanghai on June 19, 1842, he was close on their heels."

November 24, 1894, Washington Post, 'Big Profits in Opium': "It has long been known that great sums were being made by English merchants importing Opium in China. Years ago the house of Jardine, Mathseon & Co. was among the largest importers of opium into China, and so enormous were the profits that three of the partners by sheer force of wealth expanded into baronets, while a forth, the late Mr. James Jardine, of Dryfeholm, became one of the largest land-owners in the south of Scotland. Sir James Matheson and his brother, Sir Alexander Matheson, spent upward of $1,000,000 in buying land in the highlands... Sir Robert Jardine, of Castlemilk, is the old head of the firm, and probably the wealthiest of them all [and has great land holdings]."

Khan, Karim Aga

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

The 4th Aga Khan. Nephew of Prince Sadruddin. Roommate of Jay Rockefeller at Harvard. A speech from David Rockefeller at the Hadrian Award Luncheon The Plaza Hotel, October 25, 1996: "His Highness The Aga Khan is a man of vision, intellect, and passion. I've had the pleasure of knowing him for almost forty years, ever since he was an undergraduate at Harvard and a roommate of my nephew Jay Rockefeller." Michael David-Weill, co-chair of the event and controlling shareholder of the Lazard bank, gave another speech praising Agha Khan, just as Cyrus Vance did. Lord Jacob Rothschild couldn't make it to this meeting, but sent a personal note to Karim to congratulate him with his new award. Patricia Buckley, sister of William F. Buckley, was the other co-chairman of the event.

September 14, 2004, Far West chairman Vladimir Filin to Pravda.info, 'Александр Нагорный: Наркобароны из ЦРУ и МИ-6' ('Drug lords of the CIA and MI- 6'): "True, already back then the British entered into the picture [of Afghanistan heroin trafficking], represented by Aga Khan IV Foundation. ... Before 2000, Russia was not a significant user of heroin. Its population was too poor and heroin was expensive. Besides, there was no tradition of using heroin. So the main part of "special merchandise"--25-30 tons a year--went to Kosovo Albanians in Europe. You see, it's not that simple to traffic drugs from Afghanistan to Tajikistan, from there to Russia and from Russia to Europe, former Yugoslavia. It took a serious organization with much power and good protection. [You mean special services and the army?] Why necessarily the army? Aga Khan IV Foundation always did this as well."

Interestingly, Far West itself seems to be deeply involved in the heroin trade, as well as the Chechen mafia/government. Forbes journalist Paul Klebnikov exposed the Chechen mob/government to a great degree from 2000 until his murder by the Chechen mob in June 2004. Klebnikov was married to the daughter of John Train who in turn grew up with the Aga Khans as elite intelligence assets. Train was a Pilgrims executive.

Khan, Prince Sadruddin Aga

Source(s): October 28, 1994, Scott Thompson for Executive Intelligence Review, 'The Train/Goldsmith Nexus'; November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor'; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216 (only mentions "Aga Khan" and "prince"); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

His nephew Karim is the 49th Imam representing most of the Nizari Ismaili community, a sub-sect of the Sevener Shia Muslim Ismaili sect. He (Karim) was given the British title "His Highness" by Queen Elizabeth II in 1957 at the death of his grandfather, Aga Khan III. The Ismaili line of Imams supposedly trace their lineage back to the Prophet Mohammed (born 570 AD) through Fatima Zahra, Mohammed's daughter. Fatima Zahra's son, Husain, married a daughter descended from the royal house of Persia from the most remote, almost prehistoric, times. The Aga Khan's ancestors also ruled in Egypt as Caliphs of the Fatimid dynasty for a number of years, at a period coeval with the Crusades. His forefathers are said to have been involved with the Assassins, the Kights Templar associates during the crusades (12th and 13th century). Aga Khan I was a governor-general of the Persian (Iran) province of Kerman. After an unsuccessful insurgence in the 1840s against his sovereign, Khan had to flee to Afghanistan and came under the protection of the British colonialists. He started to provide mercenary services to the British in their conquest of Afghanistan and ended up receiving a very decent pension. Aga Khan III (1877-1957) was a founding member and president of the All India Muslim League in 1906, which was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India (the minority Muslim group had ruled India until the British put an end to that). In Pakistan, the League formed the country's first government, but disintegrated in 1958 following an army coup. In 1932 Aga Khan III represented India at the World Disarmament Congress and from 1937 to 1939 he was president of the League of Nations. Aga Khan III was a Freemason and a member of the Privy Council.

Born in 1933 in Paris, Sadruddin Aga Khan is the son of Mohammed Shah Aga Khan III of the Indian royal family. Founding publisher of the Paris Review in 1953, a literary magazine based in New York. Received a Harvard degree in political science in 1954. Graduated from Harvard's Centre for Middle Eastern Studies in 1957. According to EIR, Sadruddin's roommate at Harvard was John Train (Pilgrims executive), managing editor of the Paris Review and cousin of Russell Train. Russell and John were deeply involved in the environmental movement and British intelligence. Sadruddin was married to British former top model Nina Dyer from 1957 to 1962, the former wife of Baron Heinrich von Thyssen-Bornemisza. She committed suicide in 1965. UNESCO consultant for Afro-Asian projects 1958-1959. Adviser to the High Commissioner for Refugees since 1959. Executive secretary to the UNESCO International Action Committee for the Preservation of Nubia (the Nile River civilization) in 1961, which brought together archaeologists from Eastern Europe and the West at the height of the Cold War to save the ancient treasures of Abu Simbel, the temples of Philae and Kalabsha and the Christian churches of Nubia. Two term United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1965-1977, a position he held alongside King Hussein of Jordan. Married Catherine Sursock in 1972. Set up the Bellerive Foundation and Groupe de Bellerive (think tank) in 1977, an environmental protection organization located at his Lake Geneva apartment. Built up a priceless collection of paintings, drawings and manuscripts dating from the 14th century in his Lake Geneva house. Sadruddin's grandmother had left his father a library of Persian books, mystical texts and astrological treatises, and it was through these that Sadruddin became interested in Islamic art. Special consultant and chargé de mission to the secretary-general of the United Nations in 1978. In 1981, he won the vote to become U.N. Secretary General, succeeding Nazi war criminal and Schwarzenegger friend Kurt Waldheim, but his election was vetoed by the Soviet Union. Known as a tennis partner of George H.W. Bush. According to EIR, Sadruddin was asked by George H.W. Bush to undertake secret negotiations during the Iran-Contra crisis. Sadruddin and Maurice Strong published a report in August 1986 entitled "United Nations Financial Emergency: Crisis and Opportunity." Special United Nations representative for humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan from 1988 to 1990 and for Iraq and Kuwait after the Gulf War in 1990 and 1991. He urged the swift lifting of sanctions against Iraq after the Gulf War (which didn't happen because of the United States policy). In 1990 he founded the charity Alp Action, after he became concerned about the degradation of the Alps by tourist development and deforestation. Again an unsuccessful candidate for the position of UN secretary-general in 1991, this time losing the appointment to Boutros Boutros-Ghali. Together with Robert McNamara (1001 Club) identified as a member of the Administrative Board of the International Pugwash Foundation in Geneva in 1995 (official Pugwash history). Director of the in 1999 established Geneva-based Foundation for Interreligious and Intercultural Research and Dialogue, together with Neil Bush (George W. Bush's brother), Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (Pope since 2005; supporter of Opus Dei), Rene-Samuel Sirat (the former chief rabbi of France), and Jordan's Prince Hassan (Muslim). Member of the 1001 Club and the Peace Parks Club. Long-standing trustee and former vice-president of the World Wide Fund for Nature International (WWF). Named a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2002. Received the Egyptian Order of the Star of the Nile. Died in 2003. His half-brother, the late Prince Aly Khan died on exactly the same day forty-three years before.

Khan, Prince Hussein Aga

Source(s): 1987 list; 2010 (member since 1987)

A younger member of the Aga Khan family.

Kimelman, Henry L.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

President of the Virgin Isle Hotel, the largest resort in Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, from 1950-1960. He was also Chairman of the Board and CEO of Island Block Corp. from 1955-1980, and Chairman and CEO of the West Indies Corp. from 1969-1980. In 1961, he was appointed the Virgin Islands delegate to the Caribbean Organization. In 1962, he was appointed by President John F. Kennedy to the United States Delegation to the Independence Ceremonies of both Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica. He served as the first Commissioner of Commerce, Industry and Tourism for the United States Virgin Islands from 1961-1964. He was a Director and Chairman of the Executive Committee of Diners Club and served on the Board of the American Hotel Association. In 1967, during the Johnson Administration, he was appointed Chief of Staff to United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall. In 1968, the President appointed him to the Board of the newly created National Parks Foundation. His political work landed him on the master list of Nixon political opponents. He was Chairman of the Board, and Finance Chairman of the George McGovern presidential committee in 1972. He was Deputy Chairman and Finance Chairman of Senator Frank Church’s presidential campaign in 1976, and a senior political adviser to Gary Hart’s presidential campaign in 1988. In 1981, he became a partner at the prestigious investment bank LF Rothschild, headquartered in New York City. He semi-retired in 1990.

Kindersley, Lord Hugh Kenyon Molesworth

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list, memoriam (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Second Baron Kindersley. His father (1871–1954) was an associate of Jean Monnet, a partner in Lazard Brothers, a chairman of the Hudson's Bay Company, and a director of the Bank of England.

Educated at Eton College, Oxford. In 1917–19 he served with the Scots Guards and was awarded an MC. In 1919, after war service Kindersley joined Lazard Brothers & Co., the leading merchant bank, where his father was chairman and where he received a favoured apprenticeship. He was sent out to work in Lazards' businesses in Paris, New York, and Madrid, and with correspondents in Toronto and Berlin. In 1939, notwithstanding his forty years, he rejoined his old regiment as a lieutenant and in 1944, as a brigadier, he commanded the 6th air landing brigade during the Normandy landings, when he received severe leg injuries which forced his retirement and left him with a permanent limp. He was appointed MBE in 1941 and CBE in 1945. His wartime experiences left Kindersley keenly interested in the well-being of the medical profession. In 1959 he raised, through an appeal, over £3 million on behalf of the Royal College of Surgeons to finance the construction of new buildings and research and postgraduate education. From 1962 he chaired the independent review body on doctors' and dentists' pay, but he resigned in 1970, along with the entire panel, when the government rejected its recommendations. From 1966 he was chairman, and from 1971 president, of the Arthritis and Rheumatism Council and he chaired the Officers' Association from 1946 to 1956. In 1953 Kindersley succeeded his father as chairman of Lazard, when his co-senior was Brand, then aged seventy-five. ‘I am the head and looked upon I think as the head of Lazards everywhere, which indeed I am’, he said in 1957, ‘but in the firm [of seven managing directors] I am primus inter pares’ (The Times, 12 Dec 1957). Retired as chairman of Lazard in 1964, but continued as a director until 1971. Kindersley was a major and influential City figure. On his return from war, in 1947 he joined the Bank of England's court, and he remained a director until 1967; for the bank he proved to be a reliable source of City opinion. In 1928 the old and prestigious Royal Exchange Assurance appointed him to its court; he was its governor (1955–68) and the first chairman (1968–70) of the Guardian Royal Exchange. He was also on the boards of, inter alia, the British Match Corporation Ltd (1946–69, chairman 1953–9), the British Bank of London and South America (1938–60), Rolls-Royce Ltd (1951–71, chairman 1957–68), and S. H. Pearson & Son Ltd (1953–64). Executive member of the Pilgrims Society.

Who's Who: Director, Lazard Brothers & Co. Ltd, 1965–71 (Chairman, 1953–64; Managing Director, 1927–64). Chairman: Rolls Royce Ltd, 1956–68; Guardian Royal Exchange Assurance Ltd, 1968–69; Governor, Royal Exchange Assurance, 1955–69; Dir, Bank of England, 1947–67. Chm., Review Body on Doctors’ and Dentists’ Remuneration, 1962–70. Pres. and Past Chm., Arthritis and Rheumatism Council.

His son, the 3rd Baron Kindersley (b. 1929), became a vice chairman of Lazard in 1981.

King, Sir Alexander B.

Source(s): November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (wrong Alexander King); according to a Who's Who of the conservation industry created by Kevin Dowling (wrong Alexander King); 1978 honorary list

Born 1888. Entered Theatrical Profession, 1900, and Cinematograph Industry, 1913; Past President, Cinematograph Exhibitors’ Assoc. (1949–50). Chairman: Films of Scotland Cttee; Grants Sub-Cttee Scottish Advisory Cttee to Army Benevolent Fund. KStJ 1964. Officier de la Légion d’Honneur, 1961. Died in 1973.

King, Lord John

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Businessman famous for leading British Airways from inefficient, nationalised company to one of the most successful airlines of recent times. This success was a flagship of Margaret Thatcher's privatisation programme.

President Emeritus, British Airways Plc, since 1997 (Chairman, 1981–93; President, 1993–97); President, Babcock International Group plc, since 1994 (Chairman, 1970–94). Founded Ferrybridge Industries Ltd and Whitehouse Industries Ltd, subseq. Pollard Ball & Roller Bearing Co. Ltd, 1945 (Man. Dir 1945, Chm., 1961–69); Chairman: Dennis Motor Hldgs Ltd, 1970–72; Babcock & Wilcox Ltd, subseq. Babcock International plc, later FKI Babcock plc, then Babcock Internat. Gp, 1970–94; Dir, David Brown Corp. Ltd, 1971–75. Current chairmanships and directorships include: The Daily Telegraph plc; Short Brothers plc; Norman Broadbent International; Wide Range Engineering Services Ltd; The Spectator (1828), 1993–2004; Gartland Whalley Barker Plc, 1997–; former directorships include: Dick Corp. (USA); Royal Ordnance plc (Dep. Chm.); Clogau Gold Mines; National Nuclear Corp.; British Nuclear Associates Ltd; Tyneham Investments; Babcock (Plant Leasing); 1928 Investment Trust; SKF (UK); Sabena World Airlines; First Union Corp. (USA). Member: Engineering Industries Council, 1975; NEDC Cttee on Finance for Investment, 1976–78; Grand Council and Financial Policy Cttee, CBI, 1976–78; Chairman: City and Industrial Liaison Council, 1973–85; Review Bd for Govt Contracts, 1975–78; British Olympic Appeals Cttee, 1975–78; Macmillan Appeal for Continuing Care, 1977–78; NEB, 1980–81 (Dep. Chm., 1979–80); Alexandra Rose Day Foundn, 1980–85; Mem. Cttee, Ranfurly Library Service; Vice-Pres., Cancer Relief Macmillan Fund (formerly Nat. Soc. for Cancer Relief), 1988; Trustee, Liver Res. Unit Trust, 1988–. Dir, Royal Opera Trust. Master of Foxhounds: Badsworth Foxhounds, 1949–58; Duke of Rutland’s Foxhounds (Belvoir), 1958–72; Chm., Belvoir Hunt, 1972. Farms his estate in Leics. Freeman, City of London, 1984. FIMgt (FBIM 1978); FCILT (FCIT 1982). Hon. CRAeS,

Kirloskar, Shantanurao L.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of the founder of the Kirloskar Group, today's largest engineering conglomerate of India. His business empire that enjoyed one of the highest growth rates in Indian history, a staggering 32,401% growth of assets from 1950-1991.

Kleinwort, Sir Cyril

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of Sir Alexander Drake Kleinwort. Member of a British merchant and banking family that goes back to the 18th century. In 1897 Kleinwort, Sons & Co. went into business with Goldman Sachs & Co. of New York, today one of the largest investment firms on the planet. Director of Kleinwort, Benson, Lonsdale Ltd. Director of Commercial Union. According to the Telegraph in 2003, the British Invisible Exports Council (later British Invisibles, now IFSL) was the brainchild of Cyril Kleinwort. The acquisition of the bullion dealer Sharps Pixley in 1966 gave Kleinwort Benson a seat on the London gold price fixing committee that met twice daily in the offices of N M Rothschild & Sons. Co-founded Population Concern in 1977 with Ernest Kleinwort, Prince Philip, Lord Caradon, Lord Renton and Lord McCorquodale. In 1995 Kleinwort Benson was taken over by Dresdner Bank to form Dresdner Kleinwort Benson. The bank subsequently merged with Wasserstein Perella of New York to become Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein and is a subsidiary of Allianz. Member of the Pilgrims Society and the 1001 Club.

Who's Who (1905-1980): Chairman, Kleinwort, Benson Ltd, 1966–71; Joint Vice-Chairman, Commercial Union Assurance Co., 1959–75; Chairman, Committee on Invisible Exports, 1968–75.

Kleinwort, Mrs. Ernest G.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Member of the Kleinwort banking family.

Who's Who of her husband (1901-1977): Partner Kleinwort Sons & Company, 1927–47. RAFVR, 1942–45. Actg Chm. of Kleinwort, Sons & Co. Ltd, 1947–61; Chm. Kleinwort Benson Ltd, 1961–66; Director, Kleinwort, Benson, Lonsdale Ltd, 1961–74 (Chairman, 1961–68). Member: Accepting Houses Cttee, 1945–66; Internat. Board of Trustees, World Wildlife Fund, 1967–76 (Mem. of Honour, 1976). Council, Wildfowl Trust, 1967– (Vice-Pres., 1970–). Comdr of Order of Golden Ark, Netherlands, 1974. Charles De Haes was among those present at his funeral.

Kleinwort, Sir Kenneth Drake

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1935-1994. Eldest son of Ernest Kleinwort. Ernest was the fourth son of Sir Alexander Kleinwort, the first baronet, and the baronetcy passed to Kenneth from his uncle in 1983. His family founded the Kleinwort Benson merchant banking and investment management group. Emigrated to France in 1976 and increasingly concentrated on the cause of wildlife and conservation. Trustee of the Ernest Kleinwort Charitable Trust. That trust, together with other charities Sir Kenneth represented, owned more than Pounds 20 million of Kleinwort Benson shares which earned dividends of some Pounds 5 million a year. The Ernest Kleinwort Trust supported local charities in Sussex, but most of those dividends were deployed in Europe, Africa and South America to help endangered species such as the rhinoceros survive in their natural habitats. Acted as a foreign ambassador for Kleinwort Benson and developing a range of private business interests in North and South America. He became president of Interalia Leasing in Chile in 1980, and bought a house in Brazil in order to spend more time there. Joined the council of WWF International in 1978. Kleinwort settled in Switzerland in 1988. Ohrstrom Foundation, Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein, Kleinwort Overseas Investment Trust Plc. His uncle Sir Cyril H. Kleinwort was a member of the Pilgrims Society. Died in 1994. His eldest son, Richard, inherited the baronetcy.

Who's Who: Joined Kleinwort Sons & Co. Ltd, 1955; Director: Kleinwort Benson Belgium SA (formerly Kleinwort Benson (Europe)), 1970–; Banque Kleinwort Benson SA, Geneva, 1971–; Kleinwort Benson Ltd, 1971–76; Vice Chm., Trebol International Corp., USA (Exec. Dir, 1978–); Pres., Interalia SA, Chile, 1980–. Council Mem., WWF International, Switzerland, 1978–; Vice-Pres., Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, UK, 1992– (Hon. Treas., 1982–92; Mem. Council, 1982–92). Director, Kleinwort Benson Group (formerly Kleinwort, Benson, Lonsdale plc), since 1976.

Kleinwort, Sir Richard Drake

Source(s): Digital Who's Who UK (one of 3 or 4 British members who put the 1001 in their biography)

Born in 1960. Son of 1001 Club member Sir Kenneth Drake Kleinwort. Kleinwort Benson, Geneva, 1979; Banco General de Negocios, Buenos Aires, 1984; Deutsche Bank AG, Hamburg and Frankfurt, 1985–88; Biss Lancaster plc, 1988–89; Grandfield Rork Collins Financial, 1989–91; Partner, 1991–2000, Dir, 1994–2000, Cardew & Co.; Head of Financial PR, Ogilvy PR Worldwide, 2000–01. Non-exec. Dir, RDF Gp plc, 2008–; non-exec. Chm., Hungry Hamsters Ltd, film prodn co., 2009–. Amb. for Kleinwort Benson Private Bank, 2007–. President: Haywards Heath Hospital, 1991–97; The Little Black Bag Housing Assoc., 1991–. Dir, Steppes East Gp, 1998–. Life Mem., British Field Sports Soc., 1981; Member: WWF (1001) Club, 1979– (Mem., Council of Ambassadors, WWF, 2005–); S of England Agricl Soc., 1988–; RHS, 1991–. Chm., Knepp Castle Polo Club, 1997–2006. Fellow, World Scout Foundn, Geneva, 1989. Mem., Instn of King Edward VII Hosp., Midhurst, 1992–; Patron: Cuckfield Soc., 1995–; Ackroyd Trust, 1995–; Vice Pres., Chichester Cathedral Millennium Endowment Trust, 1998–2005. Ambassador, The Prince’s Trust, 1998–. Gov., Stowe Sch. (Chm., Foundn Appeal), 1999–2004. DL 2005, High Sheriff 2008, W Sussex.

Kraaijeveld van Hemert, Johannes "Hans"

Source(s): Joined in 1972; lists of 1978, 1987, and 2010.

Born in 1928. Chairman of Royal Boskalis, the world's largest dredging company which also specializes in the maintenance of harbors and the protection of coasts. Chairman Dutch Chamber of Commerce.

Kristinus, Dr. Friedrich

Source(s): 1978 and 1987 lists

President of Martin Brinkmann AG in Germany. Director of Rothmans International since 1972, together with Edmund de Rothschild and others..

Kwok, Philip C.

Source(s): 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Dr. Philip C. Kwok is the Chairman of the Advisory Board at Inter-Asia Venture Management Ltd. He has been a Director of Wing On Company International Limited since October 14, 1991. Dr. Kwok serves as a Director of Wing On International Holdings Limited and Member of the Audit Committee. He has been associated with Inter-Asia since 1972 as a Partner and an investor. After a career as a Research Physicist with IBM in the US, he joined his family's Wing-On Group as the Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer. Dr. Kwok went on to found Alpha Strategy. He was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University where he obtained a B.S. degree and a Ph.D. in Physics respectively.

Lambert, Allen T.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Chairman of the Board and President, The Toronto-Dominion Bank, Canada's second largest bank by market capitalization.

Lavy, Leslie

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list, in memoriam 2008-2009

Accountant and banker. Director Town and Commercial Properties Limited. Managing director of Simon Properties. Director Wilson, Smith and Sutcliffe. Founder and chairman of the merchant bank David Samuel Trust from 1970. The bank ran into financial trouble in 1975, which seems to have been closely tied to the collapse of Robert Vesco's financial empire (April 23, 1975, The Times, 'Fresh court move over $35m held in London'). In 1977 he went bankrupt with a debt of 20 million pounds. 2005: Chairman of the Heritage Committee of the Commonwealth Jewish Council in London. The Council was created by the unanimous agreement of Jewish leaders from 16 Commonwealth countries, meeting in London from 29th November to 1st December 1982. It now includes the Jewish communities of 37 countries, Hong Kong having observer status. The Council works in concert and association with the World Jewish Congress of which Edgar Bronfman is the longtime president. Edward Bronfman is one of the trustees of the Jewish Council.

Leverhulme, 3rd Viscount

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of a Pilgrims Society member. The last Lord Leverhulme died in 2000. The family's residence, Thornton Manor, was sold when he died. Leverhulme bequeathed a total of £31,477,042 to his family. His grandfather, William Lever, had built up a vast industrial empire. William was also the founder of Lever Brothers, which later became Unilever. The last Lord Leverhulme has been an advisor to Unilever since 1949. In 1985 he became a honorary advisor.

Who's Who: Hon. Air Commodore: 663 Air OP Squadron, RAuxAF; 610 (County of Chester) Squadron, RAuxAF; Dep. Hon. Col, Cheshire Yeomanry, T&AVR, 1971–72, Hon. Col, 1972–81; Hon. Col, The Queen’s Own Yeomanry, 1979–81. Pres. Council, Liverpool Univ., 1957–63, Sen. Pro-Chancellor, 1963–66. Mem., National Hunt Cttee, 1961 (Steward, 1965–68); Deputy Senior Steward, Jockey Club, 1970–73, Senior Steward, 1973–76. Mem. Council of King George’s Jubilee Trust; Chairman, Exec. Cttee, Animal Health Trust, 1964. Hon. FRCS 1970; Hon. ARCVS 1975. Hon. LLD Liverpool, 1967. KStJ. Major, Cheshire Yeomanry; Lord-Lieutenant of City and County of Chester, 1949–90; Advisory Director of Unilever Ltd; Chancellor of Liverpool University, 1980–94. Boodle's.

Lippens, Count Leopold

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (joined in 1973)

Brother of the very influential cosmopolitan businessman Maurice Lippens. His father was an enthusiastic follower of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a French mystical Jesuit priest who advocated the theory of a global consciousness and how nation states should be abolished. Another thing Teilhard tried to do was to bridge the gap between Darwinism and the Catholic faith. The father of the Lippens brothers gave lectures about Chardin and was a member of the Teilhard Society. Chardin joined the duc in altum of the Benedictines. President of the Royal Zoute Golf Club. Mayor of Knokke-Heist 1979-2004. This town is a very exclusive coastal holiday resort with a nature reserve, 65 tennis courts, and loads of 5-star hotels. Many streets in Knokke-Heist are named after aristocrats or ancestors of the royal family. Leopold had plans to build a 100 meter or 300 feet high casino before he would leave his post, but the residents of the town were against it (would block the sun for some of them). In April 2002, when boarding a plane for an official visit to Denmark, he was questioned by the airport security who found two bullets in one of his pockets. Said he probably forgot to take them out after a hunting trip. Leopold is a really good friend of Albert Frère. They regularly play golf with each other and go out hunting. Anno 2006, director of Compagnie du Zoute in Knokke, together with Maurice, Paul and Nadine Lippens, and Count Guillaume d'Arschot Schoonhoven. Count Leopold Lippens and several other members of his family have been accused of extreme child abuse by about half a dozen witnesses.

Lippens, Marie

Source(s): 2010, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Peter Carr in September 2010);

Born in 1937. Sister of the notorious Maurice and Leopold Lippens. Leopold has been a founding 1001 Club member. Marie has been a 1001 Club member since 1988. Used to be married to Roger Nellens, whose brother Roger was allowed to built a huge casino in Knokke just before Leopold Lippens stepped down as mayor of that town.

Liechtenstein, Prince Franz Joseph II von

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of Prince Aloys of Liechtenstein and his wife Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria (daughter of Archduke Karl Ludwig (Habsburg), who was the father of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (1863-1914), whose assassination ignited the start of World War I). Sovereign prince of Liechtenstein from 1938 until his death in 1989. Handed over most of his powers to his oldest son, Hans-Adam II, in 1984. Two younger sons are Prince Philipp (b. 1946) and Prince Nikolaus (b. 1947).

Member of the World Baden-Powell Fellowship (boyscouts), together with Egmond Frommelt (1001), Herbert Batliner (1001), Dr. E. Heinz Batliner, and Prince Nikolaus von Liechtenstein.

February 26, 2004, www.blisty.cz, 'Liechtenstein Prince Hans Adam II: I want my property back': "Ladislav Kahoun: To what degree does your family feels spiritually akin to the Habsburg dynasty? Do you know that in the Czech and Moravian awareness you were always considered the house closest to the Habsburg dynasty? Prince Hans-Adam II: My grandmother was a sister of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand who was killed in Sarajevo. This is perhaps the reason why in the Czech and Moravian awareness the Liechtenstein house is considered the closest to the Habsburg dynasty. Historically one has to say that the Liechtenstein family became a foreign dynasty with the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, as it was the case with the Bavarian, Würt-temberg and other dynasties who before had been part of the Holy Roman Empire and were therefore quite close to the Habsburg dynasty. A number of those foreign dynasties kept properties in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire after 1806 as the Liechtensteins did. They were also very often closer related to the Habsburg dynasty through marriage, just think about Empress Sissi, the wife of Emperor Franz Joseph II." Clearly remains vague.

Liechtenstein, Prince Hans Adam II

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Family tree in relation to the Habsburg: Francis II of Habsburg, holy roman emperor (1768-1835) ---> Archduke Franz Karl of Austria (Habsburg) (1802-1878) ---> Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria (Habsburg) (1833-1896), the younger brother of famous Archduke and Emperor Franz Joseph I of the Austro-Hungarian empire. ---> Archduchess Elisabeth Amalie of Austria (1878-1960), who married Prince Aloys of Liechtenstein (1869-1955) in 1903. Emperor Franz Joseph attended and supported the marriage. ---> Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein (1906-1989). Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein (b. 1945). All this makes him a distant cousin of Otto von Habsburg, heir of the Austro-Hungarian empire and long time leading light in Le Cercle.

Born in 1945. Reigning Prince of Liechtenstein. Owns LGT Bank in Liechtenstein, the largest private bank in Liechtenstein, through his Prince of Liechtenstein Foundation. Has a personal fortune of 5 billion dollars. He owns an extensive art collection, which is displayed for the public at the Liechtenstein Museum in Vienna, Austria. In December 2006, he was reported to be one of the world's richest heads of state. Family is very close to the family of Claiborne Pell.

Very much into UFO research, seemingly on behalf of Opus Dei.

July 25, 2013, Steven Greer in a speech for the premiere of his film Sirius at the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) in London, just over one hour and 5 minutes in: "I remember some years ago meeting with the crown prince of Liechtenstein, Hans Adam von Liechtenstein, an amazing meeting. And he turned to me and said: 'The reason I'm providing funding to various groups looking into the abduction issue - he was chief funder of Opus Dei - is that I think we really have to have an enemy in space, so we have a final eschatological battle, an end of the world battle in space that will force the return of Christ.' Now this is the crown prince of Liechtenstein from his lips to my ears, and I'm going 'Woohooo, nutsville'."

January 2, 1994, The Independent, 'Liechtenstein Prince Hans Adam II: I want my property back': "They're coming to take us away; Can space aliens really have abducted the former Secretary-General of the United Nations? It sounds absurd, but thousands of Americans seem convinced by a rumour which has become a cause celebre even outside the mad world of modern 'Ufology' THE VOICE of the spokesman for His Excellency Javier Perez de Cuellar, the former United Nations Secretary-General, conveyed surprise and strained dignity. ''I feel very comfortable in telling you now, on his behalf, that he wouldn't have anything . . . absolutely nothing . . . to say about this. I have worked close enough with the former Secretary-General to know how he would react to . . . something like this.'' Something like this. The final words emerged as a dismissive burst of mirth. But in truth, the story about Perez de Cuellar was becoming more difficult to dismiss. Since it had begun to circulate in the summer of 1992, the story had appeared in numerous UFO journals, and parts of it - although without direct reference to Perez de Cuellar - had been published in the Wall Street Journal and Paris Match. Discussions of the case, with prominent mention of the former Secretary-General, were due out shortly in the New York Times and in the popular science magazine Omni. Journalists and UFO enthusiasts had been trying to reach the former Secretary-General by phone and by fax, by letter, through intermediaries. The most persistent inquiries had come from a Manhattan artist and UFO researcher named Budd Hopkins, of whom Perez de Cuellar had never heard, but others had come through friends and acquaintances. One journalist had even managed, briefly, to confront Perez de Cuellar at an airport. Hans-Adam Liechtenstein, eponymous prince of that Alpine principality, had written him a letter with a cryptic reference to the case tucked incongruously amidst diplomatic niceties. Even on the cocktail party circuit, apparently, Perez de Cuellar wasn't safe. It is said that one evening at a reception in New York, Perez de Cuellar's hostess, the daughter of a distinguished Peruvian family, candidly informed him of the rumour that for so long had been humming and buzzing on the UFO enthusiasts' grapevine: that Perez de Cuellar, in the small hours of the morning of 30 November 1989, had been plucked from his limousine, taken into a spaceship, and subjected to intimate examination by aliens. ... The witnesses to the UFO abduction of 30 November 1989, according to Hopkins, included not only Richard, Dan and Perez de Cuellar, but a woman whose car had mysteriously stopped on Brooklyn Bridge, and another abductee who had seen a UFO over the East River that night. In addition, Linda's husband and son had videotaped interviews (one of which I watched) describing their encounters with Richard, Dan and a man fitting the description of Perez de Cuellar. Hopkins told me that he had written to Perez de Cuellar via several channels, in an attempt to confirm Richard and Dan's story, but that he had merely received a letter signed ''The Third Man'' in which the latter explained to Hopkins that he would always deny his alien abduction experiences if asked. Some time after he received that letter, Hopkins's friend and fellow UFO enthusiast, the Prince of Liechtenstein, had written to Perez de Cuellar (who had recently been a house guest at his palace) employing a more subtle strategy. Liechtenstein's letter began with some comments about a recent Perez de Cuellar speech on the subject of nationalism, and closed with the brief, bland comment that at a party recently he had met Perez de Cuellar's friends Richard, Dan and Linda - the latter having been dressed as ''the Lady of the Sands''. In his response, Perez de Cuellar acknowledged the Prince's comments about nationalism and other prosaic matters, ignoring the references to Richard, Dan and the Lady of the Sands. To Hopkins, this suggested that Perez de Cuellar, as expected, remained unwilling to comment on his abduction experiences." In a later interview Hopkins claimed to have about 20 witnesses in the case and believes the aliens made themselves visible on purpose on this occassion. Hopkins believes there are massive amounts of alien abductions, but because they cannot be seen with the naked eye in most instances people seldom if ever are witness to these events.

2002, Budd Hopkins for his Intruders Foundation website, 'Notes on William Cooper and other conspiricists': "On November 10, 2001, I was in Mobile, Alabama, speaking at a "Journeys Beyond" conference. Five days earlier, sheriff's deputies, attempting to serve a warrant, were shot at by conspiricist William Cooper who gravely wounded one of them, deputy Robert Martinez. The other deputies returned fire and Cooper was killed. For those unfamiliar with his activities, William Cooper was once a divisive, almost unavoidable presence at UFO conferences and on the radio and the Internet. His wild and woolly stories were completely unbelievable, though a loyal band of followers clung to his every word. At the time, the belief that JFK was murdered by a CIA cabal was not at all unusual, but Cooper gave the killing his own weird twist. Kennedy was shot, he claimed, by the driver of his car in the middle of the Dallas parade. This Secret Service hit man, he said, turned away from the steering wheel and fired point blank at the president, narrowly missing Mrs. Kennedy, John Connally and Mrs. Connally. I once asked a Cooperite why the CIA would carry out the murder in the middle of a parade when all eyes were on the president's car, pictures were being taken, films were being shot, and three eyewitnesses (the Connallys and Jackie Kennedy) were only a foot or so away from the gunman. The Cooperite answered that since this method was so daring, no one would ever believe that it was done that way, and so the CIA could easily get away with it. And Cooper's idea of the motive for Kennedy's assassination? To keep him from revealing what he knew about the UFO coverup! I wondered at the time of Cooper's demise how long it would take before a myth of martyrdom would arise among his fellow conspiricists. I knew that this alcoholic, emotionally disturbed man would eventually be enthroned in the far-right's Valhalla of "government victims" - innocent, peace-loving martyrs like Timothy McVeigh, James Earl Ray, David Koresh and a strange assortment of white supremacists, psychopathic homophobes and killers of abortion providers. Well, I saw signs of Cooper's elevation five days after his death, when I was attending that conference in Mobile, Alabama. A confused young man approached me and referred to the government's "murder" of William Cooper. In the telling, the rural sheriff's deputies who tried to serve their warrant soon after metamorphosized into a sinister government SWAT team. The mythmaking machinery of paranoid rumor and Internet misinformation was on the way. What sort of man was the late William Cooper? Shortly after his death, he was described by his friend Bill Hamilton as "an inveterate liar," and a man who "had a real love for booze and firearms." Hamilton recalled that Cooper once invited him to go to a gun show with him to "buy a type of gun that would blow a hole in an engine block. I asked why I would want to do a silly thing like that. His reply was that I should protect myself against the government." Even more significant was Hamilton's delicately worded statement that Cooper "had a difficult time telling truth from fantasy." A perfect description of the conspiricists' central affliction. ... Moving up towards the present, what are the myths-in-formation about the horrors of September 11? Already various conspiricist Muslim sources have said that suicidal Jews did the hijacking and brought down the towers in order to falsely blame the Palestinians and other Arab nations and groups. The latest mythlet is this - 4,000 Jewish workers stayed home from their jobs on Sept. 11 because they all knew about the plot. The FBI and the CIA hadn't heard anything about it, apparently, because thousands of Jews can communicate without any leaks and are really good at keeping secrets. But as we all know, a large percentage of those who died that tragic day were Jewish office workers! This kind of conspiratorial myth-making is utter and despicable nonsense, yet it somehow gains some currency within society's paranoid fringe. Turning truth and logic upside down, it makes the victims the perpetrators."

Livanos, George P.

Source(s): 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1926-1997. Founded his own company, Ceres Hellenic Shipping Enterprises. Shortly after, he inherited his father's fleet of 30 ships, including the world's five largest supertankers. Georges P. Livanos managed his naval empire from Lausanne. With over 100 ships, his fleet was the largest merchant navy in Greece. He also created a shipping company between the Greek Isles and was involved in the protection of ocean and coastal waters. In 1994, his fortune was an estimated 3 billion dollars. Livanos married Fotini Carras and had a son, named Peter. The Greek shipowner then diversified his activity and invested in real estate, as well as in the banking industry with Basil Goulandris, another Greek shipowner also based in Lausanne. Georges Livanos died in 1997, leaving his business to his son, Peter Livanos.

June 4, 1997, The Times, 'George P. Livanos': "George P. Livanos, Greek shipping magnate, died in Athens on June 1 aged 70. He was born on August 8, 1926. GEORGE P. LIVANOS, who at his death operated the largest single merchant fleet of any Greek shipowner, was often confused with the George S. Livanos one of whose sisters was the first wife of Aristotle Onassis. Although both men maintained fairly low profiles throughout their careers - perhaps in reaction to Onassis's brightness in the firmament - George P. Livanos did as much as any of his colleagues to build postwar Greece into a formidable merchant shipping power. His shipping company, Ceres, operates the familiar yellow Russian-built hydrofoils, known as Flying Dolphins, that in the past two decades have knit the Greek islands and the remoter Peloponnesian communities together for the benefit of tourist and commuter alike. Born in New Orleans, George P. Livanos was an early product of the American business school system, which he combined with his Greek nationality to build up two major shipping operations, one in tankers and the other in passenger shipping. The tanker fleet runs 43 tankers and is a leading member of Intertanko (the Association of Independent Tanker Operators) which runs about 70 per cent of the world's independently-owned tanker fleet. Realising the ambiguous image that tankers have, in these years of oil spills and ecological disasters, Livanos was the first Greek tycoon to work towards protecting the marine environment. In the early 1980s he set up the Hellenic Marine Environment Protection Association - better known by its acronym of Helmepa - and was its chairman for years until his final illness. A further innovation was his setting up a representative office in Moscow before the fall of communism. An influ ential member of the Greek lobby in Washington, Livanos gave his support to the Democrat Michael Dukakis's bid for the American presidency in 1988. Last year Livanos's 95 vessels accounted for well over two million gross registered tonnes, the largest single part of the Greek-flag fleet of some 28 million tonnes. He shunned flags of convenience; every Livanos ship flew the Greek flag, a principle which, at his funeral, was acknowledged when Greece's merchant marine minister, Stavros Sumakis, allowed a Greek flag to be draped over his coffin. George Livanos was married to Fotini Carras of the Carras shipping family. She and his son Peter and daughter Maria survive him. During his father's illness, Peter had taken control of the Livanos shipping empire."

Livanos, George S.

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (invited in 1972)

Born in 1934. A Greek who mainly lived in Lausanne, Switzerland. His father, Stavros Livanos, was a great figure in Greek shipowning circles. During the Second World War, Georges Livanos served in the American army in Japan. In 1949, he founded his own company, Ceres Hellenic Shipping. Shortly after, he inherited his father's fleet of 30 ships, including the world's five largest supertankers. Eugenia, Georges Livanos sister, married a competitor, Stavros Niarchos, and her sister Tina married Aristotle Onassis. After Eugenia's death, Tina divorced and remarried Stavros Niarchos, Aristotle Onassis' lifelong rival. With over 100 ships, Georges' fleet was the largest merchant navy in Greece. He also created a shipping company between the Greek Isles and was involved in the protection of ocean and coastal waters. In 1994, his fortune was an estimated 3 billion dollars. The Greek shipowner then diversified his activity and invested in real estate, as well as in the banking industry with Basil Goulandris, another Greek shipowner also based in Lausanne. Georges Livanos passed away in 1997, leaving his business to his son, Peter Livanos.

Ludwig, Daniel K.

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (acquired several 1980s membership lists, according to Steinberg of EIR); 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1897. Set up National Bulk Carriers, which became the largest shipping company in the US. His shipyards pioneered the use of welding rather than riveting the hulls of ships, thereby saving valuable time during World War II when demand for ships soared. He transported oil and molasses around the world. He set up the Jari project, which was an attempt to create a tropical tree farm in Brazil for producing pulp for paper. Later helped Meyer Lansky, chief of the Jewish maffia in New York, to set up his drug money laundering empire in Bahamas. Ludwig is one of the richest private citizens in the world and has been a visitor to the Bohemian Grove. Died in 1992. April 27, 1999, The Daily Mail, '20 years ago': "THE richest man in America was irate about a 1979 BBC documentary on his life and times. MONICA PORTER recalls billionaire Daniel Ludwig. DANIEL K. LUDWIG - America's richest man and a notorious miser - steadfastly refused to cooperate with BBC television in the making of a programme about his extraordinary life, which was broadcast on this date in 1979. The billionaire's loathing of publicity was legendary, and he was furious that the documentary had been made at all. He never talked to journalists if he could possibly help it and, when cornered, displayed a mordant sense of humour. To one young reporter who had the temerity to ask him for an interview, he snapped: 'Just make it up, sonny. Say I raped my wife.' The last photographer who dared take his picture was knocked down, and the amazingly fit, nonsmoking, non-drinking, 81-year-old shipping tycoon afterwards tap-danced on his camera. Too mean to run a car or spend money on taxis, Ludwig always insisted on walking between his Manhattan home and his nearby skyscraper office. He was worth an estimated [pounds sterling]2 billion, but once fired a tanker skipper for submitting a two-sheet report which had been paper-clipped together. As the document was inside an envelope, the paperclip was wasteful, stormed Ludwig. Michigan-born Ludwig started his rise to untold wealth at the age of 19, when he borrowed $5,000 from his father and converted an old steamer into a barge to transport wood and molasses. He soon expanded from freighters into the highly profitable tanker business and went on to pioneer the modern supertanker. Although too stingy to pay his former wife Gladys just [pounds sterling]100 a month in alimony - the hapless woman died penniless - he poured hundreds of millions into his charity, the Ludwig Institute of Cancer Research, in Zurich, before his death in 1992."

Who's Who: Various positions shipbuilding firms; founder Welding Shipyards, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, 1941, owner, operator New York City, 1936; president Sea Tankers, inc., Universe Tankships, Inc.; with Kure Shipyard Div., Japan, Bahama Shipyards, Ltd., Grand Bahama Island; organizer Panama Refining, Inc., Colon, Panama, Exportada de Sal, Baja California, Mexico; owner Hato Vergarena Ranch, Venezuela. Board directors McLean Industries, Inc., Avco Corp.; adviser U.S. maritime policies, oil problems; member military petroleum adv. board Department Defense; adv. board National Petroleum Council; member committee Am. Merchant Institute, Inc.

August 29, 1992, Chicago Sun-Times, 'Daniel K. Ludwig, Shipping Tycoon': "Mr. Ludwig parlayed a $ 5,000 loan from his father into a global business empire, National Bulk Carriers Inc., based on a fleet of supertankers. ... In 1936, Mr. Ludwig hit upon the financing scheme that would start his fortune. He got oil companies to charter tankers for future oil deliveries, then used the charters as collateral to borrow money to build the tankers. The charter fees covered the loan and interest, and still left Mr. Ludwig a profit and a working tanker. During World War II, Mr. Ludwig built oil tankers for the government. Most of the vessels reverted to him after the war, giving him the most modern fleet afloat. In the 1950s, he leased a shipyard in Japan and began developing ever-larger tankers. His 100,000-ton supertanker was built about the time the Suez Canal crisis created a demand for huge ships to move Middle Eastern oil around the Cape of Good Hope. But Mr. Ludwig lost money in Brazil, where a tree plantation bigger than the state of Connecticut swallowed an estimated $ 1.1 billion. Mr. Ludwig was more successful in his efforts to avoid publicity. He stopped talking to reporters in 1963 and for 20 years did not allow himself to be photographed."

August 29, 1992, Washington Post, 'Daniel K. Ludwig, 95, Dies': "He owned about 60 oceangoing vessels at the height of his shipping career. His National Bulk Carriers Inc. also invested in forest products, oil and gas, coal and other minerals, hotels, real estate, ranching and agriculture. The conglomerate had operations in 23 countries. Over the years, Mr. Ludwig made a fortune as one of the first builders of big oil tankers and later failed in a grandiose attempt to create an Amazon jungle empire. ... The closing of the Suez Canal in 1956 created a demand for extra-large vessels that Mr. Ludwig was perfectly placed to exploit. Since 1951 he had been building 100,000-gross-ton supertankers in Japan unhindered by high U.S. labor costs."

October 23, 1980, Associated Press, 'Exotic Brazilian Jungle Project Runs into Problems': " A U.S. billionaire's exotic project that turned a huge piece of Amazon jungle into a modern industrial plant is running into difficulties with the Brazilian government, ecologists and an invasion of insects. Officials of the Jari project of shipping magnate Daniel Ludwig say they may have to scale down production of pulp paper, lumber, rice and cattle, and subsequently lay off some of the 7,000 Brazilians now employed there. Ludwig, now 83, launched the project with the approval of Brazil's military government. He had a cellulose-processing plant built in Japan and towed across oceans to the Amazon River where it went into production not long after its arrival. Now, however, Brazilian government officials say they will no longer provide tax benefits and subsidies for the project, which occupies a land area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, 300 miles upriver from this port at the mouth of the Amazon. Besides government reluctance to support Jari, Ludwig also faces monumental costs for increasingly expensive petroleum supplies in the isolated jungle region and spiraling costs of pesticides to combat a virtual invasion by jungle diseases and insects. Environmentalists in Belem claim the disease and pest problem is part of what they describe as an overall ecological disaster at Jari caused by stripping native forests and replacing them with vulnerable crops and defenseless species of fast-growing trees. Sources close to Ludwig's development company -- which started in 1969 as an enterprise that had hopes of becoming a major world supplier of pulp paper and lumber -- say that unless Brazil continues to give favored treatment to Jari, the development will be drastically decelerated. Jari officials said Ludwig recently sent a letter to President Joao Figueiredo's chief of staff, Gen. Golbery do Couto e Silva, asking for continued government aid. A 1969 agreement granted the subsidies as well as more than three times the land Jari now occupies in return for a guarantee that at least a third of the project's resources would go into the internal Brazilian market. One high-ranking Jari official, who asked not to be identified, said that the government's action now hurts Brazil's chances of completing the entire development plan envisaged by Ludwig, the New York-based president of National Bulk Carriers, Inc. "When you get permission to build a 10-car garage and then the owner of the property says you can only buy one car to put inside it, your entire financial structure is affected," said the official. Under the Figueiredo administration, which took office last year, the benefits to Jari have decreased amid claims by military and national security groups that the project is a threat to Brazilian sovereignty over its own territory. Limits on foreign development of Amazon jungle land is one topic being discussed in Belem this week by the eight nations of the newly ratified Amazon Pact, designt provide technical and economic cooperation in the world's largest remaining tropical rainforest. "Many members of the government are very impressed with what Mr. Ludwig has done with Jari," said one presidential source. "But no action has been taken on this (Ludwig's) letter. The prevailing opinion is that if (Ludwig) wants to keep working, he will have to apply for credit like everyone else and do things through regular channels. "Anyway, we think Jari has spent too much money to really be able to slow down production now." Jari officials say more than half a billion dollars have been invested in Ludwig's pioneer jungle settlement since it was inaugurated. They claim broken government promises prevent completion of the complex. Where wilderness existed only a decade ago, Jari now produces 400,000 metric tons of rice per year -- all sold domestically -- and more than 250,000 tons of the paper-making product cellulose -- shipped to the United States, Europe and Japan. Jari also has 10,000 head of cattle and has carved a town of 40,000 people where once only scattered river settlements existed. Eventual plans call for a fullscale paper-exporting business with production of 1,000 metric tons of pulp for paper and newsprint a day, officials said. Scientists that have studied the Jari project are critical of the process in which natural forest was stripped and replaced by one or two fast-growing tree varieties, including a type of pine and eucalyptus. They say the so-called monoculture planting is a haven for insects and diseases which normally are limited by the diverse jungle environment that creates natural defenses and natural predators. Agricultural success at Jari requires a daily assault on such pests as rice-eating caterpillars and leaf-cutter ants with sophisticated and costly chemicals sprayed by aircraft. "Jari still may make a go of its agricultural plans," said William Overal, an American entomologist based here, who served as a consultant at Jari. "But it's going to take a lot of chemicals and a lot of money to do it.""

Luyt, Louis

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (joined in 1971)

Born in 1932 in Modest circumstances. First had a rugby career. Became a wealthy Afrikaner businessman. Founder, CEO, and chairman of Triomf, a fertilizer company that by the 1970s had a virtual monopoly in South Africa. In 1970 he offered to supply pro-Apartheid Ian Smith's Rhodesia with fertilizer after shipments to that country were blocked by Western countries. South African Associated Newspapers. Great supporter of the National Party. Fronted for Secretary of Information Dr. Eschel Rhoodie's pro-Apartheid propaganda campaign (under prime minister John Vorster). Founder and chairman of the Foreign Affairs Association since the early 1970s in this respect. Primary sponsor of the Committee for Fairness in Sport, which was set up by BOSS, the South African intelligence agency. By 1975, Project Annemarie was conceived (Annemarie was the name of Rhoodie's teenage daughter). This was for the introduction of an English-language newspaper to counter attacks on the apartheid government by the English press - particularly the Rand Daily Mail. The man chosen to front this operation was Louis Luyt, a fertilizer millionaire. When Luyt was blocked to become a major shareholder, he announced that he intended to create his own independent newspaper. This is how the Department of Information covertly launched The Citizen in 1976.

Luyt became infamous for his role in the court case involving President Nelson Mandela. He was a hostile witness in the commission of inquiry into South African Rugby Football Union (SARFU) affairs. Gradually people distanced themselves from him, including his former son-in-law Rian Oberholzer, the then Managing Director of SARFU. This moved resulted in Luyt’s sacking as President of SARFU in May 1998. Luyt then ventured into politics with the Federal Alliance Party (FA), which he financed personally. His stated purpose in forming the FA was to protect the rights and integrity of Afrikaners [the Whites]. The FA took part in South Africa's first democratic election in 1999 but won no seats, dissolving soon thereafter. Luyt is married to Adri and they live in the north of Durban.

Maffei, Baron Carlo von

Source(s): 2010 list (member since 1974)

Born in Germany. Moved to Canada. Had a 23,000-square-foot house outside Calgary, Canada protected by armed patrols). Co-founder of Sabre Petroleums in 1967. Not to be confused with the British company Sabre Petroleum, owned by the controversial SAS veteran and spook Anthony Leslie Rowland Buckingham. Owner Castle Hohenwettersbach.

Magnin, Cyril

Source(s): 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

A third generation San Franciscan born in 1899, Cyril Magnin's life was characterized by an unflagging commitment to the business, civic and cultural vitality of San Francisco. Mr. Magnin served as President of Joseph Magnin, Co., a clothing company that helped modern American women dress in the stylish designs of the day. As President of the Port of San Francisco, which then belonged to the state of California, Mr. Magnin lobbied tirelessly and ultimately succeeded in transferring the valuable Port property to the city of San Francisco. He was also responsible for creating the role of San Francisco's "Chief of Protocol". Also a champion of the arts, Cyril Magnin worked with Mayor Joseph Alioto (president of the San Francisco National Bank) to convince Avery Brundage to donate his incomparable Asian art collection to San Francisco's Asian Art Museum. He brought the A.C.T. to San Francisco, nurtured Beach Blanket Babylon, and also provided input and guidance to the California Culinary Academy. Not one to remain behind the scenes indefinitely, Mr. Magnin played the part of the Pope in the 1978 movie "Foul Play" with Chevy Chase and Goldie Hawn. Mr. Magnin is also remembered fondly for his role in a commercial which ran on television for many years. His speaking part read, "I've had an 80 year love affair with San Francisco . . . My name is Cyril Magnin and this is my dog, Tippy."

Some people have accused Cyril Magnin and Joseph Alioto of having been members of the mafia and the circle that killed JFK. Mae Brussell, of whom Magnin was an uncle, was a dedicated conspiracy researcher. She died of rapid-spreading cancer in 1988 while investigating child abuse with a connection to Army Intelligence and Nazis.

Mallinckrodt, George W.

Source(s): member since 1973, according to 2010 list.

Pilgrims Society member. Educated: Salem, Germany. President, Schroders plc, since 1995 (Chairman, 1984–95; Director, 1977–2008); Chairman, Schroders Incorporated, New York, since 1985; Chairman, J. Henry Schroder Bank AG, Zurich, 1984–2003. Agfa AG Munich, 1948–51; Münchmeyer & Co., Hamburg, 1951–53; Kleinwort Sons & Co., London, 1953–54; J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp., New York, 1954–55; Union Bank of Switzerland, Geneva 1956–57; J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp., NY, 1957–60; J. Henry Schroder & Co., subseq. J. Henry Schroder Wagg & Co., London, 1960–85, Director, 1967–; Schroders Incorp., NY, 1977–; Chm. and Chief Exec. Officer, J. Henry Schroder Bank & Trust Co., NY, 1984–86. Director: Schroder Asseily & Co., 1981–2000; Schroders Australia Hldgs Ltd, Sydney, 1984–2001; NM UK, 1986–90; Schroder Internat. Merchant Bankers, 1988–2000; Director: Allianz of America Inc. (NY), 1978–84; Banque Privée de Gestion Financière (Paris), 1980–83; Siemens plc, 1989–2000; Euris SA, Paris, 1989–98; Foreign & Colonial German Investment Trust PLC, 1992–98; British Invisibles, 1995–98. Vice-Pres., German-British Chamber of Industry and Commerce in UK, 1996– (Dir, 1971–91, Pres., 1992–95); Chm. of Council, World Economic Forum, 1995–97; Advr, McGraw Hill Inc., USA, 1986–89; Advr, Bain & Co., 1997–2005; Dir, Eur. Arts Foundn, 1987–2002. Member: British N American Cttee, 1988–; City Adv. Gp, CBI, 1990–. Pres., German YMCA, London, 1961–; Member: Ct of Benefactors, Oxford Univ., 1990–; Nat. Art Collection Develt Fund, 1995–2005; BM Develt Trust, 1995–; INSEAD Circle of Patrons, 1995–; Adv. Cttee on Finance, St George’s Coll., Windsor, 2003–; Council, John F. Kennedy Sch. of Govt, Harvard Univ., 2005–; Trustee: Prague Heritage Fund, 1992–2004; Christian Responsibility in Public Affairs, 1994–; Patron, Three Faiths Forum, 2005–. Freeman, City of London, 2004. FRSA 1986; CCMI (CBIM 1986). Hon. DCL Bishop’s Univ., Canada, 1994. Verdienstkreuz am Bande, 1986, Verdienstkreuz 1 Klasse, 1990, Grosse Verdienstkreuz, 2001, des Verdienstordens (Germany). Awarded Annual Sternberg Interfaith Award, 2005

Marmor, Boris "Bobby"

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Controlled Scotia Investments in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Joined the board of Hallmark Securities in 1970. Chairman of Westmoreland Investments in the early 1970s. Turned up as a shareholder in the Wolverhampton Steam Laudry company in the early 1980s. "Convicted embezzler-turned-property-developer and casino owner whose activities are again under official investigation", according to Spy Magazine.

McNamara, Robert Strange

Source(s): 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; May 2003, Capital Research Center, Foundation watch; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1916-2009. Democrat. McNamara graduated in 1937 from the University of California at Berkeley and went on to earn a graduate degree from the Harvard Business School, where from 1940 to 1943 he taught as an assistant professor. Poor eyesight kept him out of combat during World War II, but he served in the Air Force's Statistical Control Office, focusing, as he had done at Harvard, on ways to improve efficiency and productivity. After the war he brought his management skills to the ailing Ford Motor Company and became one of the "Whiz Kids" credited with the company's revival. In 1960 he became the first person outside the Ford family to rise to the position of president of the company. The same year, McNamara accepted President-elect John Kennedy's offer to become Secretary of Defense. McNamara set out to reorganize and streamline the nation's defense force and its bureaucracy. He was central to the Kennedy administration's drive to change U.S. military strategy from its Eisenhower-era reliance on nuclear "massive retaliation" to one of "flexible response," including a range of conventional options. McNamara emphasized cost control, the phasing out of what he believed to be obsolete weapons systems, and greater overall efficiency. While arguing that there was no essential difference between large organizations such as Ford and the Pentagon, and even though he did gain considerable control over the defense establishment, McNamara also had to deal with resistance from a variety of powerful, entrenched traditionalists in the various services, to say nothing of Capitol Hill. Trusted by Kennedy, McNamara became very influential in the administration. He was an important member of Kennedy's circle of advisers during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. He was also a central figure in the evolution of the nation's nuclear strategy from "massive retaliation" to a more limited "counterforce" doctrine to "mutually assured destruction," seeking international strategic stability. During the Vietnam War, McNamara initially was a great believer in victory and was convinced the United States could win thanks to its technological superiority. But by 1966 McNamara became disillusioned with the war and offered his resignation to President Johnson in 1967. August 6, 1967, The Lima News, Ohio: "On March 30, 1966, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara "categorically denied" flying saucers exist and said all of the thousands of alleged UFO photographs were "only illusions."" In 1968, he became president of the World Bank. During the 1980s he became a critic of the nuclear arms race and a proponent of a policy of "no first use." McNamara recently published a memoir on Vietnam, admitting that he had been tragically misguided in his view and conduct of the war. Due to the McCarthy hysteria all the nuanced, clear thinkers at the State Department had been purged. McNamara has been a member of Bilderberg, the Atlantic Council of the United States, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Trilateral Commission. He was a primary sponsor of the United Nations affiliated (New Age) Lucis Trust together with Greenpeace (1001 Club), the Rockefeller Foundation (1001 Club; Pilgrims) and Thomas Watson of IBM (1001 Club; Pilgrims). It used to be called the 'Lucifer's Trust' and was inspired by Alice Bailey (who, in line with Moses, Mohammed, Joseph Smith, Crowley, etc., received her info in trance through some kind of spiritual being). Together with Sadruddin Aga Khan (1001 Club) identified as a member of the Administrative Board of the International Pugwash Foundation in Geneva in 1995 (official Pugwash history). Council member Population Action International.

Who's Who: Asst Professor of Business Administration, Harvard, 1940–43. Served in USAAF, England, India, China, Pacific, 1943–46 (Legion of Merit); released as Lieut-Colonel. Joined Ford Motor Co., 1946; Executive, 1946–61; Controller, 1949–53; Asst General Manager, Ford Div., 1953–55; Vice-President, and General Manager, Ford Div., 1955–57; Director, and Group Vice-President of Car Divisions, 1957–61, President, 1960–61; Secretary of Defense, United States of America, 1961–68; Pres., The World Bank, 1968–81; Director: Royal Dutch Petroleum (Shell), 1981–87; Bank of America, 1981–87; Corning, 1981–90; The Washington Post, 1981–89. Trustee: Urban Inst.; Trilateral Commn. July 6, 2009, The Telegraph, 'Robert McNamara': "[McNamara] also served on a number of corporate and other boards, including ... Trans World Airlines, ... the Ford Foundation [since 1968], the Brookings Institution and the California Institute of Technology."

Website of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR): "The origins of the CGIAR lie in the Mexico-Rockefeller Foundation International Agriculture Program, a groundbreaking collaborative venture set up in 1943 at the suggestion of US Vice President Henry Wallace, Mexico's Agriculture Minister Marte R. Gomez and Undersecretary for Agriculture Alfonso Gallardo, with the strong backing of Rockefeller Foundation President Raymond Fosdick. George Harrar, who was later president of the Rockefeller Foundation, led a team of scientists including Norman Borlaug and Edward Wellhausen in the Mexico Program, which focused primarily on increasing the productivity of beans, maize, wheat and potatoes; soil management and crop protection; and improving the productivity of farm animals. ... Among the policymakers who collaborated in this effort were Addeke Boerma of FAO, Sir John Crawford of Australia, John Hannah of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), George Harrar of the Rockefeller Foundation, Frosty Hill of the Ford Foundation, Paul Hoffman [president Ford Foundation 1950-1953] of the UNDP, David Hopper of Canada’s International Development Research Centre, Robert McNamara of the World Bank, Maurice Strong of the Canadian International Development Agency, and Sir Geoffrey Wilson of the United Kingdom. At the first Bellagio conference, attended by the heads of multilateral and bilateral agencies, Rockefeller and Ford foundation representatives presented the results of international agricultural research achieved so far and scientific evidence of the potential for further impact. The data was compelling, and broad agreement was reached on the need to support international agricultural research. ... Participants in the Bellagio conference agreed to a suggestion by Maurice Strong that, as the World Bank had established numerous consultative groups for countries, it could set up one for agricultural research. Robert McNamara took up the challenge. He urged the World Bank's Executive Board to agree to provide an annual grant to a Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The proposal did not gain immediate acceptance. McNamara persevered, urging the Executive Board to act so that "the Green Revolution could remain green." ... In January 1971, a preliminary meeting was held to decide on how the CGIAR should be set up. The first formal meeting of the CGIAR was held on 19 May 1971."

Mellon, Mrs. Constance

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

A relative of Paul Mellon.

Mellon, Paul W.

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

His father was known as a ruthless businessman who greatly suppressed his workers in all his hundreds of companies and polluted the environment to the extreme. He was the only one to hold his own against the Rockefellers and the Morgans. Paul was a member of Yale Scroll & Key. He didn't spend much time in business. Long-time neighbor of the powerful Averell Harriman and worked together with his son-in-law. During WWII, Paul Mellon became OSS station chief in London and liaison to British Intelligence. After WWII, Martin A. Lee and Bruce Schlain note in Acid Dreams: "... members of the Mellon family maintained close ties with the CIA. The Mellon family foundations have been used repeatedly as conduits for Agency funds. Furthermore, Richard Helms was a frequent weekend guest of the Mellon patriarchs in Pittsburgh during his tenure as CIA director [1966-1973]." Buckingham Palace told Executive Intelligence Review investigator, Scott Thompson: "The Queen has known Mr. Mellon for many years and visited his estate at Upperville, Virginia, probably for the first time in the 1950s." Founded the Old Dominion Foundation which merged to become the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Philanthropist, art collector and horse breeder. Established the Yale Center for British Art. Summer 1999, Yale Alumni Magazine: "President Levin noted in his tribute that "of the many thousands who have contributed to Yale University, none has done more than he [Paul Mellon] to shape and support it."..." At his death, Mellon left Yale $90 million and more than 130 works of art-the largest single gift ever to the University. Zodiac Club member J. Carter Brown wrote an obituary of him in Yale Alumni Magazine. Mellon has been a member of the 1001 Club and the Pilgrims Society.

May 10, 1992, Washington Times, 'Paul Mellon, the man behind the money': ""There's no show there. It's all just for good and sufficient purpose," says retiring National Gallery Director J. Carter Brown of Mr. Mellon's life. ... "And he had his life all parceled out to these various interests on a regular schedule: So it would be Monday for farm business, and it would be Tuesday in Pittsburgh for Gulf Oil and family out there..."

April 24, 1977, Washington Post, 'Paul Mellon's Art; The Galloping Anglophile': "Those who know the Mellon name know the Mellon fortune is very, very big, so big the figures cited tend to be crude guesses. The Mellon family at one time owned the biggest bank in Pittsburgh, one-third of Gulf Oil, almost one-third of Alcoa, as well as blocks of stock in General Motors, Pittsburgh Plate Glass and other corporations. Nine years ago, when a cup of coffee cost a dime, and only one American in 50 enjoyed an annual income of more than $25,000, Fortune magazine reported that three of the Mellons - Paul, his sister, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, and their cousin, Richard King Mellon - were together worth between $1.5 billion and $3 billion."

February 3, 1999, St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri), 'Paul Mellon; Philantropist, Art Collector': "Forbes magazine last year estimated Mr. Mellon's wealth at $ 1.4 billi on, ranking him as the 124th richest American. The family's wealth came from Pittsburgh's Mellon Bank, as well as its holdings in Alcoa aluminum, the former Gulf Oil and other companies."

July 5, 1981, New York Times, 'Gulf, smallest of the seven oil sisters': "FEW Companies have a history as grand and glorious as that of the Gulf Oil Corporation. Born in the Spindletop gusher of 1901 and financed by the Mellon fortune, Gulf went on to successfully challenge the Rockefeller oil empire. In dizzying succession, it opened the world's first gasoline filling station, acquired oceans of oil beneath the deserts of the Middle East and the swamps of Venezuela, and firmly established itself as one of the leading producers, refiners and purveyors of black gold. Gulf is now the seventh-largest oil company in the world, the seventh-biggest company in America and a member of the planet's most exclusive business sorority - the Seven Sisters of international oil. On a warm summer evening, the orange light emanating from the crown of the company's headquarters tower in downtown Pittsburgh seems to suggest power, confidence and even a trace of deserved smugness. Appearances, however, can be deceiving. Over the last half decade, Gulf has been hammered by a political payoff scandal, a battery of lawsuits, the loss of most of its prized foreign oil, declines in domestic output, a ludicrously disadvantageous natural gas sales contract and a devastating change in energy policy by the Government in Canada, where Gulf has vast holdings. Perhaps most painful, however, has been the combination of sharply reduced consumer demand and an overabundance of refining capacity, an industrywide affliction that is stinging Gulf particularly."

March 10, 1984, New York Times, 'Gulf's Defeat and Lessons': "On Wall Street, the $13.2 billion takeover of the Gulf Corporation - the largest in corporate history - is described as the merger that should not have happened. And a decade ago, Wall Street people say, it would not have. The demise of Gulf, which this week was harried into accepting a marriage with another oil giant, the Standard Oil Company of California, is attributed in part to Gulf's clumsy defense. But it also reflects a combination of transitory circumstance and more permanent change. One is the oil glut, which depressed oil company shares, and the other is the willingness of old-line financial institutions to turn a quick profit by supporting insurgents against some of the nation's largest enterprises."

Merkle, Hans L.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list, in memoriam (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

German. Born in 1913. CDU member until 1979. He was Chairman of the Board of Management of Robert Bosch GmbH (produces automobile supplies) from 1963 to 1984 and chairman of the Supervisory Council from 1984 to 1988. Remained active after his retirement and became honorary chairman. Also a member of the Advisory Board of Volkswagen AG from 1974 to 1987. Together with Henry Kissinger and others, Merkle was the founder of Carnegie Bosch Institute for Applied Studies in International Management in 1990. The Institute was funded by a generous endowment gift from the Robert Bosch Corporation and is today part of the Carnegie Mellon's Tepper School of Business. Governor Atlantic Institute. Merkle died in 2000.

2009, Nikolaus Turner, 'Gemeinsam Gutes anstiften', p. 85: "In November 1999 Nicholas Turner wrote to Hans L. Merkle, the Eminence also at the Robert Bosch Foundation..." January 31, 1983, Der Spiegel, 'Manager - F1': "Company founder Robert Bosch, who died in 1942 at age 80, had ordered that his assets be placed in a charitable trust. The Foundation had "to work primarily on the elevation of the moral, health and spiritual development of the people." The Robert Bosch Foundation, which is dedicated to this humanitarian task, has nearly 90 percent of the shares and is financed from the company's profits. ... The seven partners of the company ... are the true masters of the Bosch Group. Merkle is one of them, and thanks to his dual function as Bosch CEO and capital representative by far the most influential" www.bosch-stiftung.de: "The Foundation still holds 92 percent of Robert Bosch GmbH's capital stock of €1.2 billion."

Meuser, Fred C.

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Dutch born American citizen who later lived in Switzerland. Met Prince Bernhard while serving with the RAF in WWII and the two became close friends, Bernhard's family often staying at his residence. Second in command of the succesful Star fighter sales effort in Europe during the 1950s and 1960s. European sales director of Lockheed in the early 1970s, when Lockheed was promoting its F-16. Bagman for the $1.1 million bribe to Prince Bernhard from Lockheed in 1976. According to Meuser, the Swiss lawyer Hubert Weisbrod was crucial in his lobbying work. February 14, 1976, The Times, 'Lockheed chiefs quit over foreign bribes': "Fred Meuser, the company former [Lockheed] European sales director, is quoted as saying ... "The Prince did not receive one cent and I can and will prove it.""

Milmo, Emilio Azcárraga, Jr.

Source(s): 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216

Born in 1930. From Mexico. Mexican businessman and son of Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, Sr. Educated at Culver Military Academy and graduated in 1948. Married four times, most recently to Paula Cussi and then his former mistress, a past representative to Mexico in the Miss Universe pageant, Adriana Abascal. Owner of Univision, a twelve-station Spanish language network in the U.S., and in the 1960s and 1970s as a controlling shareholder of Televisa. Owner of "El Nacional", a sports daily newspaper in 1990-1991. Owned major Mexican television stations and was the chairman of the U.S.-based Spanish language TV network "Galavision". Involved in publishing, video rental, and real estate ventures. In 1992 Gustavo Cisneros partnered with Mexico's Emilio Azcárraga and a shrewd American entrepreneur, Jerry Perenchio, to buy up Univision, the premier U.S. Latino TV network, for a little over 500 million dollars in 1992. Died in 1999.

Passed on his business to his son Emilio Azcárraga Jean, who in 2008 was a founding member and co-chairman of the Americas Business Council, where Justin Rockefeller, Dr. Stephan Schmidheiny, Jean Michel Cousteau, and Mikhael Gorbachev can also be found. The Emilio Azcárraga family donated to Synergos, together with many Rockefeller family members, Paul Volcker, the American Express Foundation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Oprah Winfrey Foundation, The Wolfensohn Family Foundation, the Goldman Sachs Foundation, the Open Society, Shell International, JPMorgan Chase, the Ford Foundation, USAID, etc.

Mirabaud, Pierre

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (joined in 1972)

Hedge fund investor who has been active in the marketsince the early 1970s. Managing partner Mirabaud & Cie. Had joined the bank in 1974. Partner in Edmond de Rothschild Asian Capital Holdings. President Swiss Bankers Association 2003-2009.

Montagu, David Charles Samuel

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1928-1998. Exec. Dir, 1954, Chm., 1970–73, Samuel Montagu & Co. Ltd; Chm. and Chief Exec., Orion Bank, 1974–79; Chm., Ailsa Investment Trust plc, 1981–88; Chairman, Rothmans International, 1988–98. Director: J. Rothschild Holdings PLC, 1983–89; The Telegraph plc, 1985–96; Chelsfield plc, 1993–98. Mem., Bd of Banking Supervision, Bank of England, 1990–96. Dir, British Horseracing Bd, 1993–97 .

Mountfort, Guy Reginald

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

May 3, 2003, New York Times, 'Guy Mountfort, 97, Briton Who Helped Found Wildlife Fund': "In 1961, Mr. Mountfort created the World Wildlife Fund with three other distinguished British naturalists: Sir Julian Huxley, the zoologist; Peter Scott, a broadcaster and founder of Britain's Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust; and Max Nicholson, head of Britain's Nature Conservancy. The fund, based in Switzerland, had the goal of preserving endangered species and their habitats. With Mr. Mountfort as its first treasurer, it rapidly became one of the leading conservation groups in the world, raising large sums for its operations thanks in part to the efforts of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and Prince Bernard of the Netherlands, who both gave it their support from the beginning." www.wwf.fi (Finland): "WWF's saga began in 1960, when eminent British biologist Sir Julian Huxley visited Africa to research a series of articles for The Observer newspaper. He discovered that many parts of Africa, which 50 years before were swarming with game, had become bare of wildlife. The articles prompted businessman Victor Stolan to write to Julian Huxley, suggesting an international organization to raise funds for conservation of African nature. Many others had also been alerted to the problem. Among these nature lovers were British ornithologist Peter Scott, who was later to become the organization's first chairman, and Guy Mountfort, director of a large advertising company. Around Easter 1961 three gentlemen – Scott, Mountfort and Max Nicholson, Director General of Britain´s Nature Conservancy – gathered together to discuss the founding of "Nature´s Red Cross". A scientific research-based conservation institution known as IUCN –The World Conservation Union, had been established twenty years earlier in Switzerland, but it was troubled by lack of funds. Scott, Mountfort and Nicholson suggested that an organization committed to raising funds for conservation projects of global importance should now be established. A group of scientists and advertising and public relations experts committed to this cause met for the first time in London in May 1961. They decided to call the newborn organization World Wildlife Fund. Meanwhile, Chi Chi the panda had arrived at London Zoo. Aware of the need for a strong recognizable symbol that would overcome all language barriers, the group agreed that the big, furry animal with her appealing black-patched eyes, would make an excellent logo. Sir Peter Scott designed WWF´s famous logo from the basis of sketches done by naturalist Gerald Watterson. So, just a few months later, in September 1961 the first WWF office was established in the small town of Morges, Switzerland. In its first three years, WWF raised and donated almost two million dollars to conservation projects. Much of this money was given by individuals, moved by newspaper articles. For the first time, many in the western world were alerted to plummeting wildlife populations. Some of the early grants, such as those to IUCN and the Charles Darwin Foundation in the Galapagos Islands, were large. WWF still funds projects in the Galápagos, and has helped establish the Galapagos National Park. From the very beginning, WWF has been aware that people donate money to the organization because they want to give direct support to conservation. In 1970, HRH Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, then President of WWF International, launched an important initiative that was to provide WWF with the solid, independent financial base it needed. The organization set up a US$10 million fund, known as The 1001: A Nature Trust, to which 1 001 individuals each contributed US$ 10 000. Since establishing The 1001, WWF International has been able to use interest from the trust fund to help meet its basic administration costs."

In 1954 Mountfort wrote the book 'A Field Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe', to which Julian Huxley wrote the introduction. Mountfort was an ornithologist who led expeditions to various places and regularly made the news. Julian Huxley (wife of the biologist) was part of some of these expeditions. June 22, 1957, The Times, 'Photographs Taken Of Rare Eagle - Expedition To Spain': "An expedition to the Coto Danane, in the wildest part of Southern Spain, has just returned to this country with the first photographs and films ever taken of the extremely rare Spanish Imperial Eagle. The expedition, the third to this wild-life paradise, was again led by Guy Mountfort. Naturalists taking part were Field Marshall Lord Alanbrooke, ... Mr. Eric Hosking, ... Mrs. Julian Huxley, ... Mr. Max Nicholson [government scientist; head Nature Conservancy]." About ten or 11 Brits went on this expedition with a few Spaniards. Spain was ruled by Franco at that point. In 1959 Lord Alanbrooke and Guy Mountfort were invited to Moscow for an ornithological congress. Led two expeditions to the Danube in Hungary and Bulgaria, bordering the Black Sea, in the early 1960s. Led a WWF mission to Jordan in 1963 which concluded that the wildlife had been decimated, the deserts were getting larger due to human activity, and that parks needed to be set up. Who's Who of Eric Hosking, who went on expeditions with Mountfort: "Dir of Photography, British Ornithologists’ Expedition to Bulgaria, 1960, to Hungary, 1961; other expeditions: Mountfort-Jordan, 1963; British-Jordan, 1965; Pakistan, 1966; World Wildlife Fund, Pakistan, 1967; Lindblad Galapagos Islands, 1970; Kenya and Rhodesia, 1972; Tanzania and Kenya, 1974 and 1977; Seychelles, 1978; India and Nepal, 1979; Falklands and Antarctic, 1979; circumnavigation of Antarctic, and New Zealand and Australia, 1981; Spitzbergen and Arctic, 1982; Greenland and Canadian Arctic, 1984; Alaska, 1984; Sri Lanka and Israel, 1985; Madagascar, Comoros, Aldabra and Seychelles, 1986; Israel and Kalahari Desert, 1987; Singapore and NZ, 1989." OBE. 1905-2003.

Who's Who: 1905-2003. General Motors Corporation (France), 1928–38. War service, 1939–46: 12 Regt HAC and British Army Staff (Washington), Lt-Col; service in N Africa, Italy, Burma, Pacific, Germany. Procter & Gamble Inc., USA, 1946–47; Mather & Crowther Ltd, subseq. Ogilvy and Mather, 1947, Dir, 1949–66. Vice-Chm., Dollar Exports Bd Advertising Cttee, 1948–49. Hon. Sec., Brit. Ornithologists’ Union, 1952–62, Pres. 1970–75 (Union Medal, 1967); Leader of scientific expedns to: Coto Doñana, 1952, 1955, 1956; Bulgaria, 1960; Hungary, 1961; Jordan, 1963, 1965; Pakistan, 1966, 1967. Vice Pres., World Wildlife Fund, 1978–. Director, Ogilvy & Mather International Inc., New York, 1964–66; Managing Director, Ogilvy and Mather Ltd, London, 1964–66. OBE 1970.

The person Guy Mountfort worked for: 1001 Club member David Mackenzie Ogilvy (1911-1999): s of Francis John Longley Ogilvy and Dorothy Fairfield. Founder, Ogilvy and Mather, 1948, Chairman to 1973; Chairman, WPP Group [when WPP took over O. & M.], 1989–92. Christ Church, Oxford (Scholar). British Security Coordination, 1942–45. Dir, NY Philharmonic, 1957–67. Chm., Utd Negro Coll. Fund, 1968. Mem. of Honor, WWF.

Ogilvy and Mather was originally founded in 1850 in London under the name Mather. In 1888 the name became Mather & Cowther. In 1936, Mather & Crowther sent David Ogilvy (1911-1999) abroad to study American advertising techniques for one year. Ogilvy built up the company in North America, headquartered in New York, starting in 1948. In October 1964 the London and New York firms merged and formed Ogilvy & Mather International. The firm was involved with many major banks. N. M. Rothschild & Sons, First Boston, and Kleinwort Benson were involved in the merger. Its principal bankers were National Westminster, Morgan Guaranty, and Manufacturers Hanover. Ogilvy was among the directors of O. & M. in London. Guy Mountfort, who had joined the company in 1947, was among the directors of O. & M. in London. Ogilvy became chairman of O. & M. international. By the 1960s Ogilvy & Mather in New York had clients as American Express (1962 and a firm dominated by Pilgrims) and Gilette. It had Unilever and Mattel in the 1950s. These days Ogilvy and Mather also have the large lobbying firm Ogilvy Government Relations, with such clients as the Blackstone Group and Chevron.

Muneer, Rafi

Source(s): 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (member since 1974)

Head of a construction company. Close friend of Mumtaz Bhutto, the Chief Minister of Sindh, and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan (father of the in 2007 assassinated Benazir Bhutto).

Munk, Peter

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010 list (invited in 1972)

A hungarian Jew whose well-to-do family survived the holocaust by giving their belongings to Adolf Eichmann. Who's Who: Born in Budapest, Hungary. Arrived in Canada in 1948. Chairman, CEO Southern Pacific Hotel Corp., Sydney, Australia, 1969-81; chairman Barrick Resources, Toronto, 1981-83, Am. Barrick Resources Corp. (now Barrick Gold Corp.), Toronto, 1983—, The Horsham Corp., Toronto, 1987-96; CEO Trizec Hahn Corp., 1996—2000, chairman, 2001—2006; chairman, president, CEO Trizec Can. Inc., 2002—2004, chairman, CEO, 2005—2006. Non-executive chairman anno 2011.

His primary business partner in Southern Pacific since at least the mid-1970s was the controversial Saudi arms dealer Adnan Khashoggi. 1980, Volume 101, The Bulletin, p. 126: "Southern Pacific is now controlled through Hong Kong companies by interests associated with Saudi Arabian multi-millionaire Adnan Khashoggi and Southern Pacific chairman Peter Munk. When Southern Pacific took control of the once-listed Travelodge Australia Ltd in 1976, following a successful 40c-a-share takeover bid, Munk said it was likely the group would be unlisted for only two or three years." 1979, Volume 50, Pacific Islands Monthly, p. 8: "Senator Kuar Batl said Mr Khashoggi's international arms dealings and corrupt practices could put Fiji in a situation in which they 'try to blackmail and hold the country to ransom'. Senate named two other directors of Mr Khashoggi's Southern Properties, Peter Munk and David Gilmour..." After losses in oil and gas, Munk and Khashoggi set up Barrick Resources in 1983, which soon became the world's largest gold mining corporation. Three years after the founding, Khashoggi became publicly embroiled in the Iran-Contra arms scandal. Some time after this he withdrew his stakes in the company.

December 21, 1986, The Observer-Reporter, 'Canadian connection investigated in Iran Contra arms scandal': "The Toronto Globe and Mail newspaper reported Saturday that before getting involved in the arms deal, [Donald] Fraser and [Ernest] Miller lent Khashoggi $35 million to bolster his troubled Triad America Corp. It quoted Timothy Khan, a 30-year-old Toronto investment consultant who used to represent Khashoggi in Canada, as saying the Saudi promised Fraser and Miller they would get their money back faster if they invested in the weapons-for-Iran deal. Their reply, according to Khan, was “Well, if you say so, Adnan.” John Gamble, a lawyer, is secretary of Toronto’s Vertex Financial Corp, which is controlled by Fraser and Miller. Gamble is also North American chairman of the World Anti-Communist League. … Gamble, a former member of Parliament well known for his right-wing views, denied any connection with the arms sales. He subsequently refused to talk to the news media … The most detailed account of the Canadian’s role came from New York businessman Roy Furmark, another Khashoggi associate. … After testifying Dec. 18 before a congressional panel and briefing Canadian diplomats and police, … [Furmark] … said Khashoggi used $25 million worth of shares in [Peter Munk's] American Barrick Resources Corp., a Toronto-based gold mining company., as collateral for the loan."

Munk tried to keep it under wraps that his company purchased the rights to a gold mine in Nevada -- containing $10 billion in gold -- for only $10,000. His U.S. goldmines have been accused of poisoning the local water. Munk was accused of insider trading back in 1967. Munk is also chairman of Trizec Properties in Canada. He is regular skiing partner of Prince Charles and today is a business partner of Nat Rothschild and Oleg Deripaska in Rusal in Russia. He is one of the wealthiest men in Canada.

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November 18, 1996, Ottowa Citizen, 'Mere financial setbacks can't keep Peter Munk down': "Munk had no money, but he had a vision. He persuaded some Toronto architects to design a high-end tourism mecca in exchange for shares in Pacific Harbour. Then he talked the Fijian government into backing the project. Even before work started on the Pacific Harbour development, Munk set up an umbrella company to handle other investments he planned to make in the South Pacific. This move was trademark Munk. He would always try to raise more money when he had a positive story to tell, not necessarily when he needed the money. And Pacific Harbour was proving to be a critical success, at least in its early years. Prince Juan Carlos of Spain and Count von Bismarck were among the early buyers of Pacific Harbour properties. The scale of the development caught the eye of the assistant to Egyptian president Anwar Sadat -- which led later to Munk's participation in the luxury Pyramids Oasis development in Egypt in the late 1970s. More directly, talks with the Egyptians introduced Munk to a Saudi trader, Adnan Khashoggi, who had grown rich acting as a go-between for U.S. defence firms and Arab countries. Khashoggi would later play a key role in Munk's successful takeover of Travelodge, which operated a string of hotels in the South Pacific. As Rumball describes it, Munk came perilously close to bankruptcy in 1974 when a global oil crisis prompted fewer people to buy properties in the South Pacific. In fact, the Pacific Harbour project in the end wound up losing millions. But for Munk, it was merely a means to an end. Without Pacific Harbour, he would not have met Khashoggi or acquired the Travelodge hotel chain. Munk sold the chain in 1981 for $ 130 million. Then, aged 54, Munk decided to return to North America and invest in oil and gas. This may have been Munk's biggest mistake. He wound up buying properties at their peak price and, when energy prices collapsed in 1982, Munk lost nearly everything. So, his reputation in tatters, he turned to gold mining. What saved him was his ability to conjure up financing. A case in point: One of Munk's first purchases was the Renabie gold mine near Wawa. The asking price was $ 40.5 million, but Munk had no money. So he concocted a deal under which he immediately sold half the mine to another operator for shares and cash. Then Munk issued common shares and sold some Renabie assets to pay for his share of the mine. Improved cash flow The Renabie mine gave him an entree to the industry, as well as some cash flow. That's all he needed. Each property became the base for subsequent acquisitions including, in 1986, what would become the huge Nevada-based Goldstrike mine. With Goldstrike, Munk hit the jackpot. It contained ore samples far richer than anyone at the time believed possible. Developing the mine transformed Munk and his Barrick Gold Corp. into a serious industry player. In 1994, when Munk successfully outbid Peggy Witte and Royal Oak Mines for ownership of Lac Minerals, Barrick became the industry's indisputable leader in North America. Given his track record, it seems unlikely Munk will opt soon for retirement. Already his Trizec Hahn conglomerate is aggressively snapping up real estate properties, and there is talk Munk will make a play for Bre-X despite its huge price."

June 6, 1986, Mining Journal, 'Dramatic Growth': "IN LITTLE more than two years, American Barrick Resources of Toronto has been transformed from an oil and gas company into one of North America's top ten largest gold producers. Through a programme of acquisitions and mergers, the company has now established interests in five operating gold mines producing 300,000 oz/y gold. It is currently assessing a sixth potential mine, the McDermott project in Ontario, where results to date indicate that a production level of 100,000 oz/y should be possible within four years. Over the same period, Barrick has steadily divested itself of its oil and gas interests."

February 21, 1997, Austin Chronicle, 'Naked City - Off the Desk': "In the mad scramble for the world's richest gold deposit, New Orleans-based Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold has apparently won. When Bre-X Minerals, a small Calgary, Alberta-based mining company, found the gigantic Busang deposit on the island of Borneo in 1995, some of the world's biggest gold companies began lobbying the corrupt regime of Indonesian President Suharto for the right to become Bre-X's partner. Barrick Gold of Toronto used two members of their advisory board -- Canadian prime minister Brian Mulroney and former U.S. President George Bush, to curry favor with Suharto, and also hired one of his daughters."

1999, Frank P. Jozsa and John J. Guthrie, 'Relocating Teams and Expanding Leagues in Professional Sports', pp 29-30: "The AFL, moreover, was the contrivance of Lamar Hunt… [son of H.L. Hunt]. The son was an ardent football fan who schemed to bring a professional team to Dallas. Clint Murchison, Hunt’s business rival in Dallas, had the same ambition. During the 1950s both magnates attempted to buy the original Dallas Texans, the Chicago Cardinals, the Washington Redskins, and the San Francisco FortyNiners. … Shortly after the AFL granted Hunt a franchise in Dallas, the NFL awarded Clint Murchison the Dallas Cowboys. … Hunt eventually moved the Texans to Kansas City in 1963 and renamed the the Chiefs. Wishing to end the salary wars, the AFL and NFL finally merged in 1966."

Murchison, John Dabney

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1921-1979. From Dallas, Texas. dir. 1st Nat. Bank, Dallas, Life & Casualty Co., Nashville, Delhi Australian Petroleum Co. John was a partner in Murchison Brothers Investments. Director 1st National Bank of Dallas, Life & Casualty in Nashville, and Delhi Australian Petroleum. Became national president of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) in 1979. Died in 1979. In 1996 the Circle of 10 Circle, the main BSA chartered council in central north Texas and a portion of Oklahoma, moved into the John D. Murchison Service Center.

Had two brothers: Clint, Jr. (Dallas Cowboys founding owner from 1960 to 1984, when he sold it to his friend Harvey Bright; worked with Lamar Hunt in establishing the Cowboys in Dallas) and Burk. Son of the controversial Texas oil magnate and investor Clinton William "Clint" Murchison, Sr. (1895-1969). March 18, 2009, Athens Daily Review, 'Dick Dwelle: An impact still felt today': "The two Athenians [Clint W. Murchison Sr. and Sid W. Richardson], along with H. L. Hunt and Hugh Roy Cullen, are the four principals in the book which Peppard says is about "a band of Texas oil titans who amassed a fortune that eclipsed those of the Rockefellers and Mellons and enjoyed their wealth with a hedonistic abandon that crafted a view of Texas that still holds in the remotest reaches of the globe."" Clint Murchison, Sr. and H. L. Hunt largely funded the Douglas MacArthur for President campaign in 1951 and 1952, but MacArthur eventually decided not to go into politics. Both Murchison and Hunt also greatly supported Senator McCarthy. McCarthy came often to the exclusive hotel that Murchison opened in La Jolla, California, in the early 1950's. So did Richard Nixon and J. Edgar Hoover. In 1961, after Nixon had lost the presidential election to JFK the previous year, Murchison sold Nixon a lot in Beverly Hills for only $35,000 a lot Murchison had financed through a Hoffa loan which Nixon sold two years later for $86,000. When Hoover visited the (Murchison) Hotel Del Charro, as he did every summer between 1953 and 1959, Murchison picked up his tab. That amounted to about $19,000 of free vacations for the FBI Director over those years. Whether Hoover knew it or not, almost 20 percent of the Murchison Oil Lease Company in Oklahoma was then owned by Gerardo Catena, chief lieutenant to the Genovese crime family. Had real estate dealings with Jimmy Hoffa in Florida.

Clint Murchison, Jr. (1923-1987) also was a very close friend of FBI boss J. Edgar Hoover (refused to seriously fight the mob, as opposed to Robert Kennedy, and used to meet with top mafia boss Frank Costello; Hoover was a close friend of George R. Wackenhut and Permindex founder Mortimer Bloomfield) and paid some of his travel expenses. He was a great supporter of Senator Joseph McCarthy and together with Hoover and like-minded businessmen, Murchison, Jr. supported Dwight Eisenhower, LBJ, and Richard Nixon for political office. Murchison, Jr. was a board member of the very low profile company FIDCO company, which was filled with intelligence people. Investigative journalists Danny Casolaro and Carol Marshall saw FIDCO as a top player in "the Octopus". 1994, Carol Marshall, 'The Last Circle': "But again I asked myself, why was an international arms dealer [Nichols] on the Board of F.I.D.C.O (First Intercontinental Development Corporation), a CIA front corporation, which offered three billion dollars to rebuild Beirut to President Amin Gamayel of Lebanon, whose chief of finances (Sami el Khouri) was shipping tons of heroin to Sicily for reexport to America, want to invest in "a method for induction and activation of cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes"?" Directors of FIDCO consisted of the following principles: Robert Maheu, Sr. (FBI agent 1941-1947; as a CIA man working under Allen Dulles and Richard Bissell he ran an anti-Castro operation by enlisting mafia bosses Sam Giancana and John Roselli; CEO of Howard Hughes Operations; vice-president FIDCO); Michael A. McManus (assistant to the President Reagan); Robert Booth Nichols (born March 6, 1943; reportedly grew up a hitman for the Tong Yakuza in Hawaii; Reportedly laundered $50-200 million for Ferdinand Marcos; a FBI wiretap summary said Nichols used to be CIA and was linked to the Yakuza (as godson, business associate and former hitman for the intelligence-connected and to overseas Yakuza official Harold Okimoto in Hawaii, who in turn is said to have worked under Frank Carlucci) and to the Gambino crime family as a money launderer; CEO of R.B.N. Companies, International, a holding company for manufacturing and development of high technology electronics, real estate development, construction and international finance. Numerous U.S. and British intelligence links. chairman Meridian International Logistics (had Eugene Giaquinto of MCA - linked to drug trafficking - on the board; also Harold Okimoto), which had extensive business deals in Japan and Australia and also owned Meridian Arms of which Riconosciuto was vice president (Harold Okimoto and Glenn Shockley were directors); in partnership with Wackenhut and the Cabazon Indian Reserve, which developed all kinds of explosives, guns and was apparently involved in biological warfare research; Allan Boyak claimed Nichols' rum importing business a cover for Golden Triangle heroin import; named "Mr. Big" in the Medellin Cartel; claimed to have been asked to become minister of state security on Dominica, supposedly because the island was to become a CIA base; apparently tried to steal a government treasury bond for 2,500 metric tons of gold, worth $250 billion ()); George K. Pender (set up the architectural engineering division of General Aerojet Corp. in 1957; joined Burns & Roe Inc. in Oradell, N.J., as a sales representative in the 1960s; director of Pacific Ocean area of Burns & Roe, Inc., an international engineering & construction corporation with active projects on all seven continents of the world; said to be CIA; founder in 1970 and president and CEO of FIDCO; was most recently involved in a design engineering project in Cairo, Egypt; died in 1999); Kenneth A. Roe (chairman and president of Burns & Roe, Inc., a company his father had founded he joined in 1941; company involved in Project Mercury and Gemini space programs and built nuclear power plants; Burns & Roe Securacom was focused on security systems nuclear power plants and embassies); Frances T. Fox (former general manager of L.A. International Airport; former director of Aviation for Howard Hughes Nevada operations, now called Summa Corporation; city manager of San Jose, California.); Clint W. Murchison, Jr. (owner of the Dallas Cowboys NFL football team.); William M. Pender (licensed contractor, State of California.); Glen R. Shockley (Consultant to Fortune 500 Companies. Internationally known as financial consultant in funding. Partner in Meridian International Logistics, headed by Nichols. Said to be CIA. Said to have ran Jose Londono of the Cali Cartel.) Numerous board directors of F.I.D.C.O., of which Nichols was also a director, had been closely associated with General Douglas MacArthur. Involved with the Suite 8F Group, just as the Hunts.

February 5, 2001, Insight on the News, 'The Plot Thickens in PROMIS Affair': "Booth Nichols also served on the board of First Intercontinental Development Corp. (FIDCO), a building/construction company. Among Nichols' corporate partners at FIDCO in the 1980s were Michael McManus, then an aide to President Reagan; Robert Maheu, former chief executive officer of Howard Hughes Enterprises; and Clint Murchison Jr. of the Murchison empire based in Dallas. Riconosciuto long has maintained that Booth Nichols and FIDCO were associated with U.S. intelligence agencies and used as a cutout. Again, whereas others summarily had dismissed this claim, the RCMP investigators pursued the lead, poring over documents from the long-abandoned Riconosciuto storage and in the files of U.S. law-enforcement agencies. For example, RCMP obtained FBI wiretap summaries of telephone conversations between Nichols and another of his then-partners in FIDCO, Eugene Giaquinto, who at the same time also was president of MCA Home Entertainment Division. The wiretap summaries reads like a who's who of alleged mob figures with close ties to the motion-picture industry. The Mounties also received substantial related information from classified internal FBI files."

February 5, 2001, Insight on the News, 'The Plot Thickens in PROMIS Affair': "This is not the only story that emerged as the RCMP investigated Riconosciuto's revelations. For instance, for years he had said he'd worked for the government, briefing and lecturing military brass and Pentagon officials. In a January 1992 letter obtained by Insight on Wackenhut stationery, the company's director of corporate relations, Patrick Cannan, writes that "John P. Nichols had first introduced Riconosciuto to Wackenhut (Frye, V.P. of Wackenhut, Indio, Ca., office) on a May 1981 trip to the U.S. Army installation at Dover, N.J., where Nichols, Zokosky, Frye and Riconosciuto met with Dr. Harry Fair and several of his Army associates who were the project engineers on the Railgun Project. Riconosciuto and these Army personnel conducted an extensive and highly technical 'theoretical' blackboard exercise on the Railgun and, afterward, Dr. Fair commented that he was extremely impressed with Riconosciuto's scientific and technical knowledge in this matter." The letter goes on to state that Dr. Fair considered Riconosciuto a "potential national resource." The significance of this is that it is consistent with evidence unearthed by RCMP investigators that Riconosciuto's claims of technical and scientific expertise and access are not rantings. The RCMP investigators also discovered another link in a Riconosciuto story that had been dismissed. The permit to hold the arms demonstration in 1981 at Lake Cahuilla was obtained by Meridian Arms, a subsidiary of Meridian International Logistics, owned by Robert Booth Nichols, a self-proclaimed CIA operative and licensed arms dealer (and no relation to Cabazon administrator John Nichols). Riconosciuto for years was a partner with Booth Nichols in the Meridian Arms business and, at the time the permits were approved for the Lake Cahuilla weapons demonstration, Nichols was unaware that he was being investigated by the FBI for suspected mob-related money laundering of drug profits and for stock fraud."

TED GUNDERSON

Born November 7, 1928 in Colorado. Apparently close to Clint Murchison, Jr. Gunderson (once recruited by Hoover into the FBI) has been promoting Satanic Ritual Abuse, Illuminati, Oklahoma pineapple bomb, no-plane theories on 9/11, and CIA drug import theories, and even associated himself with Area 51-Alien-DNA-Reptilian theories. In a 2005 speech, Gunderson stated he "found out about the Illuminati" through the SRA phenomenon, that "the children in this country are disappearing at a rate of 83 per hour", that there are approximately 4 million satanists within the United States, that he is under constant attempts on his life and that the FBI and such are trying to set him up. Apparently Gunderson supports and helped Senator John Decamp.

1994, Carol Marshall, 'The Last Circle': "On November 30, 1991, Ted Gunderson opened the door at his Manhattan Beach home and ushered us into a small living room cluttered with toys. He made no explanation for the toys scattered around the floor and the couch... A young woman, perhaps early thirties, entered the room brushing long blond hair, still wet from the shower... ... The following morning, at 7:30 a.m., I received a collect call from a man who identified himself as Michael Riconosciuto (pronounced Riconoshooto). Riconosciuto, calling from the Pierce County jail in Tacoma, Washington, said he had been informed by Gunderson that I was investigating a corruption/drug ring in Mariposa County. ... Ted Gunderson was one of the few "cooperating" witnesses at Michael's trial. Through his affidavit and testimony, Ted hoped to supply the defense with needed corroboration of Michael's covert government sanctioned activities. Unfortunately for Michael, Ted could not disclose numerous activities which had included Robert Booth Nichols. At one time Gunderson, Nichols and Riconosciuto had been inseparable, like the three musketeers. But, Nichols was currently under investigation by the Los Angeles FBI for alleged involvement in organized crime in the U.S. and abroad. Fortunately, however, Gunderson's resume added credibility to the provocative affidavit he entered into court on Michael's behalf. He had been Senior Special Agent in Charge (SAC) at Los Angeles FBI headquarters from 1977 to 1979 when he retired from the FBI and went to work as chief investigator for F. Lee Bailey, Esq. Prior to that, from 1960 to 1965, Gunderson was Special Agent Supervisor at FBI headquarters in Washington, D.C.. Interestingly, amongst a prestigious list of positions nationwide, he was also SAC from 1973 to 1977 in Dallas, Texas (where he became friends with Clint Murchison, Jr., according to his livein partner, J.M.. J.M. stated in phone interviews that she and Gunderson attended parties with Murchison in Dallas, and Gunderson phoned him often from their Manhattan Beach home). ... In 1979, Gunderson received the Alumni Highest Effort Award in the Field of Law Enforcement from Sigma Alpha Epsilon Social Fraternity at the University of Nebraska. In 1979, he also received the Distinguished Alumnus Award from the University of Nebraska in recognition of distinguished and devoted service to his country. ... [Gunderson was] Riconosciuto's investigator. ... Raymond Lagas, Ted Gunderson's former forensic's expert, (and a former protege of Robert Maheu according to Michael Riconociuto)... Riconosciuto's relationship with Ted Gunderson dated back at least as far as 1982. Michael and Nichols dated back to 1967. In reading the transcript, it appeared that Gunderson and Nichols were interviewing Riconosciuto for recruitment into a drug/sting operation. Riconosciuto later verified that he was, in fact, being recruited into the overseas Lebanon drug operation by Gunderson and Nichols because of his (Riconosciuto's) undercover experience in the drug trade. ... Kendall had worked with Michael in some, as yet, undefined capacity. Bobby Riconosciuto had noted to me that Kendall and Ted Gunderson had counseled Oliver North prior to his testimony to Congress. Kendall was also heavily involved in arms and biotechnology, according to Michael Riconosciuto. ... J.M., Ted Gunderson's live-in partner, on more than one occasion had noted that she held in her possession a photograph of Gunderson and Sir Denis Kendall, the British M-I6 officer who owned bio-labs in Los Angeles, standing in front of a Mexican cancer clinic. According to J.M., the photo had been used in an advertisement seeking nurses to work at the clinic. Without a copy of the photo, I was unable to determine if it "might" be the same clinic which Gloria Ramirez attended prior to her death. ... It was time to interview Robert Booth Nichols. I was communicating regularly with Ted Gunderson and one day, on an impulse, I asked him for Nichols's telephone number. Gunderson hesitated, then gave me the telephone number of a "relative" of Nichols' in Los Angeles, stating that he really couldn't give out Robert's home number without first consulting him. ... CM: "Ted Gunderson gave me a huge manual on The Octopus ..." Nichols: "In my opinion, to research anything of that magnitude you are looking at -- it would require a lot of money and a lot of travel and a lot of patience. I don't think Ted Gunderson knows anything, personally. He's domestic. It's not his area." ... I didn't mention that Riconoscituo had stated Kendall was Nichols' supervisor (CIA "handler"), or that J.M., Ted Gunderson's research partner, had found a brochure in Ted's files advertising for Swedish nurses at a medical research complex in Mexico. The brochure contained both Gunderson's picture and Sir Denis Kendall's. ... SPY also interviewed Allan Boyak, a former CIA operative now practicing law in Utah, who had known Nichols for 15 years. Boyak told SPY, "Nichols is lethal." A transcript of a conversation between Boyack, Michael Riconosciuto and former FBI agent Ted Gunderson, (which I had sent Connolly a copy of) described an occasion in which Nichols wanted to deliver a message to a mobster from Chicago. Nichols hung a man upside down on a hoist in an airplane hangar in front of a prop plane, then started the engine of the plane and revved it up, so that the man hanging on the hoist was sucked toward the propellers. According to Riconosciuto, "By the time Bob got finished with him, he wanted to die." ... Riconosciuto recalled, " ... So he [Marowitz] starts talking ... and Bob goes out of the room like this: `Oh my God, I don't want to hear anymore,' covering his ears. This Marowitz starts confessing to every hit he's ever done, including the Dorfman killings in Chicago. ... I mean, all hell breaks loose. All of a sudden Ted has found the torpedo in the Dorfman killings ..." After the "hanging" incident, Marowitz fled to Israel." .... [Michael Riconosciuto:] " ... And the bottom line here is Bob Nichols and Gilbert Rodriguez, Michael Abbell, whose now an attorney in D.C., but he was with the criminal section of the Justice Department and Harold Okimoto, and Jose Londodo, and Glenn Shockley are all in bed together. (Three years after this conversation, Michael Abbell was indicted for laundering money for the Cali Cartel). "Now Ted Gunderson ..." "Mike, have you got any paperwork on that?" "Now, wait a minute. Gunderson was physically with me when Wayne Reeder, Peter Zokosky and his wife and several of Wayne Reeder's lieutenants, Bob Nichols and his wife, Harold Okimoto, George Pender, Deborah Pender, Dill Pender, and myself were all together ..." " ... Where?" " ... At Wayne Reeders country club, golf club, in Indio, California. And Bob discussed openly in front of Ted Gunderson and myself and everyone present bragged about Glenn Shockley and Jose Londono having 3,500 soldiers. It's now almost double that ...

Michael Riconosciuto had some, if not all, of the answers to the gene splicing technology that Zokosky and Wackenhut had attempted to sell to the Army weapons division in 1983, and later fronted to the Japanese, through Meridian International Logisitcs, in 1988. I felt that time was of the essence in uncovering the nature of this technology, so I pushed Riconosciuto to talk about it. "It looks like Earl Brian, Sir Denis Kendall, Hercules Research, Wackenut, Zokosky and Bob Nichols were all involved in the same biotechnological agenda ..." Michael answered, "You got it." I asked, "Are they connected, or are they all individually working on their own projects?" Michael: "Yes." "How?" Michael: "Check out Bio-Rad Laboratories. Their international headquarters are on half of the property that used to be the Hercules plant, in Hercules, California. Do you understand what I'm saying? BioRad makes the most toxic biological and radioactive compounds known to man. And they're now located in the town of Hercules. BioRad Industrial Park. That building of theirs, the headquarters, doesn't look like much, but it goes 20 stories down into the ground. It's a huge underground complex. "See, BioRad was the flagship company, and then they [Earl Brian] started InfoTech, and then they got mired in lawsuits and then Hadron was formed to be a cutout parent corporation, you know, just to be a firewall from law suits ..." I asked, "What do they do at BioRad?" "Well, they make the most hazardous biological and nuclear chemicals in the world, for medical research." "Who do they sell it to?" "Well, front line researchers all over the world. BioRad is the single source for this stuff ... actually Aldrich Chemical sells it, there's about 100 companies, but BioRad is head and shoulder above all of them by a factor of ten on many things like Cytotoxins." I remembered reading about Cytotoxins in the Wackenhut/Cabazon biological warfare letters to Dr. Harry Fair. Michael continued ... "You look at Cytotoxic TLymphocytes. You go ask any medical professional what they're doing on the leading edge of research there? What the full implications to humanity are, OK?" I wanted clarification from Michael, so I answered, "It looks to me like research on a cure for cancer." Michael took the bait. "Go ask a professional. I'd rather have you hear it from a collateral source other than from me." "Well, give me some indication ..." Michael responded hesitantly, "It would have been Hitler's wet dream. It's selective to such a degree that it's awesome. With the appropriate genetic material, you can wipe out whole segments of humanity. There's no stopping it." "I asked, "You mean you could selectively wipe out certain races of people?" "Sure." "Jeez." Mike continued ..."And, also, from the beneficial side, you can very specifically wipe out disease cells, cancer cells. Look at the patents. Look at Immunix (phonetic sp.) Corporation, look at the patent portfolios on BioRad." "Who's BioRad's main buyer?" "Well, the National Institute of Health, you know, every hospital in the world buys BioRad products." I had read about Sir Denis Kendall, the famous M16 British intelligence officer during World War II, in "Who's Who in America," 1989 issue. Kendall had worked with Michael in some, as yet, undefined capacity. Bobby Riconosciuto had noted to me that Kendall and Ted Gunderson had counseled Oliver North prior to his testimony to Congress. Kendall was also heavily involved in arms and biotechnology, according to Michael Riconosciuto." ... He called frequently after that (1993), once from a phone booth in the dead of night after visiting Langley, Virginia. We subsequently struck up an investigative collaboration of sorts. On September 3, 1993, I received a call from him in Palm City, Florida. He had interviewed Robert Chasen, former Executive Vice President, Systems and Services Group, of Wackenhut Corporation in Coral Gables. Chasen, 70, was still senior consultant at the Florida facility, but was allegedly dying of cancer and weighed less than 100 pounds at the time of the interview. Because he (Chasen) had once been Commissioner of Customs in Washington D.C., he felt a rapport with this young agent and spoke candidly about his experience with Wackenhut in Indio. Of significance, was Chasen's confirmation of the horrendous properties of the "virus" which he encountered at the Indio facility. He said, "Wackenhut was running amuck." Robert Nichols and Peter Zokosky had attempted to sell the biological warfare technology (developed in cow uterises) through Wackenhut, using Robert Frye, Vice President of the Indio facility, as the front man. According to Chasen, Frye went behind his [Chasen's] back in facilitating the project; when Chasen learned of the project, he shut it down. (Chasen supervised the Indio facility from Coral Gables, Florida.) Because of the projects underway at the Cabazon reservation, Chasen chose not to step foot on the property, but instead met with the Indio executives in Palm Springs. In other respects, Chasen was not so candid. Though the Customs agent said Chasen "said a lot of derogatory things about Wackenhut in Indio," he did not admit to knowing Peter Viedenieks. ... When Russell called back, he said Chasen didn't trust Robert Booth Nichols. Wackenhut had "run a check" on Nichols and couldn't learn anything about his background. This had bothered Chasen, but, he said, Robert Frye and Dick Wilson were "dazzled" with Nichols. Chasen believed Nichols worked for the CIA, said he was a "slippery guy," and couldn't understand why Frye and Wilson were dazzled by Nichols for such a long time. Reportedly, George Wackenhut liked Frye and Dick Wilson, but did not trust Riconosciuto or Nichols. Michael Riconosciuto had been introduced to Chasen as a "specialist engineer in weapons." Chasen acknowledged the biological technology introduced by Nichols and Zokosky, saying it had been presented to him as something that could "create anything from chicken soup to long range missiles." When he learned of the properties of the technology, he halted it immediately. When pressed for further details, he added reluctantly, "It was the kind of thing your mind erases." ... During one of my conversations with Bobby Riconosciuto, she had mentioned a private installation at Alice Springs, Australia which Michael had visited with Nichols. The tour of the installation had upset Riconosciuto to such a degree that he had become ill and cut the trip short. Nichols later confirmed the trip, and recalled that Michael had indeed become anxious and ill, but would not discuss the purpose of the trip. When I subsequently questioned Michael about the Australian installation, he first asked where I had learned of it? When I noted the information came from Bobby, he explained that the underground facility had been built during World War II to be used as a bomb shelter. It was capable of housing thousands of people and was completely selfcontained. I asked Riconosciuto if he had been inside the facility? He said he had, it was owned by a private corporation; inside was a city of sorts, containing sophisticated communications equipment, laboratory equipment and other items which he would not define. He chose not to discuss it further, but concurred that what he saw made him realize that it was time to terminate his relationship with Robert Booth Nichols. Both men had confirmed to me that the Australian trip marked the end of their 20year association. I later contacted a journalist in Alice Springs to gain more knowledge of the mysterious "installation." I was able to confirm that the installation existed, that it was leased by a private corporation, and that it was heavily guarded, but noone seemed to know what it was being used for. ... Numerous board directors of F.I.D.C.O., of which Nichols was also a director, had been closely associated with General Douglas MacArthur. In fact, Clint Murchison, Sr. had helped finance MacArthur's presidential campaign. [reference to possible MIL/Wackenhut BW research and Unit 731 and related research, where I was also thinking about."

1994, Carol Marshall, 'The Last Circle': ""Gunderson's handwritten affidavit, submitted to Michael's lawyer on September 27, 1991, read as follows (excerpted): "I, Ted L. Gunderson, make the following free and voluntary statement. No threats or promises were made to get me to make this statement. I was born 11/7/28 at Colorado Springs, Colorado. "In early 1986, I met one Ralph Olberg through a friend of mine, Bill Sloane. Sloane is a former official with HUD. Sloane was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to the HUD position after the president was elected in 1980. "Olberg is a prominent American businessman who was spearheading procurement of U.S. weapons and technology for the Afghanistan rebels. "In late Spring or early summer of 1986, Ralph Olberg, one Tim Osman, Michael Riconosciuto and I met in a room at the Hilton Hotel, Ventura Blvd., Sherman Oaks, California. I accompanied Michael Riconosciuto, and Osman and Olberg were together. We were there to discuss Olberg's role with the worldwide support network involving the Mujahaden, Afghanistan Resistance Movement against the Soviets. "In particular we discussed the ability of the Mujahaden's willingness to field test weapons, new and esoteric in the field and to return a research report, complete with photos. "We also discussed the capture and/or defection of high ranking Soviet military personnel who had sensitive compartmentalized information and the availability of their briefings. We discussed one person who was a Soviet defector and was a communications officer who had detailed information of the highest levels of Soviet military C3I (Command Control Intelligence and Communications). "We also discussed the Soviet directed weapons system referred to in the conversation as `Blue Death.' Michael and I were told by Olberg that witnesses stated the corpses did not decay even after being exposed and unburied for six months. "We discussed the possibility of Michael analyzing one of these units captured in the field by the Afghan rebels for the purpose of having Michael help their technical experts develop effective countermeasures. "We discussed a military joint venture in Turkey to produce specialized ammunition. We discussed a lobbying effort to legally obtain Stinger II missiles as well as the various Stinger post and Stinger alternates. Michael was to formulate a plan to sanitize the electronics of any Stingers that would be at risk of Soviet capture so any information gained from a captured Stinger could not be effectively used against the U.S. or NATO forces. "This report was to be presented to a Congressional position as support for the lobbying effort to convince Congress to legally sanction the shipment of these missiles to the Afghan rebels. "We discussed Michael's proposed modification of Chinese 107 MM rockets and how to reconfigure the package into a backpack portable effective artillery counter battlery system. "We discussed Michael's connection with the Chinese weapons position, Norinco, to provide the basic components for the unassembled rocket system. We discussed the modification and assembly of these 107 MM rockets and their launchers at a facility in Pakistan known as the Pakistan Ordinance Works. "It was my understanding from the discussion that we were working on a legally sanctioned arms assistance project to the Afghan rebels and that Ralph Olberg was working through the Afghan desk at the State Department as well as through Senator Humphreys office. "This was subsequently confirmed by journalist Danny Casolaro who was recently `suicided.' "Olberg indicated a potential turf battle problem with certain factions of the CIA and his group MSH (Management Science For Health). In negotiations and/or lobbying efforts with Congress, the CIA MSH people were arguing that Ralph and Tim Osman's group did not truly represent the leadership of the Afghan rebel resistance. "Tim and Ralph proposed calling their people and having an unprecedented leadership meeting in Washington D.C. to prove that their group did in fact represent the full leadership of the Mujahaden. "When I recently called Ralph, he denied that the above meeting had taken place and then after prodding, he finally admitted to it and he asked me not to talk about it. This five page statement is true and correct to the best of my knowledge. Ted L. Gunderson." Later in my investigation, I obtained from Michael Riconosciuto's files in the desert, a handwritten note from "T.G." to "Michael" which read as follows: "Raymond is arriving at LAX 7:55 p.m. Air Canada via Flight 793 from Toronto. Will have to go through Customs. This will give us another member for our drug/arms operation." The note gave a telephone number where "T.G." could be reached. "Raymond," referred to in the note, is presumably Raymond Lavas, Gunderson's former forensic's expert during his tenure in the FBI. ... He arrived at my home early the following week and Michael called as scheduled. Excerpts from that first taperecorded conversation went as follows: (Michael did most of the talking) " ... In the Fresno area, there was a group of people known as the Fresno Company, and the Bernard brothers were involved in it and Jamie Clark was involved and all of these people seemed to have charmed lives ... "The Company was originally out of Lexington, Kentucky and Mena, Arkansas. ... "We recognized what they were, for what they were, at that time, and there were a few ATF guys down in Los Angeles that recognized them for what they were, OK? Here was a group of over 300 people, most of them exlaw enforcement and exmilitary, exintelligence people involved in a major drug and smuggling operation. And they were involved in compromising activities. The bottom line was espionage. "And all Leighton served to do was vaccinate the group against further penetration. Just hardened them. And all the major sources that were developed from inside turned up dead. A federal judge in Texas turned up dead. " ... This is a nasty bunch of people. And they're still alive and well. Now where that dovetails into my current situation, is in 1984 I was involved with Robert Booth Nichols who owns Meridian Arms Corporation and is a principle in F.I.D.C.O., First Intercontinental Development Corporation. The CEO of FIDCO is George Pender and Bob Maheu was Vice President ... "FIDCO was an NSC [National Security Council] corporate cutout. FIDCO was created to be the corporate vehicle to secure the financing for the reconstruction of the cities of Beirut and Damour in Lebanon. And they were working out of an office in Nicosia, Cyprus. ... Department but it turned out he was incountry attache for the DEA in Nicosia, Cyprus. [Nicosia is the capital of the island of Cyprus, off the coast of Lebanon]. Now, the DEA had no real presence in Lebanon. Neither did anybody else, including the Israelis. They had their usual network of contacts but it was very ineffective. The only way to penetrate that situation, was to get into the drug trade. "Euramae got into the drug trade and I was told that it was a fully sanctioned NSC directed operation, which it turns out that it was ... All those operations were bonafide and all the people who were in them were definitely key government people, although they were not who they said they were. "They all worked for different agencies other than was stated. Probably part of the normal disinformation that goes with that. And I was technical advisor for FIDCO and we had auspices through the government of Lebanon to get in and out of Lebanon. "But as far as going to the eastern part of Lebanon, unless you were connected with the drug trade, your chances were slim coming out unscathed ... They built a network throughout the Bekaa Valley, and [Robert Booth] Nichols ... he is under Harold Okimoto from the Hawaiian Islands. "Harold Okimoto was represented to me as being an intelligence person, which he is. He has worked under the auspices of [Frank] Carlucci for years. [Carlucci was former CIA deputy director and former Defense secretary]. Apparently Harold performed services for the U.S. government during World War II. He's of Japanese ancestry. I guess he was rewarded for services well done. ... "When FIDCO was wheeling and dealing on financing for the reconstruction of the infrastructure of Beirut, they were making sweetheart deals with Syrian mobsters and the brother of the president of Syria, Hafez Assad. ...""

Major problem: Booth Nichols showed author and husband a large blowup of Kennedy assassination. They became convinced that Kennedy was shot by his driver. However, this is only an optical illusion. The gray of the "pistol" is really sunlight shining on the top of the head of the passenger next to the driver. Very strange. Quite possibly author knew nothing about the JFK witness statements. Interestingly, Nichols stated soon hereafter that "Nothing is as it appears to be." Which could well be a hint to the bs he just fed this author. Carol Marshall may have been fed more bs. 1994, Carol Marshall, 'The Last Circle': "Inwardly, I recalled a conversation with J.M., in which she related a conversation she'd had with Ted after a dinner engagement with Nichols. Nichols had reportedly stated to Ted that he headed a 200man assassination team. Jackie had been too frightened to elaborate on this conversation, but had pointed out that Nichols once worked in the MKUltra (Manchurian Candidate) program during the Vietnam war. This program was part of the "Phoenix Project." Interestingly, numerous publications had mentioned that Earl Brian had also participated in the Phoenix Project during the war. Nichols' sister was allegedly a professional hypnotherapist, and Nichols himself was reportedly trained in the art of hypnotism. According to Riconosciuto, they all called themselves "The Chosen Ones," wore skull and crossbones rings, and shared a common interest, if you could call it that, in the old German SS occultism, its tribal and inner circle rites. As I was preparing to leave, Nichols pointed his finger at me and reminded me of the agreement I had made with him through Littman. I asked him what agreement? He said the agreement that I would tell noone about this meeting. I again assured him that I would mention it to noone. He said I had better not or I would end up like the rest... That evening, I mentally reviewed the day's events. Nichols and Littman were undoubtedly screwing with my head. The doctored Zapruder tape gave them deniability. The information I had obtained at the meeting may or may not have had value, but I knew one thing, the deaths surrounding Riconosciuto and Nichols were real enough. Behind the smoke and mirrors labyrnthe was a story, one they were working very hard to conceal. I felt sure the corporate and government connections were little more than "fronts" for large scale drug trafficking."

Navapan, Sukum

Source(s): One of his official internet biographies; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in Thailand in 1925. LLB. & Higher Diploma in Accountancy, Thammasat University
MBA Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, USA. President of the United Insurance Co., Ltd. 1955-1957. President of the General Insurance Co., Ltd. 1955-1957. Secretary-general of the Poh Teck Tung Foundation 1957-1966. President of Thai Military Bank 1958-1981. Chairman of the Hyatt Rama Hotel 1974-1976. Chairman of the 23rd World Cup Golf Tournament, Bangkok, 1975. President of the American Universities Alumni Association (AUAA) 1976-1977. Chairman of the Thai Bankers Association 1976-1978. Chairman of the ASEAN Bangking Council 1977-1978. Member of Parliament 1978-1979. Thai Representative of the Inter-Parliamentary Union 1978-1979. President of the Table Tennis Association of Thailand 1985-1989. Director of the Ramathibodi Foundation 1992-1996. Director of the Bangna Central Property Co., Ltd. 1993-2001. Trustee of the National Symphony Orchestra Washington D.C., USA. 1993-1999. Chairman Navatanee Group of Companies Bangkok. Director of American Standard Sanitaryware (Thailand) Plc., Siam Inter-Continental Hotel, and Siam Food Products Plc. President of the Wharton Club of Thailand. Chairman of Standing Committee, John F. Kennedy Foundation & Sukumo Foundation. Director of the Mahidol Foundation. Director of the Bangkok Symphony Orchestra Foundation. Member of the 1001 Nature Trust of the WWF. Life Adviser of the International Golf Association (IGA). Honorary member of the Thailand Olympic Committee. Honorary Rotarian of the Bangkok Rotary Club. Chairman of the Wharton Alumni Club of Thailand. Member of the Northeast Region Development Committee. Chairman of the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) Bangkok Meeting. Knight Grand Cross (First Class) of the Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant. Knight Grand Cross (First Class) of the Most Noble of the Crown of Thailand. Knight Grand Cross (First Class) of the Most Admirable Order of Direk Kunaporn. His wife is chairperson of the Siew-National Co., Ltd.

2005, Joseph J. Trento, 'Prelude to Terror', p. 35: "Another man who assisted Shackley in the secret war in Laos was a Bronx-born Green Beret named Michael Hand. Hand had enlisted in the special forces in 1963. On June 9, 1965, he held off a Viet Cong at the Special Forces camp at Dong Xaoi. ... By 1966, Hand was already working for the CIA. He helped the Montagnards get their poppies to market via Air America. ... By 1967, Mike Hand was the bagman between the opium warlords and a banking conduit set up to launder drug profits. He used Air America pilots to move the drugs and the money and then, working with [Bernard] Houghton, Shackley, and Colby, used the Royal Thai Military Bank--a connection set up during Helliwell's time in Bangkok--to launder the money, kicking back a percentage of the funds to Thai officers already under CIA control. As Shackley later explained it to the FBI, the Royal Thai Military Bank was set up to provide loans, jobs, and sources of cash to keep the Thai military establishment happy. Shackley said, "High Thai officials could exert influence on the bank in respect to loans, whereas it is most unlikely outsiders could." ... Eventually both Houghton and Hand became key players in establishing the Nugan Hand Bank..."

Niarchos, Stavros

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Once he had received his doctorate in law, he worked for his uncle who was a shipowner. At the age of 25, Stavros Niarchos became independent and frequented the prestigious royal yacht club. He was a naval officer in the Second World War, during which time part of the trade fleet he had built with his uncle was destroyed. Nearly 2 million dollars in insurance money helped him to buy another fleet. In 1952, the same year as his rival Aristotle Onassis, Stavros Niarchos built the first supertankers capable of transporting enormous quantities of oil and fuel. In 1956, the Suez Canal Crisis considerably increased the demand for the type of large tonnage ships that Niarchos owned. Business flourished and he became a billionaire, just like his rival, Aristotle Onassis. The shipowners' rivalry continued into their private lives. After his divorce from Henry Ford's daughter, Stavros Niarchos married Georges Livanos' sister, Eugenia. 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pg. 448-449: "In late 1959 we were guests of Stavros [1001 Club] and Eugenie Niarchos for a week's sail through the Aegean aboard their three-masted schooner, The Creole... I had met Stavros six years earlier when he came to Chase's headquarters for a business meeting... Even though Stavros and I had little in common, we developed a good personal relationship and became business partners in many real estate deals in the United States, including the purchase of Rockefeller Center.... Our friends Jack [H.J. Heinz II; Pilgrims Society and Bilderberg organiser] and Drue Heinz of Pittsburgh were also on that 1959 voyage, as were Hans (Heini) Heinrich and Fiona Thyssen-Bornemisza [1001 Club], whom we met for the first time. Heini was the grandson of the famous August Thyssen, the "Rockefeller of the Ruhr," founder of Germany's Vereinigte Stahlwerke... Our cruise brought out the fact that we were all interested in art... The following May [1960]... we all flew to Lugano to spend the weekend with the Thyssens. When we arrived at Heini's home, the Villa Favorita, we were awestruck... It was the most beautiful private [art] collection we have ever seen." When Eugenia passed away, he married her sister Tina Onassis, who was also Aristotle's ex wife. At the head of a 4 billion dollar fortune, the rich shipowner prided himself on having married five times in the course of his life. After the oil crisis of 1973, Stavros Niarchos sold off some of his companies and launched into finances and the diamond trade. In the eighties, he came more and more often to Geneva, from where he managed his business around the globe. The Golden Greek, as his fellow countrymen liked to call him, retired in the nineties to his main residence in Saint-Moritz, in the Graubunden, where he devoted a lot of time to his favorite sport, skiing. One of the largest investors in Rockefeller Center until 2001, together with David Rockefeller, Goldman Sachs, and the Agnelli family. At that point the Speyer and Crown families took over.

Nitze, Mrs. William A.

Source(s): 2010 list (member since 1978)

Wife of William A. Nitze (Ann), who is the son of Paul H. Nitze.

William A. Nitze: BA, Harvard University, 1964. BA, Oxford University, 1966. JD, Harvard University, 1969. Associate Sullivan and Cromwell, New York City, 1970-72; vice president London Arts, Inc., 1972-73; counsel Mobil South, Inc., 1974-76; general counsel Mobil Oil Japan, Tokyo, 1976-80; assistant general counsel exploration and producing division Mobil Oil Corp., New York City, 1980-87; dep assistant secretary for environment, health and natural resources U.S. Department State, Washington, 1987-90; president Alliance to Save Energy, 1990-94, Gemstar Group, Washington, 2001—2005; assistant administrator for international activities U.S. EPA, 1994-2001; chairman GridPoint, Inc., 2003—2007, Clear Path Technologies, Inc., Corona, California, 2007—. Chairman Oceana Energy Co., Washington, 2006—; member adv. committee School Advanced International Studies, Washington, 1982—1995, professorial lecturer, 1993—1994, 2001—; visiting scholar Environmental Law Institute, Washington, 1990. Trustee Aspen Institute, Queenstown, Maryland, 1988—, Krasnow Institute, Fairfax, Virginia, 1996—2001, member adv. board, 2004—; board directors Charles A. Lindbergh Fund, Minneapolis, 1990—1994, National Symphony Orchestra Association, Washington, 1990—2002, Atlantic Council US, Washington, 2002—, Galapagos Conservancy, Falls Church, Virginia, 2001—2009, vice chairman, 2002—2003, chairman, 2003—2009; board directors Climate Institute, Washington, 2001—2009, vice chairman, 2001—2002, chairman, 2002—2009, Alliance to Save Energy, 2001—. Republican. Mem.: Council on Foreign Relations, Association Bar City New York , Knickerbocker Club, Links Club, Cosmos Club, Metropolitan Club. Episcopalian.

William A. Nitze, the State Department's assistant secretary for environment, health, and natural resources, argued for 'more aggressive' nuclear power development to diminish global warming (in the late 1980s). After leaving the State Department in early 1990, Mr. Nitze spent seven months as a Visiting Scholar at the Environmental Law Institute (ELI), during which time he wrote a monograph entitled The Greenhouse Effect: Formulating a Convention under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs and ELI. Many of the elements discussed in the Royal Institute monograph were subsequently incorporated into the Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in 1992. Mr. Nitze has written and spoken widely on climate change and other environmental issues. In 1993-94, he taught a new course on forming an international regime to address climate change at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University.

As Assistant Administrator for International Activities at EPA from 1994 to the end of the Bill Clinton Administration [1994-2001], Mr. Nitze strengthened EPA's international role by making it a key player in implementing NAFTA and managing its associated institutions and by making it the lead agency on environmental issues in several bi-national commissions co-chaired by Vice-President Albert Gore, Jr..

Chairman of the advisory board of the European Institute.

Co-sponsor of the Committee for the Republic, with C. Boyden Gray (European Institute), Chas W. Freeman and others. It warns against the Neoconservative concept of the American Empire.

Paul H. Nitze (1907-2004): AB cum laude, Harvard University, 1928. With Dillon, Read & Co. (investment bankers), New York City, 1929-37, vice president, 1939-41; president P.H. Nitze & Co., Inc., 1938-39; U.S. government fin. director, coordinator Inter-Am. Affairs; chief metals and minerals branch Board Economic Warfare; director foreign procurement and devel. branch Foreign Economic Administration; vice chairman U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, 1944-46; deputy director Office International Trade Policy US Department State, 1946, deputy to assistant secretary for economic affairs, 1948-49, director policy planning staff, 1950-53; president Foreign Service Educational Foundation, Washington, 1953-61; assistant secretary for international security affairs US Department Defense, 1961-63, deputy secretary, 1967-69, secretary Department Navy, 1963-67; Co-founder Task Force 157 in 1966. Special advisor to President and secretary state on arms control matters The White House, 1984-89; founder, diplomat-in-residence, distinguished research professor in strategic studies and Am. foreign policy Paul H. Nitze School Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington. US Del. to Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks), 1969-74; head U.S. negotiating team, 1981-84; member international adv. council Institute International Studies.; chairman Washington Institute Foreign Affairs. Organized the Committee on the Present Danger.

October 29, 1987, Associated Press, 'Expert Says Methane Could Accelerate World 'Greenhouse Effect'': "The "greenhouse effect" could feed on itself and heat the Earth to an unknown extent if rising temperatures cause the release of methane trapped in tundra and ocean sediments, one expert is warning. This is what happened the last time the Earth warmed significantly, when the ice age ended and the glaciers retreated about 10,000 years ago, said Gordon J. MacDonald, vice president and chief scientist of the non-profit MITRE Corp., which does scientific research for government agencies and other clients. It's even worth investigating whether methane makes possible the annual September depletion of ozone over Antarctica, MacDonald said. Appearing Wednesday at a conference organized by the Climate Institute, MacDonald said study of the end of the last ice age and the role of methane "focuses attention on the deep interrelationships of the various parts of the system we are trying to describe. To isolate one (gas) ... is a mistaken notion, I believe." Most discussions of the "greenhouse effect" concentrate on carbon dioxide produced by burning fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide traps heat radiated into space by the Earth's surface. But scientists now believe a doubling of carbon dioxide would be responsible for only about half the expected warming of 3 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit in the next century. Other "greenhouse" gases, including methane, would be responsible for the rest. The average concentration of methane in the atmosphere has been increasing at an accelerating rate since 1800 and is now growing at about 1 percent per year. No one knows why. A quadrupling of the present concentration would produce a 3-degree temperature increase, MacDonald said, equal to the warming associated with the retreat of the glaciers, a brief era that saw carbon dioxide increase by 50 percent. The retreat of the glaciers released vast amounts of methane from tundra, bogs and swamp, and most important, from ice suddenly released from the pressure of the glaciers, MacDonald said. This form of ice, called clathrate, can exist at relatively high temperatures under pressure."

December 18, 1989, The Globe and the Mail, 'Scientists gather to ponder global warming': "Imagine a future in which New Zealand cannot grow kiwi fruit and the beaches of the Caribbean are washed away by rising seas, a world in which most of the refugees are running not from war but from environmental degradation. The scientists, politicians and policy makers gathering in Cairo this week for an international conference on climatic change believe these are possible scenarios in the next few decades, as the world starts to feel the long-term effects of atmospheric pollution. The conference, convened by the Washington-based Climate Institute, the United Nations Environment Program and the Egyptian government, is looking at global warming caused by the so-called greenhouse effect , the trapping of heat by gases in the atmosphere. Human activity, particularly in industrialized nations, is causing those gases to accumulate. Scientists believe the average global temperature will rise by 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by the middle of the next century."

November 2, 1993, UPI, 'World figures honored for climate issues': "Vice President Al Gore, former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Cable News Network founder Ted Turner will be honored for their work in promoting environmental issues, an international organization announced Tuesday. The Climate Institute also said it was honoring Robert Watson for outstanding scientific achievement. Watson, a former acting chief scientist for NASA, has been nominated to serve as associate director for the environment for the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy."

Norgay, Tenzing

Source(s): October 28, 1977, The Argus (Fremont), 'Dutch prince loves nature', Page 16 (not listed as a member)

Born in 1914. Came from a peasant family from Khumbu in Nepal, very near Mount Everest. Took part as a high-altitude porter in three official British attempts to climb Everest from the northern Tibetan side in the 1930s. Also took part in other climbs of mountains on the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s and 1950s. In 1953, he took part in Sir John Hunt's expedition, his own seventh expedition to Everest, in which he and Hillary became the first men to reach the summit. Sir John Hunt was a British military officer who later became a member of the Order of the Garter and the Privy Council. Hunt is one of the few Westerners who claims to have had an encounter with the alleged "Abominable Snowman", or Yeti, of the Himalayas. The Australian Sir Edmund Hillary also became a Knight of the Garter. Afterwards Norgay was met with adulation in India and Nepal, and even literally worshipped by some people who believed he must be an incarnation of Buddha or Siva. Became director of field training for the Himalayan Mountaineering Institute in Darjeeling. In 1977, he accompanied Prince Bernhard and a small group of 1001 Club members who visited Nepal. In 1978, he founded a company, Tenzing Norgay Adventures, that offers trekking in the Himalaya. Today, the company is run by his son Jamling Tenzing Norgay, who himself reached the summit of Everest in 1996. Died in 1986.

Norman, Sir Arthur

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Joined Thomas De La Rue & Co., 1934. RAF, 1939–45; Wing-Comdr, 1943. Rejoined Thomas De La Rue & Co., 1946; Director, 1951; Managing Director, 1953–77. Vice-Chm., Sun Life Assurance Society, 1984–87 (Dir, 1966–87); Director: SKF (UK) Ltd, 1970–87; Kleinwort, Benson, Lonsdale plc, subseq. Kleinwort Benson Gp, 1985–88. Pres., CBI, 1968–70. Bd mem., Internat. Inst. for Environment and Develt, 1982–92; Chairman: WWF UK, 1977–84, 1987–90; UK CEED, 1984–96; Mem., Nature Conservancy Council, 1980–86. Chairman, The De La Rue Company, 1964–87. Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Men': "Over the years there has been increasing dissatisfaction with de Haes's leadership. One of the most serious challenges to his rule came in the early 1980s, when the heads of the WWF organisations in Britain, the Netherlands and Switzerland began to discuss among themselves changes they thought were necessary in the organisation. These organisations should be able to effect change because they provide most of the funds for the International - WWF-UK alone contributes nearly one-third of the International's budget, and Switzerland and the Netherlands rank second and third. The way WWF was set up, two-thirds of the money raised by the national organisations goes to the International, while one third remains with the national organisation. The 'dissident' leaders of the three national organisations objected to this because there was no accountability over how the International spent the money. They also did not like the fact that the WWF-International board of trustees doesn't represent the national organisations. The board is a self-selected body - that is, those on the board decide whom to place on it - and the national organisations, even though they give the money, have no right of representation. In short, the heads of the British, Dutch and Swiss organisations felt that too much power was concentrated in Gland - the Swiss town where WWF-lnternational's headquarters is located - and that the local organisations should have more autonomy. Sir Arthur Norman, the head of WWF-UK at the time, was particularly disturbed by the manner in which WWF-International set up chapters in other countries. He thought they should 'be triggered off by local people, local enthusiasm, and not by someone in Bland saying 'it's time'."

Ogilvy, David Mackenzie

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

The person Guy Mountfort worked for: 1001 Club member David Mackenzie Ogilvy (1911-1999): son of Francis John Longley Ogilvy and Dorothy Fairfield. Founder, Ogilvy and Mather, 1948, Chairman to 1973; Chairman, WPP Group [when it took over Ogilvy and Mather], 1989–92. Christ Church, Oxford (Scholar). British Security Coordination, 1942–45. Dir, NY Philharmonic, 1957–67. Chm., Utd Negro Coll. Fund, 1968. Mem. of Honor, WWF.

Ogilvy and Mather was originally founded in 1850 in London under the name Mather. In 1888 the name became Mather & Cowther. In 1936, Mather & Crowther sent David Ogilvy (1911-1999) abroad to study American advertising techniques for one year. Ogilvy built up the company in North America, headquartered in New York, starting in 1948. In October 1964 the London and New York firms merged and formed Ogilvy & Mather International. The firm was involved with many major banks. N. M. Rothschild & Sons, First Boston, and Kleinwort Benson were involved in the merger. Its principal bankers were National Westminster, Morgan Guaranty, and Manufacturers Hanover. Ogilvy was among the directors of O. & M. in London. Guy Mountfort, who had joined the company in 1947, was among the directors of O. & M. in London. Ogilvy became chairman of O. & M. international. By the 1960s Ogilvy & Mather in New York had clients as American Express (1962 and a firm dominated by Pilgrims) and Gilette. It had Unilever and Mattel in the 1950s. These days Ogilvy and Mather also have the large lobbying firm Ogilvy Government Relations, with such clients as the Blackstone Group and Chevron.

Olin, John M.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Graduated from Cornell University with a B.S. in chemistry, chemical engineer for the Western Cartridge Company (became Olin Industries, Inc.) since 1913. Became President of Olin Industries in 1944. Upon the merger of the company with Mathieson Chemical Corporation in 1954 he became the new chairman, established the John M. Olin Foundation in 1952. Inventor or co-inventor of 24 United States patents in the field of arms and ammunition manufacture and design and was responsible for numerous developments in ballistics, breeder of saddle and race horses as well as a trainer and breeder of champion Labrador retrievers. Widely recognized as one of the country's most active conservationists and led the effort to save the Atlantic salmon. Trustee Emeritus of Cornell University and of Johns Hopkins University, a Life Trustee of Washington University, St. Louis, and a Honorary Director of The American Museum of Natural History. Charles F. Kettering Award recipient for 1968 by the George Washington University PTC Research Institute. Received the Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur of France and the Grand Ufficiale-Ordine al Merito della Republica Italiana.

May. 17, 1954, Time Magazine, 'Corporations: The New Giant': "John M. Olin, boss of Olin Industries (Winchester rifles, Cellophane, chemicals), likes to hunt and fish. He has shot bear in Alaska, quail in Georgia, ducks in Louisiana, and he keeps a fishing lodge in the Bahamas. ... This week the directors of Olin Industries and Mathieson Chemical voted to merge into Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp. subject' to stockholders' approval. This would make it the fifth biggest U.S. chemical company.* The new giant has $500 million in assets. 36,000 employees, 43 plants in the U.S. and 16 in foreign countries, and is selling $500 million worth of products a year. (Olin Oil & Gas Co., a separate company controlled by the Olin family, is not involved in the merger.)"

Olin, Mrs. John M.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Wife of 1001 Club member John M. Olin.

Olin, Spencer T.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Brother of John M. Olin. Founded the Spencer T. Olin Foundation. Vice president of Olin Industries, Inc. in the 1940s and 1950s under his brother John. Olin Industries was one of the biggest U.S. makers of cartridges, military small arms, and sporting rifles.

Oppenheim, Baroness Gabrielle von

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Fifth generation of the billionaire Oppenheim banking family surrounding the Sal Oppenheim bank. Originally a Jewish family, but had converted to the Christian fate (but still heavily suspected and discriminated by the Germans). Born as Gabrielle Goldschmidt-Hergenhahn (1902-1988). Married to Waldemar von Oppenheim (1894-1952; had to go in hiding the last six months of WWII; seems to have both spied for the Germans to keep his family alive, but wanted Hitler dead). Until her death in 1988 she owned Gestüt Schlenderhan, the family's stud and racing stables. Died in 1988.

The daughter of Gabriele and Waldemar Oppenheim, Karin, married Georg Baron von Ullmann (partner in Sal Oppenheim 1952-1972). Their children in turn were Georg and Ilona von Ullmann. Their other child, Ilona, married Count Matthias von Krockow.

Sal Oppenheim was taken over by Deutsche Bank in 2010 for 1 billion euros. Baron Georg von Ullmann, Baroness Karin von Ullmann, Countess Ilona and Count Matthias von Krockow, Friedrich von Oppenheim, and Nicolaus von Oppenheim were running the bank up to that point. Pierre de Weck, a director of Deutsche Bank, became the new chairman of Sal Oppenheim. Pierre is a son of Philippe de Weck (1919-2009; very Catholic; linked to Opus Dei; managing director UBS 1966-1976, chair 1976-1980, and director until 1988; one of three investigators of the Vatican Bank in 1982; chairman of Fisalma, of the sniffer plane affair). November 21, 1982, UPI, 'Krol says Vatican cleared in Italian bank collapse': "The experts included Joseph Brennan, former chairman of the Emigrant Savings Bank of New York, Carlo Cerutti, an Italian banking official, and Philippe de Weck, former chairman of the Union de Banques Swisse. The three bankers spent two months studying the Vatican's dealings with Ambrosiano, in which the Vatican held at least 1.58 percent financial interest." July 3, 1989, American Banker, 'American Banker': "When the five laymen named to supervise Istituto per le Opere di Religione - the Vatican bank - hold their first meeting on July 18, they will bring to a close a troubled chapter in the bank's history. "As far as the past is concerned, the problems have been eliminated," said Philippe de Weck, a member of the new supervisory board ... The Vatican bank's problems date back to 1982, when Banco Ambrosiano, Milan, failed after $1.4 billion in loans were not repaid. Ambrosiano loaned $1.2 billion to 10 offshore shell companies that the Vatican bank controlled directly or indirectly. The Vatican bank also had extensive dealings with Roberto Calvi, Ambrosiano's president. About three weeks before Italian regulators closed Ambrosiano in August 1982, Mr. Calvi was found hanged in London."

Baron Alfred von Oppenheim was the senior Oppenheim family member in Sal Oppenheim in the years before his death in 2005. Long time leading figure in the Chamber of Industry and Commerce of Cologne and more recently in the Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce. Governor of the Atlantic Institute. Until his death President of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik e.V. (DGAP), in English known as the German Council on Foreign Relations. German Council on Feoreign Relations website: "The Alfred von Oppenheim-Center for European Studies (AOZ) was established in September 2006, following a donation from the Alfred Freiherr von Oppenheim-Foundation to the German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP). The AOZ concentrates on developing new ideas to advance the process of European unification and focuses on its long-term aspects and its sustainability."

Karl Otto Pöhl, a partner in Sal Oppenheim & Ci from 1993-1998: Born 1929. German economist. During the 1970s and 1980s, Pöhl was the driving force behind German efforts to get Europe's rampant inflation under control and to lay the framework for broad monetary cooperation among industrialized countries. He is referred to as one of the fathers of the Euro. President of the Bundesbank and Chairman of its Central Bank Council from 1980 to 1991. On the Advisory Boards of Carlyle Group, Shell, Gulfstream, GAMCO, Volkswagen, Barrick Gold, Unilever, Rolls Royce, and the Group of Thirty.

Oppenheimer, Harold "Harry" F.

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1908. Of the German Jewish family, which controls the De Beers diamond company and the huge Anglo American Corporation. Harry was the son of Ernest Oppenheimer, who founded Anglo American Corporation in 1917, became director of De Beers in 1927, and was its chairman from 1929 to 1957. Encyclopedia Britannica about Sir Ernest Oppenheimer: "Oppenheimer became a junior clerk at the age of 16 with Dunkelsbuhlers & Company, London diamond brokers. In 1902 he moved to Kimberley, S.Af., where he served as a Dunkelsbuhlers' representative. In 1902 he moved to Kimberley, S.Af., where he served as a Dunkelsbuhlers' representative. In 1917, with considerable backing from the financier J.P. Morgan, he formed the Anglo American Corporation of South Africa, Ltd., to exploit the east Witwatersrand goldfield. Two years later he formed Consolidated Diamond Mines of South West Africa, Ltd. reformed as the Namdeb Diamond Corp. in 1994). This diamond prospecting corporation was so successful that he gained control of the De Beers Consolidated Mines, which once dominated the world diamond market, and in 1930 established The Diamond Corporation, Ltd. In 1929 Oppenheimer formed the Rhodesian Anglo American Corporation to exploit the rich copper deposits in Northern Rhodesia... He was knighted in 1921." Harry was a member of Parliament for Kimberley from 1948 to 1957, and became the opposition spokesman on economics, finance and constitutional affairs. Chairman of Anglo-American Corp. from 1957 to 1982. Chairman of De Beers from 1957 to 1984. Extremely generous in gifts to the State of Israel. Personally directed that Israel receive the necessary diamond raw products from De Beers in order to establish itself as one of the world's diamond polishing and exporting countries. Together with later co-1001 Club members Anton Rupert and Sir Francis de Guingand (former Military Intelligence chief heading Rupert's main company) a primary founder of the extremely influential South Africa Foundation in 1959. Together with Anton Rupert he probably was the most important non-government man in South Africa for about half a decade. 2001, Terry Bell and Dumisa Buhle Ntsebeza, 'Unfinished business: South Africa, apartheid, and truth': "The South Africa Foundation brought together the doyens of English and Afrikaner business, Harry Oppenheimer and Anton Rupert. What it sought from the government was some official window-dressing, as it conveyed to the world the best possible 'non-political' image of the apartheid system from which its members profited. But the Dutch-born prime minister, Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd, a devout member of the Afrikaner Broederbond (Brotherhood) secret society, paid little head to outside advice, having established his own coterie of advisors." Together with Anton Rupert and the Cercle crowd, an opponent of the in 1966 assassinated prime minister Hendrik Verwoerd. March 24, 1961, Time Magazine, 'South Africa: All's More or Less Well': "Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd's walkout from the Commonwealth sent a tremor through the Union of South Africa. Many of the English-speaking minority felt a sinking sensation as their last link with Britain was severed. Diamond Magnate Harry Oppenheimer called the news "appalling." Said Johannesburg's Englishlanguage Star: "A time of deep sadness for all South Africans except the Afrikaner extremist whose hostility to all things English was not appeased by the break with monarchy." The Cape Times said: "Now we are a lonely little republic at the foot of turbulent Africa." ... Businessmen momentarily panicked at the thought of possible economic consequences. Britain's total investment in South Africa runs to $2½ billion. London and New York have been chary for the past year of putting vitally needed money into the Union's gold mines. New funds might now dry up entirely." April 8, 1966, Time Magazine, 'South Africa: Forward with Verwoerd': "Only hint that a few South African whites were at all disturbed by apartheid came in the narrow victory of the Progressive Party's perky Mrs. Helen Suzman [Jewish; later supporter of Nelson Mandela], who in the past five years has been the only voice of dissent in the South African Parliament. Supported by all major English-language papers and by gold-and-diamond Magnate Harry Oppenheimer, Mrs. Suzman carried her wealthy Johannesburg district by a bare 711 votes." In the 1970s and 1980s, he financed the anti-apartheid Progressive Federal Party, now known as the Democratic Alliance. Some people believe that he could have done more to end the regime, but within his sphere of influence he is believed to have done more than most of his fellow-businessmen. Together with 1001 Club member Anton Rupert, Harry Oppenheimer set up and ran the Urban Foundation since 1976, which had been founded after the bloody Soweta rebellion (and turned out to be bad for business). 1992, Transformation 18, 'The Urban Foundation: Transformation possibilities': "The Urban Foundation was established in mid-December 1976 as a Section 21 (not for gain) company. It is widely accepted that the uprisings in Soweto earlier that year (June 16) and the country-wide tumult that followed had shaken the captains of industry who were fast losing confidence in Pretoria's ability to deal with deteriorating conditions in the townships (Leadership, 1987). With Anglo-American's Harry Oppenheimer as chairperson, and the doyen of Afrikaans business, Anton Rupert, as deputy, the U.F. began operating early in 1977. By 1978 regional offices and boards had been established in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban and Port Elizabeth. Its initial finances came almost exclusively from the local business community, the biggest piece coming from Anglo-American itself. Reliance on essentially local sources has continued largely because the UF was politically blocked in attempts to raise funds abroad. In 1991 some R 28,3 million ofa total ofR 35 million in donations received by the UF came from local sources, a freer fund-raising environment notwithstanding (Urban Foundation, 1991). While the goals of the Urban Foundation were rather fuzzy, initial emphasis fell on raising the socio-economic circumstances of the black population across a wide spectrum of areas (housing, health, education, welfare, community development and so on). ... Many of the UF's proposals have been perceived as being 'plain mean' and as relieving the state of its responsibility to provide for the poor. Thus the UF's penchant for introducing market relations and bringing the private sector into development has been received with skepticism in many quarters." Oppenheimer was close to a number of CIA projects in South Africa. Chancellor of the University Cape Town in South Africa 1976-1996. Harry was one of the world's richest men. Member of the 1001 Club. Member of the Roxburghe Club, together with families as Cecil, Cavendish, Arundel, the Duke of Norfolk, and Rothschild. Member of The Brenthurst Group, an informal association of South Africa's top industialists and financiers, called together by Anglo American's Harry Oppenheimer at Mandela's request to provide a sounding board for his thinking on economic and fiscal matters. Members include Rembrandt supremo Anton Rupert, Liberty Life’s Donny Gordon, Sanlam's Marinus Daling, Standard Bank's Conrad Strauss, Old Mutual's Mike Levett, Anglo American's Julian Ogilvie Thomson, Anglovaal’s Clive Menell and Barlows' Warren Clewlow. Between them they control three quarters of the shares on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. All are also members of the South African Foundation. Recently revived under its new director general Neil van Heerden, it represents South Africa's 53 leading companies. Died in 2006. Died in 2004.

Oppenheimer, Nicholas " Nicky"

Source(s): 2010, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Peter Carr in September 2010);

Born in 1945. Son of late Harry Frederick Oppenheimer who also was a 1001 Club member. Educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Joined Anglo-American Corp., 1968; Dir, 1974; non-exec. Dir, Anglo-American plc, 1999–; Deputy Chairman: Anglo-American Corp. of SA Ltd, 1983–2001; De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd, 1985–97; Dep. Chm., 1990, subseq. Chm., De Beers Centenary AG; Chairman: Central Selling Orgn, 1984–; Anglogold, 1997–2000. Director: De Beers Holdings Ltd, 1983– and De Beers Industrial Corp. Ltd; E. Oppenheimer & Son (Pty) Ltd. Chairman of De Beers Group since 1998. Chairman of the De Beers' subsidiary, the Diamond Trading Company. The only private person granted permission by the City of London to commute within the one square mile of the city by helicopter.

Ordway, Mrs. Lucius P.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Lucius Pond Ordway was a son Aaron Lucius Ordway (d. 1903). Another son of Aaron was Samuel Hanson Ordway. His son again was named Samuel Hanson Ordway, Jr. (1900-1971), which would be the nephew of Lucius Pond Ordway.

Bio of Samuel H. Ordway, Jr. (d. 1971): Associate Spencer, Ordway & Wierum, 1926-28, mem. firm, 1928-37, counsel, 1940-58. Co-founder and vice president Conservation Foundation 1948-1961, president 1961-1965 (succeeded by Russell E. Train, president African Wildlife Leadership Foundation and vice president WWF; Fairfield Osborn was chairman at this point), trustee, 1961, chairman of the board, 1969. Trustee American Conservation Association. Chairman Natural Resources Council of America in 1954. Republican. Episcopalian. Clubs: Century, University, City, Harvard, Fencers (N.Y.C.); Cosmos (Washington).

April 6, 1948, New York Times, 'Conservation unit set up to warn U.S.': "Officers of the [Conservation] foundation will include Mr. [Fairfield] Osborn as president. ... and Samuel H. Ordway Jr., vice presidents. ... David H. McAlpin, treasurer. ... The initial trustees will include ... Mr. McAlpin, ... Mr. Osborn, Laurance S. Rockefeller."

April 26, 1948, New York Times, 'The Conservation Foundation': "Fairfield Osborn, President of the Society ... "For over fifty years," he said, "the Zoological Society has been active in the causes of conservation, particularly as it applies to wildlife protection. We now intend to go into battle through the Foundation on the entire conservation front." Mr. Osborn announced that for the next three years one-third of the foundation's annual administrative budget of $90,000 would be furnished by the Zoological Society. Projects contemplated include a world survey to be conducted jointly by the foundation and the International Food and Agriculture Organization on the effects of soil erosion ... 50 percent more timber is harvested is harvested annually than is being replaced by natural growth. Floods and wind erosion, decreasing chemicals and lack of soil humus are vital problems. Government agencies have heartily endorsed the objectives of the Conservation Foundation." Fairfield Osborn's book 'Our Plundered Planet' had been published in March 1948 and dealt with the exact same issues as the Conservation Foundation. Osborn was president of the Zoological Society from 1940 to 1968.

June 11, 1941, New York Times, 'Joins Oil Company': "... [Laurance S. Rockefeller is] a trustee of the New York Zoological Society." July 25, 1897, New York Times, 'Vanderbilt gives $5,000': "William K. Vanderbilt has qualified as a founder of the the New York Zoological Society by paying the prescribed fee of $5,000 .... Prof. Henry F. Osborn, Chairman of the Executive Committee... Some of the well-known New Yorkers who have become life members of the New York Zoological Society are ... Andrew Carnegie, Morris K. Jesup, William E. Dodge ... Henry F. Osborn [Pilgrims Society family], Philip Schuyler..." February 10, 1915, New York Times, 'Snake "Movies" at Dinner': "The sixth annual dinner of the Board of Managers of the Zoological Society was held at the residence of Ogden Mills... Madison Grant, Vice President and Chairman of the Executive Committee, spoke of the growth of the society. ... Among those at the dinner were Henry Fairfield Osborn, Madison Grant, ... Mortimer L. Schiff, ... Andrew Carnegie, ... Ogden Mills, ... George F. Baker..." October 11, 1923, New York Times, 'Rockefeller gives $1,000,000 to Zoo - John D. Jr. Makes Largest Single Donation in [Zoological] Society's History': "Mr. Rockefeller's interest in the Zoological Society has increased ever since he became a member of the Board of Managers. ... Dr. Hornaday explained that the next step toward raising the $1,000,000 fund with which the society must meet the Rockefeller gift would be taken through Madison Grant, Chairman of the Executive Committee." April 30, 1923, New York Times, 'Zoological Society Garden Party': "The Annual Garden Party of the Ladies' Auxilliary of the New York Zoological Society is to take place on Thursday, May 17. The chairman of the auxilliary, Mrs. Henry Fairfield Osborn, will have receiving with her Mrs. J. Pierpont Morgan, ... Mrs. G. F. Baker Jr., Mrs. Marshall Field, ... Mrs. William Woodward, Mrs. Ralph Sanger..." May 14, 1933, New York Times, 'Zoological Society to give annual fete': "Madison Grant is president of the board of trustees, Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn, honorary president [of the Zoological Society]; ... and Kermit Roosevelt, vice presidents; ... Cornelius R. Agnew, treasurer. Other members of the [ladies] auxilliary are Mrs. George F. Baker, ... Mrs. Cleveland E. Dodge, ... Mrs. J. Borden Harriman ... Mrs. Fairfield Osborn Jr., ... Mrs. Percy R. Pyne, Mrs. William G. Rockefeller [treasurer Standard Oil of N.Y. until 1911], Mrs. Kermit Roosevelt, ...Mrs. George Whitney."

December 19, 1935, New York Times, 'Tributes to Osborn paid at memorial': "More than 700 men and women ... paid tribute yesterday to Dr. Henry Fairfield Osborn, honorary president of the American Museum of Natural History. ... The special memorial services were arranged by a group of Professor Osborn's friends and associates. They were: ... Nicholas Murray Butler ... John W. Davis ... Among those present were J. P. Morgan, Ogden L. Mills, Felix M. Warburg, ... Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney ... The ushers were Junius S. Morgan, Alexander P. Morgan, Winthrop Aldrich, ... Cleveland Dodge, Kermit Roosevelt..."

September 16, 1958, New York Times, 'Resources Job Goes to L. S. Rockefeller': "Mr. [Laurance] Rockefeller, president and director of Rockefeller, Brothers Inc., is a founder of the Conservation Foundation."

July 30, 1965, New York Times, 'Ex-judge will head Conservation Unit': "Russell E. Train ... will become the president of the Conservation Foundation on Monday. He will succeed Samuel H. Ordway Jr., who is retiring."

November 20, 1971, Washington Post, 'N.Y. Lawyer, Civil Service Commissioner': "In 1948, [Samuel H. Ordway, Jr.] and the late Fairfield Osborn founded the Conservation Foundation. ... he served as that organization's president and became chairman of the board in 1969, succeeding Mr. Osborn."

Orlow, Alexander

Source(s): 1978 and 1987 lists

President of Turmac Tobacco Co. Director of Rothmans International since 1972.

Pao, Sir Yue Kong

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Professor of Law. Chairman of Public Law at the University of Hong Kong. Banker in Shanghai before WWII. Moved to Hong Kong after Mao's ascend to power in 1949. Beginning in 1955 with one rusty, second-hand steamer, he would built the world's largest fleet of cargo vessels (mammonth tankers and bulk carriers), named World-Wide Shipping Company. Sir Y.K. Pao approached Chase at his own initiative in the 1960s, after hearing of plans to create an International Advisory Council. Member of the initial board of Chase Manhattan's International Advisory Council, together with co-1001 Club members John H. Loudon and Gianni Agnelli. By the 1970s, he was easily the biggest independent tanker owner in the world, with a fleet totaling more than 21 million tons. By comparison, the fleet of late Greek shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis totaled about 3 million tons. At one time, Pao's private shipping fleet was larger than that of the Soviet Union. Pao expanded into real estate, communications, media and aviation. Accepted a knighthood from Britain's Queen Elizabeth II in 1978. Frequently golfed with Denis Thatcher, husband of prime minister Margaret Thatcher. Contributed generously to the British Conservative party. One of his biggest coups came in 1980 when he took over the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf & Godown Ltd. from under the nose of Jardine Matheson, muscling into what had been an exclusively British club. Director of the HSBC Bank in Hong Kong 1971-1980; then appointed vice chairman (Li Ka Shing joined the bank in 1980 and would be deputy chair from 1991-1992). On the advisory board of Industrial Bank of Japan, United Technologies, AT&T, and Caterpillar. Counted Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, who opened up China with Henry Kissinger and David Rockefeller, as a friend. Among notable gifts were US$20m to found Ningbo University, a £14m contribution to the Sino-British Friendship Scholarship scheme to enable Chinese students to attend British Universities and a US$10m gift to build a library at Jiaoting University in Shanghai. At his funeral, the then governor of Hong Kong, David Wilson, sat in the front row. Died in 1991 with a fortune exceeding $1.3 billion, according to Forbes.

September 17, 1985, Journal of Commerce, 'Y.K. Pao May Place More Vessels On Block': "Maritime empire controlled by Sir Y K Pao is likely to be shrunk even further unless business improves; World-Wide Shipping, once world's largest privately held shipping firm, has more than halved its fleet from 200 ships to about 70 in last four years (M) "

October 3, 1991, Xinhua General News Service, 'grand funeral for former shipping magnate held in hong kong': "he started his shipping business in 1955. after 25 years of business development, he got his peak time in 1979. then, he succeeded in assembling the largest privately-owned ocean-going fleet ever seen under one flag. at that time, the world-wide shipping companies owned more than 200 vessels of a total of 20.05 million deadweight tons. he had become the "king of the seas." he died on september 23 at the age of 73."

July 1995, Asia Today, 'A banker At The Helm': "In 1975 he joined the late Sir Yue-Kong Pao, the fabled Hong Kong shipping magnate who founded World-Wide Shipping Group. Woo began as a group executive director and in 1982 became managing director of subsidiary Wharf [Holdings] Ltd. In 1986 he was appointed chairman of both Wheelock and Company Limited - the successor to World-Wide Shipping - and Wharf. Since inheriting all the listed companies formerly owned by Sir Y K, Woo has steadily built them into what they are today."

October 29, 1999, Asiaweek, 'The Tough Trader': "Pao Yue-Kong built the world's largest fleet of cargo vessels, and expanded into property, communications, media and aviation. The World-Wide Shipping Company had a fleet of more than 21 million tons. When the tanker market was declining, Pao sold half his fleet and moved into other investments. He took over the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Limited, which gave him control of lucrative properties. Pao was a leading Hong Kong businessman who mixed equally with British and Chinese leaders."

November 27, 1994, South China Morning Post (Hong Kong), 'Who's Woo?': "But all of that happened a generation ago. Sir Yue-kong's ships, whose total tonnage was six times larger than that belonging to Greek tycoon Aristotle Onassis at his peak, have long been consigned to the four winds or the breaker's yard."

Patino, Antenor

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

1895-1982. From Bolivia. Son of Simon Patino, who worked with the Anglo-American establishment well before WWII. October 13, 1953, Winnipeg Free Press, 'If prince helps at birth...': "It's a tradition and a rule in the Patino family that they mix only with royalty. This custom was started by Mr. Patino's father Simon, a humble Bolivian grocer who started working an abondoned tin mine with his own hands and ended up with a world tin cartel." February 17, 1938, Drew Pearson column in the Nevada State Journal: "While Roosevelt [FDR] has been attacking big business monopolies, his Secretary of State has been constrained to support the big Anglo-American metal companies. Reason is that the congressional move to make the U.S.A. independent of British tin has collided head on with Cordell Hull's attempt to negotiate a trade treaty with Great Britain. ... McReynolds is now investigating the monopoly of tin by which the United States, although using more than half the world's tin consumption, is completely dependent on British smelters. Even crude tin produced in Alaska is shipped all the way to Liverpool, refined, then shipped back again. The United States could import tin from Bolivia, but only one small tin smelter exists in the United States, and it cannot operate because it cannot get raw tin. Neither Bolivia, nor the Dutch East Indies nor British Malays will sell raw tin to the United States except at higher prices. In Bolivia, tin is controlled by Simon Patino, the greatest individual tin producer in the world, who, in turn, is financed and controlled by the British. Bolivian tin is sold chiefly to the United States, but first goes to Britain to be smelted. Dutch tin is also controlled by the British. One key to the situation is rumored interlocking British- American interests. Representative McReynolds is investigating a report that the United States Steel Corporation, biggest American user of tin, has an agreement with the British to divide up the tin plate markets, also that there is a United States Steel interest in the British combine. The National Lead company, an American firm heavily interested in tin, also presumably is in the British combine. Its chairman, Edward J. Cornish, is chairman of Patino Mines and Enterprises, while its president, Fred M. Carter, is a director and vice president of the Patino Company. Thus big American business appears to co-operate in the British monopoly. Recently Secretary Hull proposed to McReynolds that the United States buy a huge reserve of tin for war emergencies, rather than set up its own smelters. McReynolds urged the latter plan. American dependence on foreign ore cannot be avoided, Mr. Reynolds contends, but dependence on foreign smelting can be."

Antenor Patiño followed up his father Simon in 1947 and continued to dominate the world's supply of tin until the sixties and seventies, hence his nickname "the King of Tin". He married the daughter of Spanish monarch Alfonso XIII, the princess María Cristina de Borbón. But then, his daughter married the Jewish Sir James Goldsmith, but Patino was violently opposed to this marriage. His daughter, below the age of 20, died of a massive cerebral hemorrhage some time later. With his fortune, amongst other things, he developed tourist destinations like Las Hadas, in Manzanillo, Mexico, and Las Alamandas in Jalisco state, also in Mexico. He was among the richest men in the world. The Bolivian Revolution of 1952 nationalised the Patiño Mines and it is claimed that his heir Antenor Patiño had his hand in the military coup that deposed the leader of the revolution, then President Victor Paz Estenssoro, in the 1960s.

Who's Who: Son of Simon I. and Albina (Rodriquez) Patino; married Princess Maria Cristina de Bourbon, Apr. 8, 1931; children—Maria-Cristina, Isabel (dec.); married 2d, Countess Beatriz di Borasenda, 1960. Chmn., dir. Patino Mining Corporation; president, director of Consol. Tin Smelters, Ltd., London. Gen. Tin Investments, Ltd., Gen. Metal Securities, Ltd. (all London); dir. British Tin Investment Corp., Ltd., London, British Am. Tin Mines, Ltd., Tahiland Tin Mines, Ltd., Tin Industrial Finance & Underwriting, Ltd. Considerable stockholder and director of the Amalgamated Metal Corporation since the 1960s and director and hon. president from 1975 to 1978.

November 1, 1952, Billings Gazette, Montana, 'Bolivia Seizes Rich Tin Mines': "Bolivia's rich tin mines, including the vast, American-controlled [for 65% per cent] Patino interests were seized by governmenl troops Friday under a nationalization decree. Police said officials and executives of the Patino mines were prevented from leaving the company's offices after allegedly attempling to escape with "extensive and secret documents." The nationalization decree, making Bolivia's reserves of the slrategic metal state property, was signed at the Maria Barzola mine in Catavi in Ihe presence of an emotional, flag-waving throng of 35,000 people. While the decree promised "just compensation" to the owners of the expropriated properties, minister of Mines Juan Lechin, told the cheering crowds that in his opinion "the companies owe to the stale a sum much greater than the state owes in identification to the companies." A preamble to the nalionalizaion decree charged that the big companies—notably Patino, Aramayo and Hochschild—"ruled the country through bribes, corruption and intimidation of officials." It accused the big mining interesls of persecuting all those who resisted them and making them "obey unconditionally by organizing revolutions, if necessary," adding: "The large companies subordinated national interests to their exclusive working of the mines, systematically preventing any other activity leading to agriculture, cattle raising and industrial development ... "In contrast to the overwhelmng enrichment of tin magnates, the state was impoverished, carryng budget deficits."

2010, Dr. Joe F. Leeker, 'Air America: Lockheed L-1049H Super Constellation': "At least one of the missions flown by that L-1049 has come to light: It was used to support the coup d’état organized by the CIA against Bolivia’s President Paz Estenssoro in November 64. When, in April 1952, Victor Paz Estenssoro became president of Bolivia by a revolution of the anticapitalist Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario, he nationalized the tin mines and declared the labor unions supporters of the new régime; especially the almighty Central Obrero Boliviano labor union was the right arm of the government. These reforms, however, resulted in an economic decline, as did agrarian reforms introduced at a later date. Cuban influence became stronger than ever, and in 1961, a Communist revolution supported by Fidel Castro was crushed. The situation became even more intolerable, when Bolivia left the Organization of American States in 1962, and when, in May 1964, Paz Estenssoro eliminated the political opposition. All arms and ammunition were controlled not by the official Bolivian Army, but by relatives and reliable friends of the president, who commanded the civilian militia as an elite palace guard and in this way controlled the whole state. So, the only thing to do in order to overthrow Paz Estenssoro was to give arms and ammunition to the Bolivian Army. When, in early November 1964, an official joint exercise involving United States and Bolivian army and air force units took place, Air America’s L.1049H Super Constellation N6922C (which was not flown by an Air America crew on that occasion) carried arms and ammunition to a remote landing ground in Peru, from where they were flown by CIA-controlled light aircraft to several smaller magazines scattered throughout Bolivia. Armed in this way by the CIA, the Bolivian military headed by General René Barrientos Ortuño was able to run a coup d’état against President Paz Estenssoro and to drive him out of the country."

Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza Shah

Source(s): 2004, Philip Dröge, 'Het Oranjekapitaal,' p. 211-216

Better known as the Shah of Iran from 1941 to 1979. Born in 1919. Attended Institut Le Rosey, a Swiss boarding school where many kings are send, and the Military College in Tehran. Followed up his father as emperor of Iran in 1941 after a joined USSR-British invasion (officially Iran was neutral). The British were of the opinion that the son would be more open to western free market influences, which turned out to be right. In 1953, the Shah supported Operation Ajax, the coup that overthrew prime minister Mohammed Mossadegh. The British and Americans didn't appreciate Mossadegh's succesful effort to nationalize the Iranian oil industry. Allen Dulles (Pilgrims; SMOM; head CIA), John Foster Dulles (Pilgrims), and Kermit Roosevelt, Jr. were key plotters of this coup. Created his secret police, the SAVAK, in 1957 with the assistance of the CIA and the Israeli Mossad. Dissidents were jailed, tortured, murdered, and-or assassinated. Member of the Safari Club, which was set up by the Kermit Roosevelt and Alexandre de Marenches, and a member of the 1001 Club. The Shah has always been good friends with western leaders, kings, and queens. Eventually he was ousted in 1979 and Ayatollah Khomeini came to power for the next 10 years. As a result the West started supplying weapons to Iran's enemy, Saddam Hussein. 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pp. 365-366: "My relationship with the Shah had never been that close... but I told Newsom [under secretary of state for political affairs] I found it incomprihensible that the President [Carter] would ignore American tradition by denying political asylum to a man who had been a great friend of our country. I refused to become complicit in the decision... I had dinner with Henry Kissinger and Happy Rockefeller, Nelson's widow, at her home in Pocantico. Henry and I discussed our telephone calls from David Newsom and the Shah's plight. Happy told me of Nelson's close friendship with the Shah and about the weekend they had spent with him and Farah Diba, the Shah's wife, in Tehran in 1977. Happy reminded me that when the Shah realized he would have to leave Iran, Nelson offered to find a suitable property for him in the United States. We also talked about the precedent that President Carter had established by refusing to admit the Shah into the United States. Both of us believed our allies, particularly those in the Middle East such as Sadat and King Hussein, who had taken great risks on our behalf, were likely to entertain second thoughts about the dependability of the United States in light of this action... Jack McCloy... soon joined our effort [to convince Carter to allow the Shah access to the US]." P. 361: "In 1975, when diplomatic and political relations between the United States and Iran grew closer as a result of the Nixon-Kissinger initiatives, I was asked to join the board of the newly formed Iran-U.S. Business Council, the private sector counterpart of the U.S.–Iran Joint Committee. The latter had been formed by Henry Kissinger and Hushang Ansary, the minister of finance and economy to explore ways in which the two nations might improve their economic ties. In late 1975 the Joint Committee asked the Business Council to organise a conference in Tehran to advise the Iranian government on the steps they needed to take in order to play a larger role in global financial markets. ... We scheduled the meeting for March 1976 in Tehran and assembled a distinguished group of Americans that included Paul Volcker, then president of the New York Federal Reserve Bank, Donald Regan, chairman of Merrill Lynch & Co., Peter G. Peterson, chairman of Lehman Brothers, and the heads of several major U.S. commercial banks. The Iranians fielded a delegation of senior cabinet ministers, bankers, and businessmen." Pavlavi died in 1980.

CHASE-SHAH RELATIONS:

November 16, 1979, Washington Post, 'Chase Manhattan's Ties to the Shah': "Chase Manhattan Bank Chairman David Rockefeller has said he helped persuade U.S. officials to admit the shah of Iran into the country because the former ruler had been a "friend of the United States for 37 years." Henry A. Kissinger, chairman of Chase's International Advisory Committee and former secretary of state, has given similar reasons for his support for the shah. Beyond these reasons, however, Chase's commercial ties to the shah and his country long have been a matter of record. And this relationship has been pushed into the limelight by statements from Iranian government officials this week that Rockefeller's efforts on the shah's behalf justified their decision to withdraw funds from U.S. banks. ... The outlines of the Chase and Rockefeller relationship with Iran under the shah include: Chase's former 35 percent interest in the Tehran-based Iran-Chase International Bank which was created in 1974 after Chase's efforts to merge with another local bank failed. Chase's interest in this facility was canceled after the Iranian revolution. Sizeable deposits of the National Iranian Oil Co. in various Chase facilities. These deposits were reported by sources as having been concentrated in Chase Bank Ltd. of London, the British affiliate. After the revolution, the Iranian central bank took over these deposits and much of these funds are reported to have been transferred to other banks last summer. Chase International Investment Corp.'s interest in the International Agro-business Corp. of Iran, which was developing 30,000 acres of irrigated land in the province of Khuzistan along with other local and foreign investors. Housing developments constructed by International Basic Economy, a company created by the Rockefeller family. More of a mystery than these connections in Chase's role in holding the personal fortune of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi family. Informed sources said yesterday that published reports putting the Pahlavi fortune at between $15 billion and $20 billion are "not in the ballpark." A Chase spokesman said yesterday that the bank normally does not reveal the identity of its depositors or the amounts they have on deposit. Asked whether Chase would provide a breakdown of the Pahlavi holding on deposit with Chase or its affiliates and branches in order to put rumors to rest, a spokesman said he would "investigate" the possibility. Since the departure of the shah, dozens of other members of wealthy families that were associated with him have left Iran. Many of them were partners of U.S. or other foreign mulinational companies based in Iran. It is generally acknowledged that they transferred sizeable amounts of money to bank accounts abroad before and after the revolution, in some cases with the cooperation of the foreign companies in which they were partners. One source who is acquainted with the shah said yesterday that it was likely the former ruler had spread his overseas funds around a number of different banks, rather than concentrating them in one. However, some banking sources have said that among banks doing business in Iran, Chase held the largest portion of Iranian deposits. David Rockefeller has known the shah for 20 years and has made frequent trips to Iran. However, a Chase spokesman said that it was "absurd to suggest there's any connection between Mr. Rockefeller's concern for the shah and [the bank's interest in] his wealth." In 1973, the shah played a leading role in pushing for a tough stand by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries on higher crude oil prices. At the time, Kissinger was secretary of state. According to columnist Jack Anderson, Kissinger made no effort to urge President Nixon to use U.S. influence with the shah to moderate his stand on oil prices. Kissinger's office here said yesterday that he was not commenting on Iranian matters. After leaving office, Kissinger took a job with Chase that involves presiding over seminars for top customers of the bank. Pay is estimated at about $30,000 a seminar or $60,000 a year. According to one source, analysts for Chase had predicted the downfall of the shah due to a combination of religious and political pressures before most of Chase's competitors. According to John Whitehead, chairman of the New York City consulting firm of Goldman Sachs, Kissinger "alerted us to the dangers [in Iran] long before they happened -- six months before the overthrow." Kissinger also works for that firm, on a part time basis. Whitehead said he believed Kissinger got his information from newspapers."

TORTURE:

November 16, 1977, Washington Post, 'Human Rights Policy Test': "The violent demonstrations sparked by the shah of Iran's visit have dumped on President Carter's doorstep a vivid reminder of the contradictions that his advocacy of human rights has imposed on U.S. foreign policy. The contradictions stem from conflicting ideas of how the administration should deal with a regime that has been accused of massive human rights violations but that also has vital economic and strategic ties to the United States. In the view of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who regards his government as one of Washington's most important allies, it is these latter considerations that should be uppermost on the minds of the President and his advisers. The shah didn't come to Washington for a lecture on human rights in Iran. Instead, his purpose was to discuss Iran's role as a major supplier of crude oil to the energy-short United States and as a customer eager to use its oil riches to buy sophisticated U.S. weapons and industrial technology. To many human rights partisans, the reception accorded the shah already has been taken as proof tht the administration is following a double standard. The administration, they charge, makes a big show of human rights concern when dealing with small, unimportant countries, but shoves its scruples into the background for nations whose business or cooperation it wants. ... What's more, the officials add, while the leverage that Washington employ is limited, the administration's efforts already have produced some betterment in the way that Iranian dissidents are treated. Further improvements, they insist, can best by achieved not by ostracizing the shah but by cooperating with him and encouraging him to do still more. Underlying the controversy is the indisputable fact that Iran, while ostensibly a constitutional monarchy, actually is a tightly controlled dictatorship whose power rests on the passive acceptance of most of its 33 million people. Those who don't like the shah and his government are kept in line by a network of police and intelligence forces, of which the most infamous is a shadowy, military-controlled organization known as SAVAK. In the past, SAVAK has been charged by foes of the regime with engaging in systematic murder, torture and imprisonment of dissidents. Its agents reportedly operate far outside the borders of Iran, and there have been frequent charges that it is involved in attempts to harass and intimidate Iranian students and other opponents of th shah in the United States and elsewhere. The shah's regime has justified the activities of agencies like SAVAK on the grounds that a firm hand is needed to guide Iran's populace out of its feudal traditions and into a modern state. Repression, the shah's supporters claim, is used only against Communists and others who seek to subvert Iran's march into the modern world. In recent years, though, this justification has met with increasing skepticism outside Iran; and, with the Carter administration's fanning of human rights into a major issue in foreign policy, the shah has been under increasing pressure to soften his regime's repressive image. In an interview with U.S. public television broadcast on Monday night, the shah charged that most opponents of his regime "are Marxists, anarchists wearing masks. I would be very much interested to see how many Iranians are behind those masks." But he also was careful to add: "Torture does not exist anymore in my country." State Department officials say that they have not received any allegations of tortune within Iran in several months. Similar findings, they add, have been reported by such private human rights, watchdog organizations as Amnesty International. In addition, U.S. officils say, the shah recently has taken such other "positive steps" as inviting the International Red Cross to inspect Iranian prisons and interrogation centers, instituting prisoners being tried by military courts greater rights to counsel and open court proceedings, and releasing approximately 2,200 prisoners. But, the officials concede, these moves, while encouraging, are still only minimal first steps. The say that roughly 2,200 political prisoners remain in Iranian jails and that dissent is still kept on a very short rein. Opponents of the shah go further, charging that the recent improvements were cosmetic changes intended to please the Carter administration without really altering the repressive nature of the regime. In recent testimony before a House International Relations subcommittee, Richard W. Cottam, a professor of political science at the University of Pittsburg and a man with long experience in Iran, noted that the Carter human rights policy has had effects in Iran that are "both very encouraging" and "also very dangerous." While conceding that some of the improvements "are not simply cosmetic," Cottam warned that the regime could turn to more subtle, hard-to-detect forms of repression. His warning has been echoed by other critics who charge that the regime has turned from blatant forms of torture to methods like putting people in mental institutions. However, another view was given the same subcommittee by William J. Butler, executive committee chairman of the international Commission of Jurists and a man who personally consulted with the shah on some of the legal protections now being introduced in Iran. He credited Carter with heightening interest in human rights all over the world and said: "While it is true that the Shah of Persia is not going to become a flaming liberal overnight, there is evidence that in Iran significant changes are occuring, at least at a minimal level.""

May 1, 1979, The Globe and Mail, 'To the man in the street, Iran is definitely on the right track': "The two most commonly voiced objections to the Shah are over his corruption, by which he managed to amass more than $20-billion, and his ruthless dictatorship, by which he imprisoned and tortured thousands. Dr. Ali Reza Nourizadeh, editor of Omid Iran, a weekly newsmagazine modelled on Time, points to the cigaret burn scars on the back of his hand, and the runty little fingernails that have grown in after his original ones were removed under torture. They didn't like the articles I was writing, explains Dr. Nourizadeh, who was then political editor of Etellat, a major Tehran daily. Homa Nateq is a social history professor at the University of Tehran. Yes, I was tortured, she says in an interview, bowing her head and indicating she doesn't want to discuss details. I know people who spent several years in jail for reading one book. And I know women who were raped in the Shah's prisons - with snakes. Torture stories are endless. One almost becomes hardened to them after a while. The bulk of the torture was done in Tehran's two major prisons - Evin and Qasr, but SAVAK, the Shah's secret police, also carried out its work in neighborhood torture centres throughout Tehran. I visited one on Kakh Street, a few blocks from the Prime Minister's office. Workmen renovating the four-story building showed me and my interpreter bloodstains throughout the building, the spot where prisoners' heads were banged against steel-reinforced walls, the rack where prisoners were made to lie down above a fireplace, the soundproofing that prevented screams from being heard outside. The Shah permitted no opposition. With undercover SAVAK agents all around, politics were simply not discussed in Iran. If someone came up to you at a party and started talking about politics, you would know there was something suspicious about him, one medical student said. Either he was a SAVAK agent trying to get you to reveal your views, or he was just plain crazy."

December 12, 1979, Associated Press: "Iranian officials told reporters who toured the facilities of the ousted shah's dreaded SAVAK secret police that the CIA and Israeli agents helped set up the organization, but that torture ended in 1977 under U.S. pressure. Their statements supported previous reports in Western newspapers."

MODERNIZATION:

May 1, 1979, The Globe and Mail, 'To the man in the street, Iran is definitely on the right track': "In fact, only about half the women in downtown Tehran wear covering on their heads. For 2 1/2 weeks I walked in my Canadian-bought clothes through many parts of Tehran and encountered none of the hostility toward Western-dressed women that has been portrayed in the press. Feminists in Iran are wary about dress regulations for the future, as well as other women's issues, but for the time being women seem to have won a partial victory. Certainly men in Tehran respect the right of women to move freely in the streets by themselves. Walking alone around Tehran, I was at no time bothered by men, as I have been on the streets of Paris, Rome, Madrid or even Toronto. This is not to suggest that getting around Tehran is easy, for men or women. The Shah's widely praised modernization program left his capital city with spectacular Government office buildings but no feasible transportation system. The traffic situation is abysmal. There is no subway and cars jam the streets bumper-to-bumper from dawn till dusk. Here is lovely modern Iran, a cynical Iranian engineer said as we sat in his car in a traffic jam. Look, there is a garbage can - a lovely modern garbage can - and there is a telephone booth. See what the Shah has done to bring us into the modern world."

December 13, 1979, Washington Post, 'SAVAK Jails Stark Reminder Of Shah's Rule': "In such empty, sterile surroundings even listening to victims matter-of-factly recounting their ordeals -- or those of their murdered or maimed relatives or friends - required a major effort of the imagination to escape the banality of evil everywhere. The parrot's perch, the dry submarine, the horsemen -- as SAVAK torturers labeled some of their feared techniques -- were not mentioned today. But much cited were the so-called Apollo helmet, which magnified a victim's screams tenfold, or the purely Iranian contribution to the genre involving burning patterns on victim's bodies by placing them on bedsprings heated white-hot. Reza Deghati, a young photographer who spent three years in SAVAK custody, explained how SAVAK's prey had been treated here. The victims were first beaten with copper wire whips in the courtyard, then over the months underwent various degrees of torture as they worked their way through the cells in the three-tiered circular prison, leading finally to an appearance before a military tribunal. Korteza Amini told how his sister Fat-meh died, age 33, after six months of torture on the heated bedsprings had reduced her to a paralyzed wreck. "This is the first time I've been back since my release in 1977," the photographer said. "When I was here, we used to dream of coming back as free men with this place smashed by the people.""

June 20, 1977, Newsweek, 'Rights and Wrongs - A Chamber of Horrors': "Torture is widely employed by SAVAK, Iran's secret police, despite disclaimers by Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, who told Western reporters last year: "We don't need to torture people any more." Instead, the Shah boasted, Iran now employs "psychological methods." According to the Geneva-based International Commission of Jurists, those ploys include installing a gallows in a prisoner's cell and playing recordings of screaming torture victims. But former prisoners and the Commission of Jurists charge that in recent years SAVAK has also used whips, maces and "the toaster," a wire-covered bedframe that is heated electrically. When Gholamhossein Saedi, one of Iran's most noted playwrights, was released from prison in 1974, he claimed that SAVAK had driven nails through his feet and showed scars to prove it. Saedi needed psychiatric treatment to get over the experience. The crime for which he was jailed: writing satirical plays."

January 7, 1979, Washington Post, 'Shah Tells New Iranian Cabinet He Is Leaving': "Except for a brief respite between 1960 and 1963 -- corresponding to the liberal-minded Kennedy administration's influence -- the shah had SAVAK, his dreaded CIA- and Israelitrained secret police, help intimidate, drive into exile or otherwise silence both the political and religious opposition."

December 13, 1979, Associated Press, 'Iran Says CIA Trained SAVAK': ""It wasn't just cooperation with the CIA and Mossad (the Israeli secret service), it was joint activities," said Sana, who told reporters he had advised the SAVAK commander on security and economic affairs for 11 years. "The CIA devised our entire system." He said the Americans did not give SAVAK agents direct training in torture methods. But he said they provided general guidelines on interrogation techniques, such as attaching electrodes to sensitive parts of the body, and taught agents how to carry out surveillance of dissidents. SAVAK also worked to a lesser degree with the intelligence services of Britain, West German, France, Pakistan, Iraq and Egypt, Sana said. He said Britain and West Germany provided information on Iranian students abroad. In exchange, he said, the British received information about various Arab countries and the West Germans got information about the West German Baader-Meinhof terrorist group. The tour included emotional accounts by people who said they had survived SAVAK torture and statements by former officials of the shah's regime who denounced the exiled monarch and said they welcomed the revolution. "I think he has committed many, many crimes," said former Health Minister Sheikholesam Zadeh, now serving a life sentence. "I will be very happy in any court to say whatever I (can) against him." Former prisoners of SAVAK said conditions in the prisons improved markedly in 1977 after President Carter began pressuring the shah to end violations of human rights. Zadeh said he initiated a study of torture practices in 1977 and torture was halted "within a month" after he presented the findings to the shah's prime minister. Zadeh said he was the only member of the shah's regime tried by a revolutionary court and allowed to live. ... Deghati said the jailers used "apollo helmets" to amplify a prisoner's own screams and send them reverberating unbearably in his ears. He claimed the helmet, which went over the victim's mouth and ears, was designed by an Iranian when he was in the United States. He also said prisoners were bound to wire mesh cots and the cots were heated with blow torches. Cells at the central prison were empty and the only evidence of the alleged torture was a single mesh cot. Sadegh said the torture equipment was removed before a 1977 inspection by the International Red Cross."

CIA AND MOSSAD INVOLVEMENT:

December 13, 1979, Washington Post, 'SAVAK Jails Stark Reminder Of Shah's Rule': "Star witness Hassan Sana worked for 23 years in SAVAK service and ended up as a key advisor to its director for security, economics and prison affairs. Among the intelligence services with which SAVAK exchanged information -- as often as not receiving in return information about anti-shah students abroad -- were those of the United States, Israel, Britain, France, West Germany, Pakistan, Egypt "and to some extent" Iraq, and "a little with Turkey, he said. "Joint activities," however, were limited, he said, to the CIA and Israel's Mossad. The Israelis even wrote SAVAK's manuals and, he said, prepared an ill-fated effort last year to undermine the growing religious impact of the revolution. The CIA "definitely" trained SAVAK agents in "both physical and psychological" torture techniques, he said, but the Americans did not actually participate in torture sessions. Iranians themselves prefected American technology involved in using "electrodes on certain parts of the body" he said, by heating the needles before "inserting them." Sana denied various revolutionary claims that attributed all unexplainable phenomena to SAVAK. For example, he denied SAVAK involvement in stirring up violence between rival religious leaders in Isfahan and especially in the Rex cinema fire in Abedan in August 1978 when nearly 400 Iranians died. Many observers believe the Rex incident ended the Shah's chances of political survival, although he managed to hang on until the following January."

February 20, 2003, The Guardian, 'Obituary: Isser Harel: The Israeli intelligence chief who brought in the Nazi mass murderer Adolf Eichmann': "Even within Mossad, Shin Bet and Aman (the external, internal and military branches of Israeli intelligence), many colleagues rued the day that they had crossed "Little Isser", as they nervously nicknamed him. Short and stocky, his prominent ears always alert for conspiracies, Harel ruled Mossad from 1952 until 1963. In 1957 he gained the title memunah - overall chief - of Israel's secret services. Harel did not actually create Mossad. That honour went to the brilliant Reuven Shiloah, who set up "the institute" in 1951. But Shiloah became bored with administrative detail so, in 1952, Israel's first prime minister, David Ben-Gurion, gave the job to Harel, already known as the puritanical head of Shin Bet. ... He took over Mossad when the CIA was desperate for information on the Soviet Union. Through his friendship with its head of counterintelligence, James Jesus Angleton ... More controversially, in 1953 Harel bugged the offices of Mapam, a leftist party opposed to Ben-Gurion's ruling Mapai. He also placed a maverick journalist under administrative detention, funded a journal to undermine critical publications and whitewashed news of an Israeli intelligence debacle in Egypt. The extent to which these were personal initiatives or the result of orders from above is not clear. ... Harel persevered with Shiloah's dream of a "peripheral alliance" between Israel and potential non-Arab allies in the Middle East. In 1957 he befriended Taimur Bakhtiar, first head of Iran's feared intelligence agency Savak, and later prime minister. A year later, he formed the Trident network with Savak and Turkey's National Security Services as "a dam to stop the Nasser-Soviet flood". He also armed and trained Iraqi Kurds; and built bases and airfields in Turkey and Ethiopia, via the fictitious CIA-funded Reynolds Concrete Company. In return, Mossad monitored developments in the Red Sea from a vast clandestine complex in Addis Ababa. ... By March 1963, when Harel refused to curb his anti-German hit squads, a reluctant Ben-Gurion forced his resignation as Mossad chief, and replaced him with Meir Amit, a young technocrat who headed military intelligence. Many loyal operatives resigned in protest, including future prime minister Yitzhak Shamir; the strength of the resulting controversy in the Knesset was a principal cause of Ben-Gurion's resignation the following June. The feud between Harel and Amit lasted into the next century. Harel briefly reinvented himself as special security adviser to Prime Minister Levi Eshkol (1965-66), and served one term in the Knesset (1969-73), but his heyday was over. Yet Harel's reliance on "the human factor" remains an indispensable legacy of Israeli intelligence to this day."

February 19, 1999, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 'Israeli support for Turkey against Kurds examined': "A history of cooperation betwen Turkish intelligence and the Israel Mossad organization has been outlined by the Israeli newspaper 'Ha' aretz'. ... According to foreign publications, the Mossad and the Turkish National Intelligence Organization have had close relations for 40 years dating back to the end of the 1950s. According to these same publications, the two organizations signed an agreement joined also by Savak, the Persian intelligence service, during the reign of the shah. In the framework of this agreement, the heads of the Mossad and Shin Bet met several times a year with their Turkish and Persian counterparts and exchanged information and assessments of the situation in the Middle East. In the framework of the agreement, Mossad and Shin Bet experts aided Turkish intelligence and trained them in interrogation methods, supplied them with eavesdropping equipment, etc. After the fall of the shah in 1979, the agreement was nullified. However, after several low years in relations between Israel and Turkey, intelligence cooperation was renewed."

March 12, 1980, Associated Press, 'Colby Denies CIA Involved in Iranian Torture': "William Colby says the Central Intelligence Agency worked with SAVAK, the Iranian secret police, in covert operations against the Soviet Union, but denied the CIA was involved in torture in Iran. Colby, who served as CIA director from 1973 to 1976, denied Iranian accusations that the agency was involved with SAVAK in practicing torture techniques during the reign of deposed Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Speaking Tuesday on a radio talk show, Colby said the CIA received help from SAVAK in monitoring Soviet military movements. "As for the torture and that sort of thing, I'm sure that the SAVAK organization, in part, did some of this," Colby said. "I'm not sure how much, quite frankly, and the one thing I am absolutely sure of is that the CIA had nothing to do with it, nothing. "I know that for a fact. "Sure, we worked with the SAVAK in order to have ... the listening posts that gave us a unique coverage of the development of Soviet nuclear weapons.""

April 10, 1979, The Globe and Mail (Canada), 'Could not leave job, ex-SAVAK man says': "A short, clean-cut man in his early 30s shifted nervously in his chair. For the past two months, since the Shah's government was toppled by Iran's revolution in the streets, the man has been in hiding. As an agent of SAVAK, the Shah's much-hated secret police, he is one of thousands being sought by the new Government of Premier Mehdi Bazargan, as well as by vengeful relatives and friends of the agency's victims. Thousands of these agents across Iran have already been arrested, but countless others are believed to be still on the loose. The Government has advised former agents that they will be more fairly dealt with if they turn themselves in voluntarily. The brutality of SAVAK is a subject that crops up continually in conversations with Iranians of all types - students, businessmen, professionals, workers. Accounts of the agency's tortures fill the news magazines and newspapers that have sprung up in Tehran since the revolution. On the agreement that his name not be used, the agent consented to an interview during the weekend. I visited him in his uncle's gracious home in the well-to-do north end of Tehran. The agent talked quietly and smiled occasionally as family and close friends dropped in at the house. In the large elegant home with Persian rugs on the floor and walls, the conversation centred mostly on the corruption of the Shah's regime. Then in a private conversation with me through an interpreter, the agent told of his involvement with SAVAK. He joined the organization 10 years ago, when he was 22 years old, and still in the army. He said he had done particularly well in the army and had received a letter from SAVAK toward the end of his service, asking him if he would be interested in intelligence work. I didn't know what it was all about, he said. I thought I was going to work for my country, against the Communists. I wanted a job and this seemed like a good opportunity, so I accepted. For the first few years, he spent most of his time being instructed about the opponents of the regime - what kind of people they were, what tactics they used, how they were organized. He said agents from the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency participated in this training program. He said most of the prisoners belonged to either of the two guerrilla groups that had operated clandestinely in Iran since the early 1970s - the Marxist Fedayeen, and the Mujahidin, a group of radical Moslems. Both groups carried out assassinations of government officials and foreign advisers. A significant number of prisoners were religious students and Moslem leaders, including mullahs (priests) and even ayatollahs (holy men). For example, Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani, now perhaps the second-most influential religious leader in Iran after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomaini, spent nearly 20 years in prison under the Shah. These religious leaders were arrested for speaking out against the Shah in their mosques, which became popular centres of resistance against the Shah's regime. The agent said he wanted to get out of SAVAK, but couldn't. A friend of mine asked permission to quit SAVAK, but they told him No. Then they took him away with a hood over his head and he was gone for a month. When he came back, it was clear he had been badly tortured. He didn't talk any more about leaving after that. Although some of the agents wanted to leave, others clearly enjoyed what they did, he said. And still others did it for the money, which was at least double what could be made at most other jobs. The first 24 hours after a prisoner's arrest were the harshest, according to the agent. Women prisoners were treated just as harshly as men. The agent said that security in the guerrilla groups was so tight that SAVAK never succeeded in infiltrating them, as it had managed to infiltrate the more loosely organized political opposition groups of the 1960s. The guerrilla groups were organized into cells of three people, whose real identities and addresses were kept secret even from each other. Each member had to check in with the group every 24 hours. If one failed to phone, it was assumed he or she was arrested, and all secret codes and telephone numbers known to that person were changed immediately. Despite all the torture, the prisoners said very little, the agent said."

December 17, 1978, Washington Post, 'CIA-Shah Ties Cloud Iran Data': "The political opposition and officer corps have been off limits for years to the 50 to 75 agents the CIA maintains in Iran. The agency's professional intelligence on domestic Iranian developments has had to come largely from the shah's own secret police, SAVAK, which could hardly be expected to report that the shah was in trouble. "If we had tried to penetrate the opposition, we would have been caught immediately by SAVAK," a CIA official said. "Iran is an ally. In England, we would not try to penetrate the opposition." ... The agency has been deeply implanted in Iran since 1953, when Kermit Roosevelt and fewer than 30 American and Iranian agents were able to mount an operation that brought down the leftist government of Mohammed Mossadegh and put the shah back on the throne. The entire operation cost less than $1 million, which the shah insisted on paying back, according to agency folklore. It is unclear that the agency could produce anything approaching these results for any sum-even if it were "unleashed." In 1953, Roosevelt mobilized huge proshah crowds through religious Moslem leaders. Today those leaders are spear-heading the massive demonstrations calling for the sha's removel. The efforts to organize pro-shah demonstrations now are headed by some Iranian generals and Iranian ambassador to the U.S. Ardeshir Zehedi, according to intelligence reports reaching Washington. Ardeshir is currently in Tehran. While honoring the shah's wishes that they totally ignore Iranian developments, CIA personnel have been given free rein in gathering intelligence about the Soviet Union from Iran. The shah permits the United States to operate some of the world's most sophisticated listening and radar equipment on the Soviet border. The fate of that equipment-should the shah fall suddenly, before it could be relocated-is a major worry for Carter administration planner. Intelligence analysts report that the agency performs two other major tasks in Iran. Its agents watch terrorist groups, devoting their attention primarily to anti-shah efforts but also coordinating with Israeli Mossad agents in Iran in combating Palestinian terror units. The CIA also is responsible for monitoring oil-field security, according to one source."

MI6 AND SHAH:

May 11, 1990, The Guardian, 'MI6 extremist and Tory Action man: Obituary of George Kennedy Young': "He saw his first problem as how to get rid of Mossadeq, the Iranian prime minister, who nationalised the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951. The initial plan, drawn up by Monty Woodhouse, later Conservative MP for Oxford, was to bring in arms and explosives for the planned coup. The plan was vetoed by both Churchill and Eden. Young went ahead anyway, and Mossadeq was toppled with the help of the CIA in 1953. ... After Suez, Young developed close cooperation with Israeli intelligence while helping the Shah of Iran build up Savak, his secret police and intelligence force. He later claimed that he tried to persuade the Shah, with whom he was on personal and friendly terms, to separate Savak's intelligence work from its domestic security role a role which contributed to the Shah's fall. ... (However, he was delighted a few years later, after he had left MI6 to become a director of the merchant bankers, Kleinwort Benson, when he was approached by Mossad to find a Briton acceptable to Saudi Arabia to organise a guerrilla war against the Yemeni regime then backed by the Egyptians. The Scotsman he found, Neil Maclean, a former colonel, succeeded in restoring the Imam, and Nasser pulled out his troops.) ... Though he was never in sympathy with nationalist movements, and confused them with organised terrorism, he did come to accept that they were not controlled by Moscow. ... Young joined Unison, one of the handful of groups, consisting mainly of former generals and admirals, set up to counter what they regarded as an unacceptable degree of civil and industrial strife in the mid-1970s."

KHOMEINI CONTINUED TORTURE:

January 3, 1983, Associated Press, 'Report Claims Widespread Arrests, Torture in Iranian Prisons': "The Iranian regime of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini is conducting mass arrests of suspected political opponents and is herding them into prisons where many are tortured or executed, Amnesty International said today. Amnesty said in a published report that informants have reported scores of executions daily. It said it could not estimate, "or even guess," how many have been arrested in Iran and whether those "missing" are dead or alive. The report said many prisoners are kept blindfolded for weeks at a time, and gave purported witnesses' accounts of torture by electric shock, beating, whipping and sexual abuse."

Parser, Edgar G.

Source(s): 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Diamond dealer living in New York. A friend of Democratic Senator Thomas Dodd and loaned him $3,000 in the late 1950s. Also in this time period, Parser gave Dodd's wife a sapphire ring and later on replaced the stone when it got lost. Dodd later tried to get Parser appointed U.S. Ambassador to Belgium and later Luxembourg. Dodd was close to Allen Dulles and the CIA. In the mid 1950s he lobbied for the Guatemalan dictator and death squad leader Carlos Castillo Armas, who was receiving support from the CIA. In the early 1960s, when Kennedy and the United Nations were trying to bring Moise Tshombe, president of the breakaway Zaire/Congo province Katanga (supported by CIA and big interests as the majority of minerals in Zaire/Congo could be found here), back into line, Dodd regularly visited Tshombe, supported him, and even told Tshombe that communists had taken over the State Department. Tshombe had earlier played a role in the murder of Lumumba, together with Mobutu, CIA, and major interests in Belgium. Dodd, like Parser, and was a personal and professional enemy of Kennedy and some have suspected Dodd of having played a part in the JFK assassination and/or its cover up. Parser's wife was part of the Democratic National Committee.

In September of 1961, while trying to find a way to reintegrate Katanga into the Congo, Hammarskjold was killed in a suspicious plane accident

Jan.-Feb. 1999 issue, Probe Magazine, Jim DiEugenio, 'Dodd and Dulles vs. Kennedy in Africa': "In 1962, Kennedy decided to hit Tshombe where it hurt. A joint British-Belgian company named Union Miniere had been bankrolling the Katangan war effort in return for mineral rights there. Kennedy, through some British contacts now attempted to get the company to stop paying those fees to Tshombe. Union Miniere refused. They replied that they had billions wrapped up in Katanga and could not afford to risk the loss. Kennedy now went through the American ambassador in England to the Belgian representatives of the company. He told them that unless a good part of the stipend to Katanga was curtailed, he would unleash a terrific attack on Katanga and then give all of Union Miniere over to Adoula when the Congo was reunified. This did the trick. The revenues going to Tshombe were significantly curtailed. The cutback came at an important time since Tshombe had already run up a multimillion dollar debt in resisting the UN effort. To counter these moves, Dodd forged an alliance with Senator Barry Goldwater, the ultraconservative senator from Arizona. Their clear message to Tshombe was that he should hold out until the 1964 presidential election in which Goldwater had already expressed an interest in running. Kennedy countered " U.N. Representative Conor O’Brien on the death of U.N. Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold: "In Elizabethville, I do not think there was anyone there who believed that his death was as accident."

-- KENNEDY AFRICA POLICY --

Philip E. Muehlenbeck, 'John F. Kennedy’s Courting of African Nationalism' (web.jmu.edu/history/mhr/Muehlenbeck/muehlenbeck-paper.pdf): "By the time of Kennedy’s inauguration on January 20, 1961, the dismantlement of the French colonial empire had resulted in the independence of an additional eighteen African states. Kennedy’s sympathy for African nationalism, both as a Senator and on the 1960 campaign trail, had helped swell the African continent with hope that under his leadership the United States would be more responsive to its needs. After winning the election Kennedy wasted no time in fulfilling his campaign promise to pay more attention to Africa. In December 1960, one month prior to taking office, Kennedy assigned a task force to study U.S. African policy. The task force discarded the idea that Africa was still a dependent of Europe and an area of non-interest for America. The task force report recognized African aspirations for independence, self-determination, economic development, and Cold War non-alignment – and suggested ways in which the United States could help facilitate these objectives.35 Clearly, this indicated that the administration intended to take a new and serious look at Africa. ... Prior to his inauguration the Eisenhower administration had already written off countries such as Guinea, Egypt, and Ghana as hopelessly lost to the Soviet orbit. But by late 1962 Kwame Nkrumah and Gamal Abdul Nasser felt that Kennedy was the only western leader that they could trust. Guinea’s Sékou Touré referred to Kennedy as his “best friend in the outside world” and said that the, “Guinean people now regard America as their best friend.”68 In Algeria, a country whose independence from France Eisenhower had tried to prevent, Kennedy had attained an almost folk hero stature for the way in which he had supported Algerian self-determination. Ben Bella and the rest of the Algerian government could not help but be eternally grateful for Kennedy’s 1957 stand in support of their cause. These were not isolated incidents, for such success stories were replicated all across the African continent, at great benefit to U.S. foreign policy.69 John F. Kennedy saw Africa as an arena of considerable Cold War rivalry in which vigorous American involvement was essential. The courting of Africa’s nationalist leaders was one of the key foreign policy initiatives of his administration. ... During the Kennedy Presidency, the United States was for the first time viewed as being sympathetic to the aspirations of Third World nationalism. In Africa, Kennedy became well respected for his aggressive efforts to find common ground with popular Pan-Africanist leaders like Sékou Touré, Gamal Abdul Nasser, and Kwame Nkrumah. Despite the reservations of both his NATO allies and domestic political opponents, Kennedy wholeheartedly courted these ‘radical’ African leaders. He did so because he felt that it was not only the right thing to do, but also in his country’s national interest. Senator Frank Church proclaimed that Kennedy was “the first American president to take a personal interest in African affairs. He understood the importance of the collapse of colonialism on that continent, the emergence of the independent governments, and the need for the United States to establish good relations with these governments.”72 ... Sadly Johnson did not maintain JFK’s policy of courting African nationalists. Yet despite the fact that American policy makers have neglected Africa for so long following his death, Africans still fondly remember the legacy of John F. Kennedy. Sargent Shriver wrote how common it was for him to walk into an African village hut, after his brother-in-law’s death, and find a picture of President Kennedy – torn from a newspaper and placed beside the family album or mementos.80 Visiting Ethiopia, Kenya, and Ghana in the late 1980s, Harris Wofford found “that in the homes of ordinary people no other American president or world leader had joined the faded photographs of John Kennedy.”81 Streets, schools, and parks all across Africa were renamed in honor of the slain American President, and his likeness soon graced African currency and stamps."

Picciotto, Mrs. Edgar de

Source(s): 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Biography of Edgar de Picciotto:

Edgar de Picciotto, who has been called "one of the cleverest bankers in Geneva" and is one of the most scandal-tainted. De Picciotto, from an old Portuguese Jewish trading family, who was born in Lebanon, established Compagnie de Banque et d'Investissements (CBI) in Geneva in 1969. At the end of the 1970s, the entrepreneur took the innovative step of advocating the introduction of hedge funds in the management of client assets. Before long, the CBI had chalked up a number of successes due to its exceptional asset management expertise, its ability to attract the most talented managers and a strategy targeting external growth. With Edgar de Picciotto at the helm, CBI made seven acquisitions, starting in the 1980s. The most important of these was TDB-American Express Bank in 1990, which led to the creation of the Bank in its current form, Union Bancaire Privée (UBP). At the origin of this merged entity was TDB (Trade Development Bank), which was founded in 1956, a symbolic year, since that was when Edgar de Picciotto entered the world of finance. The most recent acquisition was that of Discount Bank and Trust Company, in 2002. Union Bancaire Privée (UBP) also ranks second worldwide in the hedge funds sector, thanks to expertise built up over almost thirty years. As part of its continuing growth, Union Bancaire Privée (UBP) has set up an international network with operations in Europe, the Middle-East, the US, Latin America and Asia. Edgar de Picciotto is the main shareholder and Chairman of the Board of Directors of UBP. His two sons, Daniel and Guy (Chief Executive Officer), daughter, Anne Rotman de Picciotto, and nephew, Michael de Picciotto, took over the running of UBP some years ago. At 30 June 2007, the Bank had more than 1250 employees, and assets under management came to CHF 133.2 billion. This makes it the world's largest family-owned private bank with SFr126bn in assets under management.

Served as Representative Director of Banque Marocaine du Comm Exter. Director of Deutsche Bank, Switzerland. Patron of INSEAD. Director of Quantum Fund, at least in 1993-1994. April 6, 1994, SEC, 714041-10-0, p. 14: "Directors and officers of Quantum Industrial Holdings Limited: ... Richard Katz ... Edgar D. de Picciotto". September 25, 2009, ENP Newswire, 'Friday Richard Katz joins Union Bancaire Privee's Board of Directors': "Mr Katz has been active in banking and international finance for more than forty years, clocking up many successes, including as Director of N. M. Rothschild & Sons in London from 1977 to 1993 and as Managing Director of Rothschild Italia S.p.A. in Milan from its founding in 1989 until 1992. In the course of his career, Mr Katz has also served as advisor to governments, central banks and international organisations. Mr Katz is currently a Director of Leveraged Capital Holdings Investments [LCF Rothschild Group and Fortis MeesPierson control it] and [Edmond de Rothschild] Asian Capital Holdings Fund. He sits on the Executive Committee of Quantum Endowment Fund where he has been a Director since 1986. Furthermore, he sits on the boards of directors of Quantum Industrial, Quantum Realty and Asian Infrastructure Development Holdings Ltd." May 13, 1996, Business Wire, 'Leading Swiss Bank Taps Three Top U.S. Executives for Key Positions; Robert F. Agostinelli': "Union Bancaire Privee (UBP), one of Switzerland's largest private banks, today announced the appointments of Robert F. Agostinelli to the bank's executive management committee ... Mr. Agostinelli, 42, was a senior managing director for international investment banking in the New York office of Lazard Freres & Co. LLC. He will be based at UBP's Geneva headquarters where he will serve on the executive management committee. ... Mr. Agostinelli joined Lazard in 1987 after five years with Goldman, Sachs & Co."

June 4, 2001, Jerusalem Report, 'Banking on biotech': "During the 1980s, his Compagnie de Banque et d'Investissements (CBI) purchased a few small Swiss banks, and in 1990 he bought Geneva-based Trade Development Bank, three times the size of CBI, from the American Express banking group. At the time it was thought that he had help from another member of the Sephardi elite headquartered in Geneva, which included both Sudanese native Nessim Gaon and Edmond Safra, another Beirut native. ... In the mid-1990s, UBP survived a major scandal, when a bank employee was arrested in Florida on suspicion of money laundering. Press reports at the time suggested, incorrectly, that UBP was involved in other irregularities as well. And de Picciotto has also been targeted by such right-wingers as Lyndon Larouche"... Soros, he [Edgar] says, is an old friend. "I find him a fascinating financial mind, and enjoy discussing those matters with him." But, he says, UBP doesn't have close ties to Soros. It is only one of "thousands of people and dozens of banks" which have invested in Soros's Quantum fund."

His wife was a director of the WWF.

December 19, 1994, AP, 'Suspected Money Launderer May Be Victim of ''Trap,'' Bank Says': "A Swiss banker, implicated in a dlrs 3 million money laundering indictment in the United States, may be little more than the victim of a deliberate trap, his employer said Monday. Edgar de Picciotto director of administration at Geneva's Union Bancaire Privee, Europe's third-largest private bank said the bank had been victim of fraud and was not itself implicated in the money-laundering allegations. Banker Jean-Jacques Handali was among seven people arrested following allegations that they laundered more than dlrs 3 million - supposedly the profits of a marijuana smuggling operation - for an undercover Customs Service agent and an informant. At a press conference held at the bank Monday Picciotto said Handali had deliberately violated the bank's internal procedures. He had divided up the deposited funds and juggled accounts to such an extent that it had taken 20 days to reconstruct his actions, Picciotto said. But he said the matter appeared to be an isolated case. ''If the inquiry being conducted in the United States confirms that Handali was unable to resist the mole who led him into trap set up by the United States customs, it would appear that is the only thing he can be brought to account for,'' Picciotto told reporters. Handali along with a lower-ranking bank official, a former bank consultant, a Geneva businessman and five suspected couriers were named in the indictment earlier this month." February 8, 1996, Miami Herald, 'Banker pleads guilty to laundering': "Jean-Jacques Handali, 38, faces a possible seven-year term in prison under federal sentencing guidelines, said his lawyer, Paul D. Lazarus of Miami. ... Kaminsky, Handali and eight others were indicted in 1994 and accused of operating a global money laundering network."

Platen, Baron Henrik von

Source(s): 2010 list (member since 1982)

Born in Stockholm, Sweden, he was educated in Switzerland and in Sweden and has a BA in economics and finance from Stockholm School of Economics and an MBA from the Stanford Graduate School of Business. He is chairman of Hawker Pacific Pty in Australia, and a director of the Anchor Group, Belships ASA, Camillo Eitzen ASA, Tschudi Shipping Co., and several other companies. He also farms in Sweden and is engaged in community work and nonprofit projects in Sweden and the United Kingdom. Henrik von Platen has worked for Samco in London since its inception in 1980. Samco is a privately owned Saudi shipping company owning very large crude carriers. He is presently vice president for Samco. He is also a private investor, active in real estate, shipping, and forestry. He specializes in company reconstructions, primarily within shipping. Vice President of the Advisory Councel of the Stanford Graduate School of Business. Visitor of the Bohemian Grove in 2008.

Poecke, Marcel van

Source(s): 2010 list (member since 2002)

Commercial director Calpam International Petroleum Company B.V. 1990-1992. Managing director of the Vanol Group, a Dutch company engaged in the storage, trading and marketing of crude oil and refined products. Co-founder and co-CEO of Petroplus since 1993-2006. Large shareholder in Emergya Wind Technologies. Rotterdam School of Management. Advisory Board, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University. Secretary Jacob Soetendorp Institute for Human Values, which works along the line of the Earth Charter Guide to Religion and Climate Change. Chairman of the supervisory board of Oranje-Nassau Energie B.V.

Pritchard, Baron Derek W.

Source(s): 1978 and 1987 lists.

1910-1995. Took over family business of E. Halliday & Son, Wine Merchants, 1929, Man. Dir, 1930–51, Chm., 1947. Called up in TA and served War of 1939–45; demob. as Col and joined Bd of E. K. Cole, Ltd, 1946. Joined Ind Coope Ltd, as Man. Dir of Grants of St James’s Ltd, 1949, Chm., 1960–69; Chm., Victoria Wine Co. Ltd, 1959–64. Director: Ind Coope Ltd, 1951; Ind Coope Tetley Ansell Ltd on merger of those companies, 1961, subseq. renamed Allied Breweries Ltd, 1961–80 (Chm., 1968–70); Allied Breweries Investments Ltd, 1961–80; Licences & General Assurance Ltd, 1952–56, subseq. merged with Guardian Assurance Ltd, 1956–80; Guardian Royal Exchange Assurance Ltd, 1956–80; George Sandeman Sons & Co. Ltd, 1952–80; J. & W. Nicholson (Holdings), 1962–82; Carreras Ltd, 1970–72 (Chm.); Dorchester Hotel Ltd, 1976–80 (Chm.); Rothmans of Pall Mall Canada Ltd, 1972–77; Rothmans of Pall Mall (Australia) Ltd, 1972–77; Rothmans of Pall Mall (Malaysia) Berhad, 1972–77; Rothmans of Pall Mall (Singapore) Ltd, 1972–77; Deltec International, 1975–77; London-American Finance Corp., 1976–78; Midland Bank Ltd, 1968–85; Samuel Montagu Ltd, 1969–86; Adelaide Associates Ltd, 1970–; Rothmans International Ltd, 1972–86 (Chm., 1972–75); Rothmans Group Services SA, 1972–86; Rothmans of Pall Mall (London) Ltd, 1972–86; Rothmans Tobacco Hldgs Ltd, 1972–86; Carreras Group (Jamaica) Ltd, 1972–86; Paterson, Zochonis & Co. Ltd, 1977–89; Philips Electronic & Associated Industries Ltd, 1978–85; Lyford Cay Property Owners Assoc. Ltd, 1980–; Tiedmann-Goodnow Internat. Capital Corp., 1980–89 (Chm., 1980–86); Matterhorn Investment Co. Ltd (Chm., 1980–85); Thoroughbred Holdings Internat. Ltd, 1982– (Chm.); Euro-Canadian Bank Inc., 1984–89; Templeton Foundn Adv. Bd, 1980– (Chm., 1984–85); Templeton, Galbraith & Hansberger Ltd, 1987–; Templeton Investments Management Ltd, 1980–; Best Investments Inc.; Chalk International Airlines, 1984–; Equator Hldgs, 1985–; Equator Bank, 1985–; Dextra Bank & Trust Co., 1986–89 (Chm.). Chairman: Dorchester Hotel Bd of Trustees, 1976–87; Dorchester Pension Fund, 1976–86; Rothmans Internat. Adv. Bd, 1986–89; Mem., Salomon Bros Adv. Bd, USA, 1980–83; Dep Chm., British National Export Council, 1965–66, Chm. 1966–68; Member: Nat. Inds Appts Bd, 1973–82; Top Salaries Review Body, 1975–78; House of Lords EEC Cttee, 1975–79, EEC Sub-Cttee A, 1975–80; Cttee, British Foundn for Age Research, 1975–84; British Overseas Trade Adv. Council, 1976–84; Fund Raising Cttee, RCS, 1976–87; Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster’s Cttee on Business Sponsorship of the Arts, 1980–87; Amer. European Community Assoc., 1981–88; President: British Export Houses Assoc., 1976–83; Northants Co. Branch, Royal Agricl Benevolent Instn, 1981–87; Patron: Northants British Red Cross Soc., 1982– (Pres., 1975–83); Inst. of Directors, 1966– (Pres., 1968–74); Vice-President: Inst. of Export, 1976– (Pres., 1974–76); Wine and Spirit Assoc. of GB, 1964– (Pres., 1962–64); Northants Youth Club Assoc., 1965–; East of England Agricl Soc., 1974–; Co-Chm., UK-Jamaica Cttee, 1981–87; Trustee: Age Action Trust, 1975–80; St Giles Church, Northampton, 1976–86; Patron: Northampton and County Chamber of Commerce, 1978–; Three Shires Indept Hosp., 1978–; Abbeyfield Soc. for the Aged, 1979– (Pres., 1970–79); Governor: Clifton Coll., Bristol; Nene Coll., Northampton. DL Northants, 1974

Purves, Sir William

Source(s): 2010 list (member since 2006)

FIBScot; FCIB. National Service, with Commonwealth Div. in Korea (Subaltern; DSO). National Bank of Scotland, 1948–54; Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation: Germany, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Japan, 1954–70; Chief Accountant, Hong Kong, 1970; Manager, Tokyo, 1974; Sen. Manager Overseas Operations, 1976; Asst General Manager, Overseas Operations, 1978; General Manager, 1979; Executive Director, 1982–98; Dep. Chm., 1984–86; Chm. and Chief Exec., 1986–92; Chairman, 1990–98, Chief Executive, 1990–92, HSBC Holdings plc. Chm., Midland Bank Plc, 1994–97 (Dir, 1987–98); Dir, Marine Midland Banks Inc., 1982–98. Chairman: British Bank of ME, 1979–98; Hakluyt & Co., Ltd, 2000–08; non-executive Director: Shell Transport and Trading, 1993–2002; Reuters Founders Share Co. Ltd, 1995–2009; Trident Safeguards Ltd, 1999–2003; BW Gp Ltd, 2003–; Aquarius Platinum, 2004–; Dep. Chm., Alstom, 1998–2003. Trustee and Dep. Chm., Imperial War Mus., 1996–2004. Hon. LLD: Sheffield, 1993; Hong Kong, 1994; Hon. DBA: Stirling, 1987; Hong Kong Poly., 1993; Napier, 1998; Hon. MBA Strathclyde, 1996; UMIST, 2001. GBM 1999. Council member Chief Executive's Council of International Advisers (CECIA). Bilderberg 1998.

December 15, 1993, The Times, 'Trafalgar saved from collapse by HK Bank': "TRAFALGAR House, the QE2, Ritz Hotel, engineering and construction group, has been rescued from almost certain collapse in a last-ditch deal between Hongkong Land, its largest shareholder, and the Hongkong & Shanghai Bank Group, to secure a Pounds 300 million lending lifeline. Simon Keswick, the head of Hongkong Land and now the chairman of Trafalgar, turned for help to Sir William Purves, chairman of the Hongkong Bank, when he realised that the extent of Trafalgar's losses would shatter its banking covenants. Sir William agreed to supply the emergency lending facility on the condition that Hongkong Land, part of the Jardine Matheson business empire, stood by to support Trafalgar. Jardine and the Hongkong Bank are the two most powerful companies in Hong Kong, with a close relationship that goes back more than a century. "

Reksten, Hilmar

Source(s): Mentions Hilmar: August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1978 and 1987 lists

Ran a shipping company with his father, Hilmar, who died in 1980.

Hilmar Reksten, the biggest ship owner in the world, was a shareholder of both P&O, Zapata Naess and most likely, Burmah Oil. Most of his fortune escaped taxation during the post-war period, mostly because of help from the Norwegian Labor Government. Eventually he went bankrupt.

March 14, 1974, Journal of Commerce, p. 10: "Chmn Lord Inchcape of GB's P &O group, world's largest independent shippers, denies rumors that Norwegian shipowner Hilmar Reksten and his associates have 30% share in his co. Says Reksten owns only 10% of stock and that maximum overseas holding allowed in P&O is limited to 25%. Says P&O's profits were $80-million in '73 (S). " April 19, 1975, The Economist, 'Tankers; Glug-glug for the independents?': "Mr Hilmar Reksten, the Norwegian tanker owner, owns nine supertankers that are costing him an undisclosed fortune in interest and maintenance, and has chartered in four more costing about £2m a year each. That makes an unlucky 13, all of which are out of work. He is now trying to renegotiate the charter terms of the four, and has cancelled all but one of his orders for new supertankers. In 1973, Mr Reksten timed the boom perfectly and has got fat off which to live; many others are not so lucky."

September 29, 1979, The Economist, 'Hilmar Reksten; Leakage in Bermuda': "Bergen municipal judge Mr Georg Ulvoen is expected to take at least two months to consider the evidence and arguments put forward during the five-week trial of shipowner Mr Hilmar Reksten, which ended on Monday. The Norwegian government had claimed that Mr Reksten had evaded taxes by channelling profits abroad by pro forma deals in which his ships were chartered to a network of tax haven companies which he owned. Mr Reksten denies owning the companies, although he concedes having operated them, through management agreements. ... Witnesses included former shipowner Mr Erling Naess, who sold his bulk carrier fleet (Zapata-Naess) to Palmerston (a Reksten-managed company) and P&O in 1973. Mr Naess, who had previously told Norwegian television that ''Reksten bought half my fleet'', qualified this in court by saying that he did not know whether Mr Reksten personally was the buyer. He had been approached about the sale, he said, by Sir Charles Hambro, of Hambros Bank, and had understood that Mr Reksten was involved, but he did not know or ask whether Mr Reksten was buying for himself or on behalf of other interests."

December 29, 1990, The Independent, 'Payout closer for shipping tycoon's creditors': "OSLO (Reuter) - Trustees of the bankrupt estate of Norwegian shipping baron Hilmar Reksten have reached two compromises to end a 10-year search for cash allegedly hidden outside Norway - bringing closer a share-out among creditors. Trustees have struck deals with Reksten's family and Guinness Mahon and Co, the UK arm of Guinness Mahon Holdings. The family and Guinness Mahon, who both deny wrongdoing, are to pay money to the estate while the trustees will drop legal action against them. The settlements do not affect continuing lawsuits against Hambros Bank. The estate began legal action against Guinness Mahon in 1986 in London, Dublin and the Cayman Islands, alleging it had helped Reksten hide funds outside Norway. ''The case between the estate and the family is finished,'' said Erik Elstad, first stipendiary magistrate in the probate court in Bergen, where the compromises were handled. ''The case against Guinness Mahon will be dropped.'' Since Mr Reksten died of cancer in 1980, an estimated Nkr850m ( pounds 76m) of his estate has been recovered. Major creditors of the estate are the Norwegian state and Norwegian engineering firm, Aker. Karl Glad, Aker's managing director, said Aker would claim more than half of the recovered cash. Mr Reksten built a shipping empire operating oil tankers in the Gulf. The venture collapsed after the oil crisis in the 1970s and he received public money to keep it afloat. After the failure Mr Reksten was charged with hiding funds abroad which should have gone to creditors. The government declined to say how much it would claim. Total claims on the estate are put at about Nkr4bn. A creditors' meeting is set for 22 January."

Relecom, Michel

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Good friend of co-1001 Club member Mobutu, the ruthless dictator of Zaire. Since 1981 Relecom had been a tireless advocate of good relations between Zaire and Belgium (read: Mobutu and big business). On several occasion Relecom came into conflict with the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which accused him of "parallel diplomacy". January 18, 1989, Le Soir, 'Zaire': "The Zairian Press Agency (AZAP) reports that, "mandated in Kinshasa by Belgian businessmen with interests in Zaire," Mr. Michel Relecom, president of the Belgian-African Chamber of Commerce, following a meeting with President Mobutu, launched on Monday night "an appeal to the Belgian press and certain Belgian politicians to cease to poison relations between Zaire and Belgium. ... Some writings and speeches of Belgian journalists and politicians lacked the simple respect that is owed to a head of state, especially when we know that in Africa the leader must be fully respected."" Member of Cercle des Nations back in the 1970s and 1980s. Created Unibra, a Belgian brewery operating in the African drinks market, in 1961, through the merger of four breweries in Zaire (Today's Congo). In 1987, Unibra gained control of the Sobragui brewery in Guinea, now its main operation especially after it sold its Congo breweries in 1996. It was one of the founders of the Skol beer brand in 1964, and it still holds the marketing rights for Africa. It operates in six countries: Skol is the most popular beer brand in Congo and Guinea. Relecom was vice president of Skol International. In the late 1970s Prince Alexander de Rethy (1942-2009) worked for one of the firms for Relecom in Zaire. Chairman of the Belgian-Congolese Chamber of Commerce. Died in 1994. His wife was member of the honorary committee of the Diner-Dialogue Belgium-Congo of SOS Children's Villages (SOS Kinderdorpen), together with Etienne Davignon and a Olivier Lippens. Georges Timmerman (De Morgen editor in chief 1992-2009) for Apache News Lab, December 10, 2009: "Unibra, that was controlled by the friends of VdB [Paul Vanden Boeynants], owned a peculiar firm, the European Institute of Management (EIM), an innocent sounding name behind which a private intelligence agency was hidden." January 7, 2006, De Morgen, 'Hoe louche was het speurwerk van Bouhouche? Zijn dossiers gekraakt' (How shifty was the detective work of Bouhouche? His dossiers cracked'): "Still other customers of ARI were recommended by former-gendarme colonel Rene Mayerus, director of the European Institute of Management, also a private intelligence service, with a seat directly across the American Embassy on the Brussels Kunstlaan. Chairman of EIM was the former American ambassador in Brussels, Douglas MacArthur II, the son of the famous general from the second world war. Owner of EIM was the late Michel Relecom, businessman with interests in Zaire, confidante of president Mobutu and chairman of the Belgian-African Chamber of Commerce. At the time, EIM had several contracts with the government of Zaire. In the Belgium the peculiar firm, thanks to Mayerus, one of the contracts received was from the Department of Foreign Affairs for the security of diplomatic gatherings and high level conferences in several castle domains of the department, as the Egmont Palace. Later Mayerus brought Bouhouche and Beijer in contact with the American commercial intelligence bureau International Intelligence Inc. (Intertel). At the request of Intertel, we learn from the database, ARI for example investigated a firm which had offices on the the Brussels Meeusplein, coincidentally directly across the headquarters at the time of State Security."

Renwick, 1st Baron

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list, In Memoriam (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Robert Burnham Renwick (1904-1973). Controller of Communications, Air Ministry, 1942–45; Controller of Communications Equipment, Min. of Aircraft Production, 1942–45; late Chm. Co. of London Electric Supply Co. and its Group of Companies. First chairman of British United Industrialists in 1949. The BUI funneled money to the Conservative Party, the Economic League (spying on Left; blacklisting "subversive" workers; promoting big business), Aims of Industry (combated nationalization and the National Health Service). The BUI was allied with the National Association for Freedom of Pilgrims Society member Viscount De l'Isle. Partner W. Greenwell & Co., Stockbrokers; Chairman, Institute of Directors. Chairman British Relay Wireless, Clifton Reliance, Power Securities, East African Power and Light. Director Nigerian Electric Company. Director BICC 1969-1971, after the company of Pilgrim Lord McFadzean took over the Power Securities. White's. Named as the premier fund raiser of the Conservative Party in the post war years until his death. Thought to have raised some 20 million pounds.

September 1, 1973, The Times, 'Lord Renwick One of commercial television's founding fathers': "The nationalization in 1948 of the County of London Electric Supply Company brought Renwick into public life. A fervant believer in free enterprise and a determined opponent of state intervention, in 1949 he became chairman of British United Industrialists. ..." Actually, British United Industrialists was formed in 1962 by the merger of two earlier groups called United Industrialists Association (UIA) and the British Industrialist Association (BIA). It appears Renwick became head of one of these two organizations in 1949. April 11, 1973, The Times, 'The apostles of free enterprise': "British United Industrialists is a special case since there is no doubt that a substantial proportion of its funds are used to help the Conservative Party with its "free enterprise" publicity and general research. Each year Colonel Hobbs and a council of eminent but publicity-shunning businessmen led by Lord Renwick [1001 Club], co-founder of ATV and a once-bitten victim of nationalization (County of London Electricity Supply Co., taken over in 1947), persuade fellow industrialists to part with a sum thought to be between 300,000 pounds and 400,000 pounds which is then used to fund publicity for unreconstructed free enterprise. The precise distribution of funds is a well-kept secret. Following the introduction of the 1967 Companies Act, with its provisions on "political" donations, BUI promptly changed its status from limited company to unincorporated association: "To stop the snoopers finding out more about us than they need to", says the colonel. The senior of the other three prominent groups is the Economic League, whose president is Sir David Barran, former managing director of Shell Transport and Trading. The league was founded in 1919 "to diminish unrest and by positive propaganda to correct economic and other misstatements and impress upon employers and employed the vital necessity of increased production." The league's methods, pamphleteering at the factory gates, have remained the same for half a century, but the message has been adapted to meet changing circumstances. Today, simple economic exposition ... is laced with warnings about the dangers of the militant left wing, from communism, through international Socialism to yet more extreme creeds. The league's publicity director, Mr. Harry Welton .... admits that the league has at its disposal a fund of information about "subversives". The Economic League ... includes many notables from industry and commerce among its past and present council members--men such as ... the veteran Sir Harry Brittain, the polymath barrister businessman and journalist."

Riahi, Manuchehr

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Wealthy Iranian businessmen related by marriage to the Shah of Iran. Set up the early wildlife parks in Iran. Entrepreneur of Iranian government business with foreign enterprises. In 1953 Riahi came to the United States for the purpose of interesting American oil companies in the exploration and marketing of Iranian oil on behalf of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC). He negotiated deals with Cuban American Oil Company and the Pan American Oil Company.

December 20, 1963, UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF OKLAHOMA, 'HILLYER v. PAN AMERICAN PETROLEUM CORP.': "Riahi was a prominant businessman in Iran whose wife was the sister of the wife of Prince Abdorreza, a half-brother of the Shah. "

August 17, 2004, Denver Post, 'A COLORADO LIFE Outdoors was Iranian's passion': "Manuchehr Riahi helped establish Iran's national park system during the late shah's reign, and he became an enthusiastic member of the Arapahoe Hunt after moving to Colorado in the early 1980s. Riahi was 87 when he died of cancer Aug. 10 in Castle Rock. A memorial service will be at 11 a.m. Saturday at Fairmount Cemetery chapel. Riahi was born into Iran's rural gentry, closely related to Iran's powerful Sheybani family. His uncle was Gen. Habibollah Sheybani, staff director to the late Shah of Iran. Riahi was educated in Iran, England and Germany, where he was a university student during Adolf Hitler's political ascendance. Riahi left Germany in 1939. Returning to Iran, Riahi established a close relationship with Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who succeeded to the throne of Iran when his father abdicated rather than align with the Allies during World War II. Riahi managed a prosperous farm near Tehran and established a restaurant famous for its comely staff, all Polish women from a refugee camp. From 1943 to 1945, he served in the ministry of finance, resigning to indulge his lifelong interest in big-game hunting. In Iran, Riahi began a career importing Austrian steel and investing the profits in his farm. On his own, he successfully led a campaign for the country's first game law. Afterward, the shah appointed him to an honorary position on the national Game Council. Between 1956 and 1966, Riahi established Iran's Game and Fish Department, and began the process of authorizing a national park system. The agency later became Iran's environmental department, which supervises 10 national parks and scores of protected areas. In 1961, Riahi campaigned for a parliamentary seat. He was elected, but the shah, realizing the new parliament contained more dissenters than supporters, dissolved the assembly before its members had a chance to convene. Riahi maintained a cordial relationship with the shah, who presented him with two national awards for his tree- planting work in the 1970s. Riahi's farm had 160,000 quince, pomegranate and pine trees. In 1979, revolution forced Riahi, the shah and others to flee the country. Riahi spent two years in France and finally resettled in Castle Rock."

Riboud, Jean

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Riboud was born to a French banking family in Lyon, France, graduated in 1939 from L'École des Sciences Politiques, and began working for Marcel Schlumberger in 1951 as a financial assistant. After helping to merge the four independent Schlumberger divisions into Schlumberger, Limited, he was named general manager in charge of Schlumberger operations in Europe and the eastern hemisphere in 1959. When Pierre Schlumberger, the son of Marcel, resigned in 1965, and Jean Riboud was named president and chief executive officer of Schlumberger, Limited. Until 1969 he would work alongside Permindex founding board member John/Jean de Menil (see the 1001 biography of Mrs. Pierre Schlumberger). In the mid-1980s, as oil prices plummeted, so did Schlumberger's revenues and profitability. By 1985 Riboud was forced to resign.

Rockefeller, David

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Born in 1915 and youngest son of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Attended school in New York City and graduated with a bachelor's degree in English history and literature from Harvard University in 1936. This was followed with a Ph.D. (1940) in economics from the University of Chicago and a study at both Harvard and the London School of Economics. David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pp. 75-76: "My senior year was occupied with writing my senior thesis on Fabian socialism, "Destitution Through Fabian Eyes." The essay pointed to the fact that the traditional European approach to poverty was based on the Christian precept of atoning for one's sins by giving alms to the poor. The focus was more on the benefits in the afterlife to the donor than on the notion that individuals had a social obligation to provide assistance to people in need. Fabian Socialists, under the leadership of Beatrice and Sidney Webb, took the opposite view. They saw the provision of a minimum standard of living for everyone as a basic right of all citizens and an inherent responsibility of government. The concepts advanced by the Webbs and other Fabians established the foundation for the work of Sir William Beveridge, the the director of the London School of Economics, where I would soon go to study. Sir William, later Lord Beveridge, became one of the principal architects of the welfare state, which began to gain acceptance in Britain in the mid-1930s... In those days the LSE was widely considered a hotbed of socialism and radicalism. Founded by the Webbs in the 1890s to help achieve their Fabian Socialist goal of a just society based on more equal distribution of wealth, its walls had always given shelter to men and women who tested the limits of orthodoxy. During the 1920s and 1930s its reputation owed much to Harold Laski, a very popular political science professor who enthralled well-filled classrooms with his eloquent Marxist rhetoric... Although Laski was enormously popular with the student body, I found the intellectual content of his lectures superficial and often devious and misleading. They seemed more propaganda than pedagogy; he was indeed a pied piper... The economists at LSE were much more conservative than the rest of the faculty. In fact, its economists comprised the major center of opposition in England to Keynes and his Cambridge School of interventionist economics. My tutor that year was Friedrich von Hayek [founder of the Mont Pelerin Society in 1947]... I found myself largely in agreement with his basic economic policy... My favorite teacher at the LSE was Lionel Robbins, later to become Baron Robbins of Clare Market [supporter of the theories of Friedrich Hayek and Ludwig von Mises]..." Married Margaret "Peggy" McGrath in September 1940 and they raised six children, including son David Rockefeller Jr. Along with his brothers - John D. III, Nelson, Laurance, and Winthrop, David Rockefeller established the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) in 1940. Became a trustee of The Rockefeller Institute (later transformed into a university) for Medical Research in 1940. Trustee Rockefeller University 1940-1995. Secretary to New York City Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia 1940-1941. Assistant regional director of the United States Office of Defense, Health and Welfare Service 1941-1942. Enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1942. Military Intelligence officer in North Africa and Southern France 1942-1945. Set up an intelligence network in Algiers and was an insider to the battle between Charles De Gaulle and Henri Giraud for control over the French resistance. First became friends with William Paley (Pilgrims) and C.D. Jackson in Algiers. Met with ambassador Robert Murphy, a staunch Giraud supporter. Met David Bruce in 1945, head of the OSS. He would meet Bruce and his wife again in 1973 in China, where he would be invited for dinner. Assistant Military Attaché in Paris in the last 7 months of the war. Joined Chase National/Manhattan Bank in 1946 as an assistant manager under Winthrop W. Aldrich (Rockefeller intermarried) in the Foreign Department. Assistant manager in the Foreign Department, Chase National Bank 1947-1948. David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pg. 149: "I received a visit one morning in early spring 1947 from the new president of the Carnegie Endowment for International peace... After the usual pleasantries Hiss told me I had been elected to the board of the Carnegie Endowment, and he hoped I would agree to serve... I was flattered to be asked to join the Endowment's prestigious board, which included such luminaries as General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Thomas J. Watson, the founder of IBM. John Foster Dulles, the eminent international lawyer, was chairman... I had known him and his family since my college years. Foster had a reputation of being cold, austere, and puritanical, but the man I knew had a sense of humor and could be a wonderful companion. His daughter Lillias had been part of a small group of friends during my college years and one of Peggy's closest friends. In fact, when I was courting Peggy in the 1930s, she always stayed with the Dulleses at their New York town house. When I mentioned Hiss's offer to Nelson, he told me in confidence that a high-level FBI official had warned him there was reliable information indicating Hiss was a Soviet agent. I reported this to Foster, who said he didn't believe it... I accepted his judgment and joined the endowment's board in May 1947. A year later the spy charges against Alger Hiss would become front-page news." Played a major role in the development of the Morningside Heights neighborhood on the Upper West Side of Manhattan as president (1947-1957) and then chairman (1957-1965) of Morningside Heights, Inc. Second vice president Chase National Bank 1948-1949. Director of the Museum of Modern Art 1948-1958. Vice president Chase National Bank 1949-1952. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1970. Chairman of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research 1950-1975. In 1953, at this position, he recruited Detlev W. Bronk as president of the Rockefeller Institute and head of its medical research program. Bronk, a biophysicist, appeared on the initial membership list of the MJ-12 study group. Senior vice president of Chase National Bank with responsibility for supervising the economic research department and customer relations in the metropolitan New York area, including all the New York City branches 1952-1955. Attended the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954 and was one of its founders. When Chase National and the Bank of the Manhattan Company merged in 1955, David Rockefeller was appointed an executive vice president in charge of the bank development department. In 1957, he became vice chairman of the Board of Directors with responsibility for the administrative and planning functions of the bank as a whole. Briefly chairman of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1958. Again chairman of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1962-1972, and again in 1987-1993. Life trustee of the University of Chicago (which his grandfather helped to establish) and an honorary trustee of International House (New York), established by his father. In 1958 David Rockefeller helped establish the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association (D-LMA), serving as its chairman 1958-1975. 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pp. 448-449: "In late 1959 we were guests of Stavros [1001 Club] and Eugenie Niarchos for a week's sail through the Aegean aboard their three-masted schooner, The Creole... I had met Stavros six years earlier when he came to Chase's headquarters for a business meeting... Even though Stavros and I had little in common, we developed a good personal relationship and became business partners in many real estate deals in the United States, including the purchase of Rockefeller Center.... Our friends Jack [H.J. Heinz II; Pilgrims Society and Bilderberg organizer] and Drue Heinz of Pittsburgh were also on that 1959 voyage, as were Hans (Heini) Heinrich and Fiona Thyssen-Bornemisza [1001 Club], whom we met for the first time. Heini was the grandson of the famous August Thyssen, the "Rockefeller of the Ruhr," founder of Germany's Vereinigte Stahlwerke... Our cruise brought out the fact that we were all interested in art... The following May [1960]... we all flew to Lugano to spend the weekend with the Thyssens. When we arrived at Heini's home, the Villa Favorita, we were awestruck... It was the most beautiful private [art] collection we have ever seen." Primary founder of the Dartmouth Conferences in 1960, which was initiated at Dartmouth College in an effort to prevent U.S.-Soviet nuclear conflict. Only influential private citizens with no government positions were supposed to meet here. President Chase Manhattan 1961-1969. David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs': "Given the similarity in our interests, I was disappointed that Jack [John J. McCloy] and I never developed a close personal relationship... Frequently at gatherings I attended, Jack related the story of his first contact with my family. He had worked his way to college and law school in part by tutoring during the summer and had travelled to Maine in the summer of 1912, three years before I was born, hoping to get a job on Mount Desert Island. One of the families he decided to contact was mine... [he was] turned away... Nelson [Rockefeller] reportedly told him the "family had used its influence" to make him chairman and that one of his jobs was to ensure that "David would succeed him when he retired." It seems quite possible that Nelson made the comment or one quite similar to it. He could be quite high-handed and no doubt thought he was doing me a favor. But if Nelson made a statement of this kind, it certainly was not the result of a family decision or a request from me. It would have been highly inappropriate for anyone in the family to make such a demand. Unfortunately, if the story was true, it may have permanently altered Jack's attitude toward me... Quite possibly Jack could never look at me without remembering the long, dusty walk up the hill in Seal Harbor and the big wooden door being closed quietly but firmly in his face." In 1962, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began plans to build the World Trade Center, which was pushed hard for by David and Nelson Rockefeller. Founding member of the Commission on White House Fellows, 1964. David had a two and a half hour meeting in Moscow with Nikita Khrushchev in the summer of 1964. He reported to president Johnson that Khrushchev would like to do more trade with the United States and David recommended that more credit should be extended to the Russians. Met Khrushchev's successor, Leonid Brezhnev, soon afterwards. Also met Chou En-lai in the 1960s, to discuss economic cooperation. Other leaders David met with are Deng Xiaoping, Nasser, Saddam Hussein, Fidel Castro, the Shah of Iran, etc. David is on very good terms with Nelson Mandela and they regularly meet each other. It's interesting to note that Mandela is one of George W. Bush's fiercest critiques. Instrumental in the formation of the International Executive Service Corps and chairman 1964-1968. Founder Americas Society in 1965 (then called Council of the Americas). Helped found the Rockefeller Family Fund in 1967. Helped form The Business Committee for the Arts in 1967. 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', p. 413: "Bilderberg overlapped for a time with my membership in a relatively obscure but potentially even more controversial body known as the Pesenti Group [likely Le Cercle]. I had first learned about it in October 1967 when Carlo Pesenti [Vatican sponsored; Banco Ambrosiano shareholder], the owner of a number of important Italian corporations, took me aside at a Chase investment forum in Paris and invited me to join his group, which discussed contemporary trends in European and world politics. It was a select group, he told me, mostly European... Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Konrad Adenauer were founding members of the group, but by the time I joined, they had been replaced by an equally prominent roster that included Antoine Pinay... Giulio Andreotti... and Franz-Josef Strauss... The discussions were conducted in French, and usually I was the sole American present, although on a few occasions when the group assembled in Washington, Henry Kissinger, at the time President Nixon's national security advisor, joined us for dinner. Members of the Pesenti Group were all committed to European political and economic integration, but a few - Archduke Otto of Austria... Monsignor Alberto Giovanetti of the Vatican and a prominent member of Opus Dei... and Jean-Paul León Violet... - were preoccupied by the Soviet threat and the inexolerable rise to power of the Communist parties of France and Italy. Pesenti set the agenda for our thrice-yearly meetings, and Maître Violet, who had close connections with the Deuxième Bureau of the Services des Renseignements (the French CIA), provided lengthy background briefings. Using an overhead projector, Violet display transparency after transparency filled with data documenting Soviet infiltration of governments around the world and supporting his belief that the threat of global Communist victory was quite real. While all of us knew the Soviets were behind the "wars of national liberation" in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, I was not personally convinced the Red Menace was quite as menacing as Maître Violet portrayed it to be, but my view was a minority one in that group. Even though I found some of the discussions fascinating, the ultraconservative politics of some participants were more than a bit unnerving. My Chase associates, who feared my membership could be construed as "consorting with reactionaries," eventually prevailed upon me to withdraw." Chairman and CEO of the board of Chase Manhattan 1969-1981. Chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1970-1985. In May 1973 Chase Manhattan Bank opened it Moscow office at 1 Karl Marx Square, Moscow. Chairman of the Overseas Development Council of the US-USSR Trade and Economic Council, Inc., which was founded in 1973. Founder of the Trilateral Commission in 1973. 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pg. 207: "We [Chase; mid 1970s] approached three banks in the Rothschild Group. Since both Evelyn de Rothschild, chairman of L.M. Rothschild, and Leon Lambert, chairman of Banque Lambert (a Rothschild through his mother), were personal friends, I had positive initial conversations with them." Chairman Trilateral Commission 1977-1991. Founded the New York City Partnership in 1979 and was chairman 1979-1988. Chairman Chase Manhattan Bank Advisory Committee 1981-1999. Trustee Carnegie Endowment International Peace since 1981. President of the Harvard College Board of Overseers; life trustee of the University of Chicago; one of the most important members of the Bilderberg committee; visitor of the Bohemian Grove Stowaway camp; member American-Australian Association; chairman Americas Society 1981-1992; chairman Rockefeller Group 1981-1995. Helped to establish the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University in 1994. Chairman of Rockefeller Center Properties 1996-2001; became a director of the Shinsei Bank in 2000; chairman Rockefeller University; chairman of the Museum of Modern Art; member International Council of J.P. Morgan Chase; wrote 'Unused Resources and Economic Waste' (1940), 'Creative Management in Banking' (1964), and 'Memoirs' (2002); major shareholder of Atlantic Richfield Petroleum and International Petroleum Corporation (also a napalm manufacturer). David is the last of the "Fortunate Five" brothers. Winthrop died in 1972 after having been devastated by a chemotherapy procedure; John D. III died in a 1978 car crash; Nelson died in 1979 in bed with his mistress. Laurance died in 2004 of natural causes. David and Laurance were members of the Peace Parks foundation. David has attended meetings of Le Cercle and is a member of the Pilgrims Society. He has also been a long time member of the 1001 Club.

Rockefeller, Godfrey Anderson

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of Godfrey Stillman Rockefeller. September 22, 1974, Washington Post, 'Rockefellers Big Investors in D.C.': "The Rockefeller family's impact on the District of Columbia is small compared with its role in New York City, where the Rockefellers owned the land on which the United Nations building rose... Godfrey A. Rockefeller, a distant cousin who maintains residence here and on Gibson Island..."

Executive Director, World Wildlife Fund. Jan. 29, 2010, WWF, 'In Memoriam: Godfrey A. Rockefeller': "World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is greatly saddened by the passing on January 22nd of former WWF Executive Director Godfrey A. Rockefeller. Mr. Rockefeller played an important role in the founding and creation of WWF, including hiring the first staff and chief scientist and building a professional organization that today counts almost 900 staff as part of the extended WWF network and the largest conservation group in the world. He had a life-long love of conservation, and later served on WWF’s Board of Directors and its National Council in the years between 1977 to 2006."

Son of Godfrey Stilmann Rockefeller (1899-1983): Member of the Rockefeller family. Brother of James S. Rockefeller. Faculty, Yale-in-China, 1921-22; with indsl. dept. Nat. Comml. Bank & Trust Co., Albany, N.Y., 1925-28; ltd. partner Clark Dodge & Co., 1929-40; dir., v.p., pres., chmn. bd. Cranston Print Works Co., N.Y.C., 1930-83; with indsl. div. Marshall Plan Hdqrs., Paris, 1946; dir. Freeport Minerals Co. (appointed director in 1931), Istel Fund, Inc. Served as 2d lt. U.S. Army, 1918; to lt. col. USAAF, 1943-45. February 25, 1983, New York Times, 'Godfrey S. Rockefeller, Dies; Executive in Textiles Was 83': "Godfrey S. Rockefeller, chairman of the Cranston Print Works, a Rockefeller-owned textile company ... Mr. Rockefeller had been associated with Cranston since 1946. He was previously a partner of Clark Dodge & Company, investment bankers. He was a member of the board of Freeport McMoran [Freeport Minerals until 1980 when the company merged with McMoran Oil & Gas], a conglomerate, for 50 years." Dec 16, 1980, The Times, 'Freeport-McMoRan Merger': "Freeport Minerals mines produces sulpher, phosphoric and sulphuric acid, kaolin, potash, uranium oxide and oil and natural gas. Its 81 per cent owned Freeport Indonesia produces copper concentrates. McMoran Oil, based in Louisiana, explorer, develops and operates oil and natural gas properties in Texas, Louisiana and western Canada." March 19, 1981, Indiana Gazette, p. 12: "Freeport [Mining Co.] says the mine will be America's largest and will nearly double Nevada's gold production when it begins operating around the first of the year." Since 1973, Freeport has operated the world's largest gold mine, located in Indonesia's Papua province. In 1982 Freeport Gold Company was the world's largest gold producer.

In een strafzaak die betrekking heeft op smokkel van overigens niet-bedreigde dieren, heb ik gezien dat de Bredase Hoofdofficier een plea-agreement heeft gesloten met een Amerikaanse verdachte in deze zaak. Hij zou een half miljoen gulden betalen aan het Wereld Natuurfonds. Met dat geld zou een natuurgebied worden aangekocht in Irian Yaja, het zogenoemde Lorentz-park. Het merkwaardige doet zich voor dat dit park een belangrijk mijnbouwgebied is. Er is daar een mijn, de Freeport, die in handen is van de Amerikanen. De lokale bevolking werd, zoals steeds, uit dit gebied verdreven en kwam in opstand. Na de gijzeling van de WNF-staf zijn de Papoea's aangepakt en vermoord.

Rockefeller, Laurance S.

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Who's Who: Chairman Rockefeller Center, Inc., 1953-56, 58-66, director, 1936-78; founding trustee, president, chairman Rockefeller Brothers Fund, 1958-80, vice chairman, 1980-82, adv. trustee, 1982-85 Career Related Director Eastern Airlines, 1938-60, 77-81, adv. director, 1981-87; chairman Woodstock Resort Corp.; board directors Readers Digest Association, 1973-93. Member National Cancer Adv. Board, 1972-79; hon. chairman New York Zoological Society, 1975; life trustee Wildlife Conservation Society; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1947-60, chairman 1960-82, hon. chairman 1982—; chairman Citizens Adv. Council on Environmental Quality, 1969-73, Jackson Hole Preserve, Inc., president, 1940-87, chairman and trustee, 1987-96, chairman emeritus and trustee, 1997-2004; commissioner Palisades Interstate Park Commission, 1939-78, president, 1970-77, commissioner emeritus, 1978-2004; chairman Outdoor Recreation Resources Rev. Commission, 1958-65, New York State Council of Pks., 1963-73, White House Conference on Natural Beauty, 1965; life member corp. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; trustee emeritus Princeton University; hon. trustee National Geog. Society; trustee Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 1950-82, Greenacre Foundation, National Park Foundation, 1968-76, Sleepy Hollow Restorations, 1975-87, chairman, 1981-85; trustee Hist. Hudson Valley, 1987-2004, chairman emeritus, 1997-2004; chairman Woodstock Foundation, 1968-97, chairman emeritus, 1997-2004; hon. director National Wildflower Center, 1988-2004. Member Am. Conservation Association (president 1958-80, chairman 1980-85, hon. chairman 1985-2004), Princeton Club, University Club, Brook Club, Capitol Hill Club, Cosmos Club, Boone and Crockett Club, Knickerbocker Club, Lotos Club (New York City), Sleepy Hollow Club (Tarrytown). Member of the Peace Parks foundation with David Rockefeller.

During World War II he served as a procurement officer in the U.S. Navy.

July 12, 2004, Washington Post, 'Laurance Rockefeller Dies at 94': "With commercial air travel still a gamble in the late 1930s, Mr. Rockefeller gave key financial backing to Eddie Rickenbacker [America First Committee; Wackenhut; surrounded by John Birchers], the World War I ace who became chief of Eastern Airlines. Mr. Rockefeller became one of the airline's largest stockholders. A meeting with J.S. McDonnell Jr., the St. Louis aircraft engineer and designer, led to an infusion of cash that created McDonnell Aircraft Corp., one of the most important military contractors in the aftermath of World War II. Mr. Rockefeller was a director at McDonnell Aircraft but gradually reduced his role there to help smaller concerns, such as Reaction Motors in New Jersey, which built the Viking Rocket. He invested heavily in firms researching supersonic engineering. And one of his investment partnerships in the late 1960s, Venrock Associates, provided early funding for computer companies Intel and Apple."

January 14, 1993, Greenwire, 'Youth: Kids 'Earth Summit' Planned For April': "Children's Earth Fund is not a membership organization, but was founded by Larry Rockefeller about a year-and-a-half ago as a project of the American Conservation Association, a non-profit foundation. The group was established to help kids "take effective action on behalf of the earth," according to Brody."

April 23, 1993, AP, 'Know It, Live It, Share It, Grow It, Push It': "The Kids World Council, a delegation of 55 children from the United States and five other countries, met recently in Orlando, Fla., to adopt an environmental plan. A smaller "Plan It for the Planet" delegation will present the plan in Washington, D.C., in June. In small and large group sessions, the delegates proposed, debated and ratified a five-part plan: Know It, Live It, Share It, Grow It, Push It. The meeting was organized by the Children's Earth Fund, a project of the nonprofit American Conservation Association, and hosted by Nickelodeon, a cable network and producer of children's television programming. The kids pledged to: - Know enough to convince others to save energy and switch to renewable sources. - Each save a ton of carbon dioxide this year by taking energy-saving steps at home. - Create kid-to-kid networks worldwide to work on environmental concerns. - Recruit more kids to join the fight for the planet Earth. - Press the United States to do whatever it takes to work with all nations to stop global warming and to protect the planet. Nickelodeon said it received more than 387,000 pledges from children, who called a toll-free telephone number, to save energy and carbon dioxide in 1993 by either recycling, walking or riding a bike, or by turning off electric lights."

July 12, 2004, AP, 'Laurance Rockefeller, billionaire philanthropist, dies at 94': "He founded the American Conservation Association in 1958 and was head of Jackson Hole Preserve Inc., a conservation organization that played a major role in protecting parts of the Grand Tetons in Wyoming and redwood trees in California. Rockefeller helped develop national parks in Wyoming, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Vermont, and chaired the White House Conference on Natural Beauty."

September 22, 2003, PR Newswire Europe, 'Non-profit watchdog files IRS complaint against Greenpeace, seeks Federal probe': "Because Greenpeace receives significant donations from large entities, such as the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and the Turner Foundation, the report also calls into question the accountability of these donors. "Foundations that make tax-exempt contributions are responsible for verifying that their funds are used appropriately," Hardiman said. "In this case, the funds clearly are not being used appropriately, which means one of two things: Either the foundations have no idea how their money is being spent, or the foundations are knowingly helping Greenpeace break the law."" Ted Turner also came up with the idea for Captain Planet.

December 17, 2004, San Francisco Chronicle, 'S.F. nonprofit a lean, green, fighting machine': "Rainforest Action Network has 27 employees. Forty percent of its $2.5 million operating budget comes from foundations such as the Rockefeller Brothers Fund; 35 percent is from individual donors who give large amounts of money; and 25 percent consists of smaller donations from 15,000 members."

"It is estimated that there are today better than 3,000 organizations working for preservation of scenic land and wildlife, pollution control, energy resource conservation, and a multiplicity of similar causes. Of these, several hundred are national or regional, with the majority made up of local groups. The most visible are, however, the large national organizations, both membership and nonmembership. Such organizations are generally very well funded; indeed, it has been estimated that twelve of the largest of these groups have a total membership in excess of 4,300,000 people and combined budgets of over $48,000,000. Their budgets are supported by a combination of individual and corporate contributions and grants from government and from such foundations as the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. ...

November 1977, Heritage Foundation Reports, 'The Environmental Complex': "As part of its program on economics and the environment, the Conservation Foundation has undertaken a three-year project on "Business and the Environment" with Reilly as project director. This effort is being supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the Rockefeller Brothers Fund... Other such grants [to the Conservation Foundation] for the years 1971 through 1976 are listed below... * $100,000 from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, New York, 1972, for budgetary support and development activities. ... * $500,000 from the German Marshall Fund of the United States, Washington, D.C., January 10, 1974 ... * $180,000 from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, June 18, 1974 ... * $132,000 from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, November 30, 1973... * $50,000 from the Ford Foundation, November 1975 ... * $275,000 from the Mellon Foundation, October 7, 1975 ... $50,000 from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, May 20, 1976 .... * $85,000 from the Rockefeller Foundation, New York, 1975 ... [and several more grants]"

May 13, 1983, Heritage Foundation Reports, 'The "Global 2000" Juggernaut': "The Global Tomorrow Coalition is the spearhead of the recently evolved Global 2000 movement. Very large and with vast resources, it is a central element in the environmentalist lobby, which many experts say is the most powerful in Washington. This lobby helps determine how policymakers and the press view the options available for addressing some of the Nation's most pressing problems. The trouble is that the Global 2000 movement rests on a base of faulty analysis -- the 1980 Global 2000 Report to the President. ... President Jimmy Carter requested that Global 2000 study. ... This was the report's own thumbnail summary of the Global 2000 findings: If present trends continue, the world in 2000 will be more crowded, more polluted, less stable ecologically, and more vulnerable to disruption than the world we live in now. ... Despite greater material output, the world's people will be poorer in many ways than they are today." ...

"FOUNDATION GRANTS TO ENVIRONMENTALISTS

Editor's Note: In a recent news release, Ralph Nader's Capitol Hill devotees accuse a prestigious American research organization of "compromising" its findings to secure corporate funding. According to the Naderites, the American Council on Science and Health endorsed pesticides to win grants from Dow Chemical, took a moderate view of sugar dangers to please Coca-Cola, and otherwise defended "junk food" to gain favor of American agribusiness.

Of course this technique is second nature to the environmentalists -- representing adversaries as soulless agents of unseen "corporate" wealth. But who funds the environmentalists?

Below, readers can see the astonishing record of foundation grants to the no-growth movement -- a record of industrial fortunes financing their worst enemies. Often acting in response to perceived "public" pressure, foundations have created an ironical situation -- the "populist" environmentalists have the best-financed organizations in America.

An indicanon of the power "public" wishes enjoy over foundation behavior is seen in a recent Virginia example. Found liable for pollution of the state's James River in 1977, Allied Chemical Company was encouraged by federal judge Robert Merhige to capitalize a "Virginia Environment Foundation." The companay complied, and has since "compensated" Virginia citizens by pouring $38,000 into the National Wildlife Federation and Environmental Defense Fund.
 
FORD FOUNDATION
 
President: McGeorge Bundy
Vice-President: David E. Bell
Andrew Brimmer
Hedley Donovan
Robert S. MacNamara
J. Irwin Miller
Irving S. Shapiro
Glenn E. Watts, Aspen Institute
Grants to environmentalist organizations in 1979-81
Alaska Native Foundation $20,000
Alan Guttmacher Institute 1,000,000
American Friends Service Committee 75,417
Aspen Institute 29,395
Center for Law and Social Policy 12,000
Conservation Foundation 25,000
Consumer Energy Council of America $76,546
Environmental Defense Fund 404,000
Hawaiian Coalition for Native Claims 25,000
Institute for Democratic Socialism 5,000
Massachusetts Audubon Society 10,000
Native American Rights Fund 600,000
Natural Resources Defense Council 1,740,000
New England Natural Resources Center 335,500
New York Lawyers for the Public Interest 15,000
Population Council 7,408,000
Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund 170,000
Survival International 60,000
Washington University Center for Biology
 of Natural Systems 79,443
Wisconsin Center for Public Policy 268,000
Youth Project 10,000
World Wildlife Fund 25,000

Source: Environmental News Service-date not known.
 
ATLANTIC RICHFIELD FOUNDATION
 
Director: Robert O. Anderson, Club of Rome
Director: Thornton Bradshaw, Club of Rome
Grants to environmentalist organizations in 1979-80
Aspen Institute $1,436,000
California Conservation Project 15,000
Center for International Environmental
  Information 10,000
International Institute for Environmental
  Information 20,000
National Wildlife Federation 50,000
Sierra Club Federation 30,000
U.S. Association for the Club of Rome 5,000
Wilderness Society 15,000
World Wildlife Fund 10,000

 
ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION
 
David Rockefeller
Theodore Hesburgh
Robert V. Roosa
W. Michael Blumenthal
Lane Lirkland
Bill Moyers
Victor Palmieri
Henry B. Schacht
Clifton Wharton, Jr.
Grants to environmentalist organizations in 1979-81:
Aspen Institute $313,000
Conservation Foundation 15,000
International Institute of Applied
  Systems Analysis
  (Club of Rome) 108,000
John Muir Institute 24,310
Lindesfarne Association 35,000
Massachusetts Audubon Society 34,000
Natural Resources Defense Council 25,000
Population Council 3,015,000
Population Resource Center 200,000
World Watch Institute 35,000
Zero Population Growth Foundation 37,500

 
ROCKEFELLER BROTHERS FUND
 
Henry Kissinger
Dana Creel
William M. Dietel
William McChesney Martin
David Rockefeller and other family members
Grants to environmentalist organizations in 1979-80:
American Friends Service Committee $25,000
Aspen Institute 60,000
Center for Law and Social Policy 115,000
Conservation Foundation 50,000
International Federation of Institutes of
  Advanced Studies (Club of Rome) 60,000
National Center for Policy Alternaitves 140,000
Natural Resources Defense Council 50,000
New Alchemy Institute 120,000
Population Council 3,650,000
Survival International 25,000
Zen Center (San Francisco) 50,000
Northern Rockies Action Group 120,000

 
ROCKEFELLER FAMILY FUND
 
Rockefeller family member are trustees
Grants to environmentalist organizations in 1979-81:
Community Nutrition Institute $25,000
Citizens for a Better Environment 40,000
Conservation Law Foundation of New England 120,000
Environmental Action Foundation 20,000
Environmental Defense Fund 55,000
Environmental Law Institute 10,000
Environmental Policy Institute 130,000
National Audubon Society 50,000
National Wildlife Federation 20,000
Natural Resources Defense Council 210,000
Public Lands Institute 10,000
Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund 110,000
Southwest Research and Information Center 15,000
Wilderness Society 60,000
World Wildlife Fund 20,000

"

---

Laurance and UFO research:

Colinandrews.net/Crop_Circle_Research.html (accessed: January 19, 2009) : "The Rockefeller Initiative. (Look down the left hand column to find). By Don Berliner, Antonio Huneeus, Richard Hall, Robert Teets, Dr. John Mack, Dr. Leo Spinkle, Dr. Steven Greer, Dr. Bruce Maccabee, Linda Moulton-Howe, Dr. Jacques Vallee, Colin Andrews, Victoria Alexander, Karl Pflock, Dr. Richard Boylan. Gov: Vice Pres. Al Gore, John Podesta, Con. Bill Richardson, Webster Hubbell, Melvin Laird, Sen Clainborne Pell, Sen. Patty Murray, Marie Galbraith, Sec. Sheila Widnall and Rep. Steven Schiff."

Grant Cameron, 'Records from the Clinton OSTP Related to UFOs, Extraterrestrial Intelligence and the Laurance Rockefeller Initiative': "The official invitation to discuss UFOs privately came in an August 4, 1993 letter from Rockefeller to Gibbons. The informal roundtable discussion was to be held September 13-15, 1993 at Rockefeller's JY Ranch in the Teton Forest near Jackson Hole Wyoming. Along with representatives from Gibbons office, Richard Farley, Rockefeller, Henry Diamond, Dr. Scott Jones, Dr. John Mack, Dr. Bruce Maccabee, Dr. Leo Sprinkle, Linda Moulton Howe, Dr. Steven Greer, and Keith Thompson attended." The meeting has been described by Greer also.

August 24, 1995, Daily News (New York), 'Prez's hunt for campaign cash may turn up some UFO's first': "President Clinton may have to hold still for a lecture on UFOs if he expects to squeeze campaign money out of Laurance Rockefeller. The 85-year-old philanthropist was among the VIPs at Clinton's 49th birthday last weekend in Wyoming. And it's safe to say that the venture capitalist has the President's ear at least while Clinton is vacationing on the Rockefeller spread. Chances are the two men have, or will, talk about the environment, since Laurance has been a conservation adviser to every President since Eisenhower. It's also likely that Rockefeller will bring up the alien issue. Immigrants from Mexico? No, from outer space. Rockefeller has been pressing the Clinton administration to open the government's UFO files. Correspondence we've obtained shows that Rockefeller has told White House Science Adviser John Gibbons that the government must put an end to "40-plus years of denial on the subject" of UFOs, particularly the rumored crash of a spacecraft in Roswell, N.M., in 1947. Rockefeller said he has been "encouraged" by Gibbons' suggestion that he make Roswell "a test case." A Rockefeller-funded study on UFO activity conducted recently with the help of three former astronauts [Brian O'Leary; Edgar Mitchell; Gordon Cooper] should be presented to the White House this fall, according to Michael Luckman, of the New York Center for UFO Research. Rockefeller is also said to have financed a group trying to contact extraterrestials with lasers [That would be Steven Greer]."

Fall, 1995, Common Cause Magazine, 'White House Alien Policy': "UFO enthusiasts, concerned scientists and cosmic conspirators have been demanding documentation on the government's extraterrestrial intelligence for decades, but Laurance Rockefeller is trying a new tack: money. Lots of it. Rockefeller, great-grandson of John D. and nephew of Nelson, has contributed some $700,000 to the Human Potential Foundation, a non-governmental UFO watchdog. The foundation, in turn, publicizes stories of extraterrestrial life; it gave almost $200,000 to John Mack, a psychiatrist, Harvard professor and Pulitzer Prize-winning author, so he could study people who say they have run with the aliens In Abduction, Mack relates their tales of space travel, space ships, alien insemination and worse. The foundation also offers political prognosis: "The new congressional majority [may] hang this issue on the president," Human Potential's Scott Jones warned in a letter to the White House. "He need not be politically damaged by this, but the old policy will have to be changed in a hurry.""

June 2, 1995, Washington City paper, 'A Conference of Space Cases UFO Experts Suggest It's Time to Make Nice With E.T.s': "As moderator, C.B. Scott Jones remains cosmically neutral. Jones is the president of the Falls Church, Va.-based Human Potential Foundation, which organized the conference. Previously, he worked for six years as special assistant to Sen. Claiborne Pell (D-R.I.), whom he says shares an interest in ESP, telepathy, and clairvoyance. Unable to convince the government to fund research into the paranormal, Jones turned to the private sector. Laurance Rockefeller, millionaire philanthropist and brother of Nelson, provided seed money for the foundation. Jones and Rockefeller decided their first big project would be to “see if they could reverse the policy of silence and secrecy on UFOs.” Contact with extraterrestrial intelligence will have an impact on society—“8 to 10 on the Richter scale,” insists Jones—which is why he wants to get people talking about it. ... The stated mission of the event is to prepare humanity for contact with otherworldly visitors. Rohatyn takes delight in tweaking the true believers who have assembled for otherworldly homage. “I think the whole subject is a symbol and symptom of our angst. It tells us a lot about ourselves, not much about the universe,” he says. The audience endures Rohatyn's ribbing politely, but seems more engaged by Harvard psychiatry professor John Mack, who's drawn raised eyebrows from his colleagues for suggesting that UFO abduction tales be accepted at face value. Based on the accounts of about 100 alleged abductees—many of whom cite sexual molestation by E.T.s—Mack thinks the visitors are trying to create a hybrid human/extraterrestrial race. Mathematician and author Dave Hunt lets some air out of Mack's balloon when his turn comes. He says it's remarkably presumptuous to think aliens would find earthlings interesting. “I don't even think we would make good pets for them,” he sniffs. ... Geobiologist Elisabet Sahtouris tosses forth the idea that UFOs come not from deep space but from other dimensions (she explains there are at least six others besides length, width, depth, and time). Native Andean peoples have known of E.T.s' existence for some time, she alleges. Her protegé, a Peruvian teen-ager named Puma Quispe Singona, says he wanted to re-enact a harvest ceremony to evoke these interdimensional “light beings.” Unfortunately, the rite involves the chewing of coca leaves, which are a notoriously difficult item to sneak past Customs. Too bad—a little leafy euphoria might have added some sparkle to the assemblage at the Sheraton. ... Zecharia Sitchin, author of the “Earth Chronicles” series, believes the conference should have been retitled “When Cosmic Cultures Met.” Stitchin's theory is that 450,000 years ago, aliens touched down in the Persian Gulf and created mankind by merging their gametes with those of our knuckle-scraping hominid ancestors. Sitchin insists he has met the aliens, and they are us."

January 29, 1996, Insight on the News, 'Enough Whitewater; Let's talk UFOs': "Lobbying on Capitol Hill may be taking a bizarre turn, according to a recent report in Perceptions magazine. Robert and Cecilia Dean of Stargate International, a research firm, have announced a grassroots lobbying effort to "gain immunity" for certain ex-military personnel so they can testify about UFOs and their occupants. One person who apparently would benefit from such immunity is Robert O. Dean, a retired Army sergeant who, according to himself, holds a "cosmic top secret" security clearance from NATO. Dean, if one gives credence to a biographical note in Perceptions, has had access to secret reports on numerous UFO formations above Eastern and Western Europe. Dean said in an interview with Perceptions that to discuss the UFO situation without a special dispensation could result in "10 years [in jail], a $10,000 fine and forfeiture of all my pay and allowances." The effort to put Dean on the public record on Capitol Hill is said to be further supported by C.B. Scott Jones, a former military intelligence officer and former aide to Sen. Claiborne Pell, among others, with backing from philanthropist Laurence Rockefeller."

June 3, 1997, Steven Greer, 'Reply to Michael Lindeman/CNI article': "Unfortunately, subsequent to this, Mrs. Galbraith, in collaboration with the so- called and newly formed UFO Research Coalition attempted to seize this jointly created BAE [Best Available Evidence] document, copyright it, and restrict its use, in clear and reprehensible violation of the spirit of how the document was created. In doing so, Mrs. Galbraith violated our working agreement, and further violated her arrangement with the founder and principal of BSW foundation, a long time friend of Mrs. Galbraith. Both the principal of BSW and CSETI protested this extraordinary and divisive act, but Mrs. Galbraith and the UFO Research Coalition persisted in this behavior. I wrote Mr. Rockefeller personally informing him of this treachery. I further informed him that we intended to use the BAE document, which I originated and named and for which I selected many of the cases, in the manner which he - and all of us - had intended: as a non-copyrighted, public domain document, jointly created in good faith, to be used for educating world leaders on the UFO subject. No corrective instructions were ever sent to us regarding this clearly stated position."

June 30, 1998, The Times, 'Scientists agree to open X-files on UFO data': "Unidentified flying objects are worth studying in the hope of learning something new, a scientific panel in America has concluded. They are not evidence of life elsewhere in space, nor do they disprove any known physical laws. But some are accompanied by compelling physical evidence that merits greater investigation. The nine-member panel, organised by Peter Sturrock, of Stanford University, and backed by the philanthropist and businessman Laurance Rockefeller, asked eight UFO investigators to present the strongest data they had for the existence of UFOs. The panel's report was published yesterday in the Journal of Scientific Exploration. "If there is an interest in trying to get serious answers to the UFO problem, it would be sensible for scientists to focus on the physical evidence as opposed to witness testimony," Professor Sturrock said. Such evidence includes photographs, radar reflections, traces left on the ground or in vegetation, physiological effects on witnesses and debris. Some could be explained by rare natural phenomena such as electrical activity above thunderstorms, or "radar ducting" - the trapping of radar waves by atmospheric channels. But others defied such explanation, the panel said. Further examination of the same evidence is unlikely to provide any fresh light. Most UFO investigations lack the rigour required by the scientific community. But new data, scientifically acquired and analysed, could yield better explanations. The new report differs from the most comprehensive yet carried out, by Edward Condon in 1968. He concluded that further UFO investigation was a waste of time. The Sturrock panel, by contrast, says that further work would be useful, and should be carried out."

Steven Greer during a presentation (Youtube video): "When I put these briefings together, Laurance hosted the Clintons at his ranch. ... He wanted the truth out, but his brother David Rockefeller of Chase Manhattan didn't - doesn't. And Laurance was the philosopher of the family. He went to Princeton with McDonnell, old man McDonnell, of McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. And Laurance really wanted to get this fixed, but he got surrounded by these people of the CIA that took all of his money and flushed it down the toilet. But when he was hosting the Clintons at his ranch and he was going through all these materials that we had put together, Hillary Clinton stood up and said, "Stop. We don't want to hear any more. This is too dangerous." And that was the end of that. So by 1998 I had concluded that we hadn't accomplished, nor the President, nor the United Nations. And I had met with the Boutros Ghali family, the U.N. Secretary General. They weren't going to stick their necks out on this. It was too hot to handle. Therefore, we did the Disclosure Project."

Funded the work of Dr. Steven Greer, although a later, much larger donation was intercepted by the CIA people surrounding him, according to Greer. It was funneled into other UFO projects, like that of Dr. John Mack. According to Greer, Laurance was sincerely interested in finding out what was behind the UFO phenomenon, but was pressured by his family to leave it alone, while the people that surrounded him effectively rendered his donations largely useless. According to Greer, who has met with Laurance on several occasions, he finally lost interest in the topic because of people like Marie Galbraith (wife of Evan G. Galbraith: CIA; Morgan Stanley; Dillon Read; National Review; Lagardere) who were manipulating the investigations he sponsored. Hundreds of thousands of dollars of his went to Dr. John Mack's abduction research center. When "The Best Available Evidence" was released to elite political and business circles in 1996, Laurance didn't order many copies for himself to distribute. The copies he did request went to General Colin Powell, former president Nixon, Henry Kissinger, evangelist Billy Graham, and Maurice F. Strong. Laurance was involved in Strong's Baca ranch near the Sangro de Cristo mountains.

Crop circle research funded by Laurance Rockefeller

May 18, 1999, Western Daily Press, 'Rockefeller's quest to solve crop circle riddle': "Laurance Rockefeller is funding research into the puzzling patterns ... [He] has hired former local government officer Colin Andrews to dig deeper into the riddle. ... Mr Andrews, formerly of Andover but now based in Connecticut, will be flying surveillance flights over Wiltshire next month hoping to record new discoveries. He has compiled the largest database on the subject and advised several governments on his findings. He was asked to present his work at the United Nations headquarters in New York in 1994 when his close friend Reg Presley, lead singer with The Troggs, flew to America to attend. ... Speaking from America yesterday, former Test Valley borough council engineer Mr Andrews said: "He asked me if I would like to submit some research projects to him which he might be able to help finance. "With his help we engaged staff in my Connecticut offices and also flew regular flights in aircraft over Wiltshire and Hampshire last year. ... "Numerous farmers have shown concern over the level of hoaxing. This is a problem but is not only a matter of criminal activity but also something a little deeper. Hoaxers themselves have confidentially stated that strange light phenomena have been experienced around them while they have been making crop circles during the hours of darkness. "Some have even been certain that that within minutes of finishing a crop formation, additions have mysteriously been added before sunrise." Colin had already received [moral] support from Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth II in 1990.

August 10, 2000, AAP Newsfeed, 'UK: New theory says crop circles caused by magnetic fields': "LONDON, Aug 10 AAP - Another theory has surfaced about one of the world's lingering mysteries, crop circles, with a British researcher saying they could be a result of the earth's magnetic fields. Another summer in Britain has brought ripe fields of corn and another media silly season, meaning crop circles are again on the agenda. And this year, a researcher funded by American billionaire Laurance Rockefeller -- a man known for his interest in the paranormal -- has presented the new theory that fluctuations in the earth's magnetic fields lead to corn fields being "electrocuted", collapsing in patterns. Former local government engineer Colin Andrews acknowledged that some 80 per cent of the cornfield designs, which delight tourists and UFO-spotters but anger farmers, are caused by hoaxers with lawn rollers. "The other 20 per cent remain quite another thing and I think the earth's magnetic field is directly involved," Andrews, who has researched the issue for 11 years, told BBC Radio. "What I am working with is simply the facts. We are measuring a difference in the magnetic field. I think we have a really significant breakthrough here." The story was lapped up by the British press in the quietest time of the year for hard news, though a large degree of cynicism remains. Andrews could not explain why only corn would be zapped by the magnetic fields and not other crops, nor why no circles were spotted before 1981. Last year, a man claiming to be Britain's original crop circle creator, Doug Bower, said he had made his first design after leaving a pub in 1978. He said media attention had only been awakened to his work three years later. Hoaxers remain to be the most likely of a group of reasons put forward for the appearance of more than 10,000 crop circles charted around the world. Others include the landings of UFOs, strikes of "ball-lightning" near to the ground and mini-tornadoes, though again, no reasons have been put forward as to why any of them should strike only in corn fields." January 23, 2009, The Sun, 'Queen fascinated by mystery of crop circles': "[The royals] were gripped by the mystery of crop circles, it was revealed yesterday. Letters seen by The Sun showed the couple asked to be kept informed about the weird farmland patterns. Her Majesty also asked an aide to send a sympathetic letter to Britain's leading expert whose research was under threat. And Philip was so intrigued he had newsletters on the circles - thought by many to be created by extraterrestrial beings - sent to Buckingham Palace. They were published by researcher Colin Andrews, 46, an ex-local government engineer He said yesterday that his book Circular Evidence was placed on a summer reading list prepared for the Queen. He later received a letter from her private secretary. It read: "Her Majesty has taken an interest in the mysterious crop circles for some time and was sad to hear your results of years of research into the question are at risk through lack of funds." Meanwhile, Philip paid Eur6 for an annual subscription to Colin's crop circle round-up. Colin said: "What has infuriated me is that the MoD continues to deny the Royal Family took an interest in the subject when I know for a fact they did." The Royal fascination matched the nation's at the height of the phenomena in the 1980s and 1990s."

Colin Andrews biography at Colinandrews.net: "He is an accomplished photographer, who has been invited to show his photographs in art galleries across the United States, including the Philadelphia Art Museum and the Cortland Jessup Art Gallery in Provincetown, Cape Cod. One spectacular photograph of Princess Diana and Prince Charles on their honeymoon was presented to the Queen and to this day also hangs in the Mayors Parlour at Romsey, England - the home town of Prince Charles uncle, Lord Louis Mountbatten of Burma. Colin Andrews is an electrical engineer by profession, is the man who coined the term ‘Crop Circle’. Among his many accomplishments: he started the first research organization, Circles Phenomenon Research (CPR); designed high-tech surveillance operations attempting to film a circle being made; and advised Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher’s cabinet and Queen Elizabeth on the mysterious phenomenon. He compiled the largest data base in the world on the subject. Colin has written numerous books including the classic Circular Evidence (1989) with co-author Pat Delgado, chosen by the Queen for her prestigious Summer Reading List. He is frequently highlighted in documentaries on the subject and was a consultant with the Mel Gibson movie Signs. His most recent books include The Complete Idiots Guide to 2012 and The Complete Idiots Guide to the Akashic Record written with his wife, Dr. Synthia Andrews. ... Colin was engaged by Test Valley Borough Council in 1974, initially as head of their Electrical operations. He went through a series of rapid promotions into middle management, ending his career with government service as a senior officer. Seen here saying goodbye to the Mayor of the authority just before he resigned to take up his research full-time in 1991. ... Without prior knowledge of why he had been invited to Longleat Adventure Park in England, he was lead to the center (red arrow) of the worlds longest maze which is one and three quarters mile long, handed his copper dowsing rods and asked to dowse his way to the exit (yellow arrow). Without a single error his rods took him directly via many twists and turns to the exit. With just one bend to go, he was told he was in the wrong place to test his confidence which he ignored and continued directly as the rods lead him to the exit. Colin worked with elders in the Australian outback and impressed them with his ability to confirm traditional routes taken by the Aborigine peoples hundreds of years ago. He has also successfully dowsed human involvement in crop circles. ... Remote viewer: Left: Colin Andrews, Antonio Huneeus and Edward Dames [Andrews' trainer] in Dusseldorf, Germany where they spoke at an International Conference. ... One of many highly successful results of his remote viewing skills was when he identified a murderer in Washington DC before the police knew who they were looking for. The murderer became known as the Beltway sniper, who randomly killed ten people over a period of three weeks during October 2002, creating near panic along the I95 near the city. Apart from those he shot and killed he also critically injured three. On the night of October 14th, 2002 while watching reports on TV of another shooting, Colin Remotely Viewed a young black man, 17years old, and sketched him near the edge of a parking lot, some distant from the victim. When the police finally got their man, Colin's Sketch closely resembled that of the young 17 year old black man, Lee Boyd Malvo. The incident Colin accessed was in the parking lot of Home Depot, in Fairfax County, Virginia where FBI intelligence analyst was shot dead as she left the store - killed by Lee Boyd Malvo (watch video above). Colin has interacted with many of the best known Remote Viewers in the world, and was invited to participate in programs at the famous Monroe Institute in the United States. ... Circular Evidence, 1989. Co-authored with Pat Delgado, this was the first book ever written on the subject. It became an international best seller. It was also chosen by Queen Elizabeth for her prestigious "Summer Reading List", the first time a book of this kind has ever been selected. Crop Circles: The Latest Evidence , 1990, was also co-authored with Pat Delgado, this was the popular update to Circular Evidence and sold over 100,000 copies in Europe alone. Crop Circles – Signs of Contact, 2003, co-written with New York Times best selling author, Steve Spignesi covering new aspects of the research. The book includes a full catalogue of crop patterns recorded by Colin between 1983 and 2003, which has also been self published separately and called The Andrews Catalogue. May 2009 his book Government Circles was published by Archive Publishing. Undeniable Evidence- 1990, the first crop circle video ever produced, which showed stunning aerial footage of the phenomenon, and links the mystery to eco-political changes. ... EBE Film Award 1995 - Reg Presley, Colin Andrews and Busty Taylor... Colin and Synthia have been invited to work with The World Genesis Foundation in corporation with The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - To Support UNESCO Youth Project in Romania. ... Synthia his wife, has just completed writing another book which she and many others, including Colin are very excited about. Called The Path of Energy encompasses much of her life's work and has arrived at a unique time in history when science is now able to relate and support it. The book will be published in June 2011 and has received powerful endorsements by well known and highly respected pioneers such as Astronaut Dr. Edgar Mitchell, Dr. James Hurtak, Dr. Desiree Hurtak, Gregg Braden and Dannion Brinkley. The forward is written by Barbara Marciniak. His latest project is the new book 'On the Edge of Reality', co-authored with Synthia and to be published by New Page Books in August 2013. He considers this to be the most important project he has ever undertaken in his research career."

1990, 550 : "Change in atomic structure of plants "

1946: first report. 10 in the 1970s. 4:00 2/3: circle crazy experices. 5:00 / practical jokers... never caught says skeptical.

May 3, 2013, Colin Andrews for Colinandrews.net, 'My Dedication to Busty Taylor on his 70th Birthday': "Busty and I have been good friends for nearly 30 years, in fact since he discovered his first set of crop circles in 1985 which was during a flight south of the town where we both lived, Andover in southern England. It was Busty who introduced me to Pat Delgado and Don Tuersley and Dr. Terence Meaden. Busty is a professional driving instructor of many years standing, a light Aircraft Pilot, crop circle and UFO researcher, photographer, dowser and has an intense interest in local archeology. He has made several unique discoveries of unknown archaeological sites during his flights. He invented the pole method of taking elevated photographs of crop circles, a system copied by many since. Busty is what I always call a 'doer' meaning a person who is a natural Organizer, a party maker, the guy who sorts things out while others are still thinking about it. I owe him for hundreds of hours of his time and his safe flying skills, which enabled me getting up in the sky to record those early years of crop circles, along with Pat, and Terence. ... Hundreds of the residence of his home town Andover and surrounding area are driving today thanks to his long career as a driving instructor, including several of my own family. ... While flying his aircraft south of Andover during the first week of August, 1985, Busty spotted five spectacular circles, forming a cross. His discovery lead to the headlines below, in the Andover Advertiser which caused a major increase in interest, following on the heals of a set of circles I spotted myself a few miles away in 1983. At that time I had not met Busty. ... The first crop circle researchers in the world: Dr. Terence Meaden, 1980; Pat Delgado, 1981; Colin Andrews, 1983; Busty Taylor, 1985. ... The first research team was formed, Circles Phenomenon Research (CPR). Seen here from left: Pat Delgado, Busty Taylor, Colin Andrews and Don Tuersley. ... I have spent many hours with Busty at Stonehenge and surrounding area. The patterns and network that dowsing uncovers is a mutual interest. I well remember taking the photograph on the right of Busty dowsing with hazel twig and the skin in his hands almost ripping off as he crossed powerful leylines cutting down through the circle and Silbury Hill nearby. ... Colin Andrews, Michael Hesemann and Busty in Düsseldorf, Germany. Inspecting the silver and bronze discs discovered at Grasdorf in a crop circle. Right: Reg Presley, Busty and Philip Mantel at the first public screening of the so called Alien Autopsy video in London. The three of us attended both events together."

August 9, 1985, Andover Advertiser, Colin Andrews for Colinandrews.net, 'It's The Great Andover Flying Saucer Mystery': "Has a flying saucer landed near Andover? That was the question being posed this week following the discovery of a series of strange circular 'landing' marks in a wheat field south of town. At least one man, an expert in aerial phenomena, is conviced that the indentations in the corn were made by an off-shaped object coming to earth. It's The Great Andover Flying Saucer Mystery' Has a flying saucer landed near Andover? Mr Omar Fowler of the Surrey Investigation Group on Aerial Phenomena, who visited the site near Danebury Ring, said he was convinced the marks were not caused by a natural phenomenon such as wind or atmospheric pressure. "I also believe that this is not a student prank," he said. "The edges of the standing corn are too uniform and there is not a markthat would explain how the depressions are so symetrical, in any case there would be no point in a hoax." Thruxton pilot, 'Busty' Taylot, who discovered the markings at the weekend, is equally bewildered. He was flying in a twin-engine Commanche, with Thruxton Flight Centre flying instructor Barry Dyke when they made a low turn and Busty spotted the five perfect circles in an area covering the size of a large aircraft hanger in the corner of a field. The sight so amazed the four pilots in the Commanche that Barry Dyke promptly used a helicopter to fly only 500 feet above the wheat field. Busty, an Andover driving instructor who lives in Apple Tree Grove, borrowed a video camera and made a film of the circles. "I have never seen anything like it before," he said after the second flight. "There is no mark on the corn to show that anyone or anything has walked into the field to make the marks. There is no sign of burning and the circles are so neat that it looks as though something has punched them out of the corn." Busty, whose keen eye started it all off is keeping an open mind, but admits he cannot help wondering whether the blot on the landscape is a calling card. When the 'Advertizer' took a closer look there was no trace of footprints nor any sign that the marked areas had been trampled down. The corn was lying in neat circles and in a perfect clockwise swirl effect. The Army have begun investigations into the markings for the Ministry of Defense and photographs were being taken by helicopter during the week. But Omar Fowler of the Surry Investigation Group already has his theory: "It is difficult to say exactly what caused them but my belief is that the marks were made by a large body landing directly from above." Mr Fowler, whose organization has been in existence for nearly 20 years and which works in conjunction with the British UFO Research Association said the marks in the field of Andover were typical of a series of phenomena recorded throughout the world during the past seven years, some of which had been found after alleged sightings of UFOs. The similarity went right down to the fact that the corn was flattened in a neat clockwise direction. Circles have apeared in the same design in Sussex and Wiltshire and near Winchester only four weeks ago and one of the many mysteries to remain is why there are no burn marks. Lt-Col Edgecombe of the Army Air Corps at Middle Wallop inspected the scene, taking photographs from the air and at ground level and has passed his findings with a detailed description of the markings to the Ministry of Defence. "None of us who visited the scene could offer any explanation, other than a very cleverly done spoof," he said."

July 29, 1989, New Scientist, 'A crop of circles / Review of 'Circular Evidence' by Pat Delgado and Colin Andrews and 'The Circles Effect and its Mysteries' by G. Terence Meaden': "Circular Evidence by Pat Delgado and Colin Andrews, Bloomsbury, pp 190, Pounds sterling 14.95 The Circles Effect and its Mysteries by G. Terence Meaden Artetech, pp 112, Pounds sterling 11.95 SUMMER outings to the countryside will never be the same after reading these two books. I predict that 'circle spotting' will become a national pastime and will generate as much antagonism between farmers and 'townies' as stubble burning does now. The mysterious circles that are described and discussed in both these books are areas in which a tall ripening crop has been swirled and flattened in a circular shape 5 to 20 metres in diameter, producing what looks, from a distance, like a shallow, straight-sided dish. Following nearly 10 years of investigations of sites, mostly in Hampshire and Wiltshire, the authors and their two reseach groups are able to describe several hundred circles. These circles are clearly not hoaxes."

September 11, 2001, Vol. 1, No. 2, UFO News UK, 'Jon King interviewing Colin Andrews: The CIA and the crop circles': "A man who announced himself as working for the CIA back in, I think, June or July of 1989, approached me and said he had been assigned to 'bring me into a plan', or more precisely, 'buy me into a plan'. ... He told me that certain individuals, all of whom you know, Jon - Richard Andrews, Terence Meaden, Pat Delgado, to name a few - he told me that the CIA were about to promote each major researcher in turn and then publicly debunk them. He said this was a ploy that was frequently used. He said they would give them a stage, encourage them to declare their hand and, one by one, take them out. He said that I would then be left with a 'role' that he later revealed to me. ... Well, when he first arrived, Pat and I were asked to go up to Pebble Mill television studios in Birmingham to take part in a programme called Daytime Live. It was a kind of live TV debate situation. They were going to air the sequence that contained the mysterious sound detected in a crop formation and recorded by the BBC - the sound that destroyed a hundred thousand pounds' worth of TV camera (equipment) one sunny afternoon at a crop circle site in Wiltshire! As we came on air, they were running this particular sequence. ... When we arrived at the studios we were told that this man [whom had earlier in the day called the studio about having seen a crop circle formation form] had been flown directly in to Birmingham and that we would not be able to meet him because they wanted it to be an absolutely first-time contact on air. As we came on air they panned to the studio audience, and this man [introduced himself as Sandy Reid] described what he'd seen, live on TV. ... Well, some weeks later there was a rap on my door, and when I answered it I immediately recognised the man standing there. It was the 'fox-study' man. He said that he'd come to tell me something ... he wanted me to get Pat Delgado over to my place because he wanted to talk to both of us. ... The guy accompanied me to the door to see Pat out (I didn't know whether he was going to leave as well - I was rather hoping he would, because I was pretty bloody angry about it, too) but as Pat left and I closed the door the man just spun round on me and said: 'Get your jacket on. I want to tell you something.' ... We wandered down towards Andover town centre, then back up Salisbury Road, back and forth, back and forth, questions and more questions, most of a fairly general nature, but none of the questions were about me. Rather they were to do with things like, you know: Where were the circles? Who were we in touch with? What did we know, particularly about the Russians? That kind of thing. He was asking every question you could possibly think of that an intelligence agent would probably ask. But the conversation wasn't going anywhere at all. As for myself I was furious, but I didn't quite have the courage to walk away. ... When we eventually started to walk back towards my home he stopped on the pavement and said: 'You are now one of us.' So I said: 'What do you mean by that?' He said, simply: 'CIA.' When I asked him for ID he just laughed and said: 'You really think a CIA agent would carry identification?' And then he laughed again. He told me I would never see his boss, and that he never saw his boss's boss. He said that was the way it worked. He said that from here on in I was 'one of them'. He gave me no say in the matter whatever. He never asked me if I wanted to be associated with the CIA - he just told me that from then on I was to consider myself one of them. Following this he named a lot of people - most of whom were my colleagues in crop circle research - who were to be eliminated from the research programme (he did not mean that they were to be killed or anything quite like that, but they were nevertheless to be taken off the stage, so to speak). And they have been. I have watched the process in operation for some years now - a process he openly told me about on that night. And every name he named that night has since been 'got at', and everything that he said would happen has happened. ... Well, for instance, the following year Terence Meaden was never out of the newspapers. Nobody else could get a look in. This is exactly what he told me would happen. But where is Terence Meaden now? Who knows what Terence Meaden's latest ideas are? Answer: no one. Because, presumably, his stage has been taken from him - he's been 'taken out'. Pat Delgado was next, and we all know what happened to him. [Author's note: sadly, Pat Delgado was so taken in by the 'Doug and Dave' episode, and so distraught because of it, that he retired from crop circle research soon thereafter.] ... He did, yes. The CIA guy told me that, so far as they were concerned, I seemed to have a particular affinity and contact with the public. 'You have a way,' is what he said. The public identify with you.' ... There were really only two people in those days, Pat and myself. We'd written a book and it had sold a lot of copies. We were getting a lot of TV and radio coverage. But a decision seemed to be made that night that I was the one. I mean, if you look at it logically, it could have been either one of us. So this man must have been in a position to make a decision. He must have carried some authority within his agency. ... Once they had taken these other researchers out of the frame, so to speak, they wanted me to do something for them. He said I was to carry on being Colin Andrews, researching the phenomenon, just doing my thing, and at some point in the near future I would be asked to do one interview which would enjoy maximum, saturated media coverage. During the course of this interview I was to make one statement, and one statement only. They wanted me to state publicly that the crop circle phenomenon was a hoax. When we got back to my home he said that he would show me how to say it and what to say. In return for this I was offered a bank account in Switzerland, in which would be enough money that I would never need to even think about money ever again. On top of this he said that they were in possession of some kind of 'instrument' which they would send to me within two weeks. He said that this instrument would allow me to identify immediately a real crop circle from a hoax - something that, presumably, could measure some or other microwave residue, or some other residual effect. He told me: 'You will then be in a privileged position, and we will put you right out there as the number one crop circle expert.' He then said that they would send me to a certain college. . . (which I know to be a government establishment, so my ears pricked up at this point). . . where you will be familiarised with coding structures. I mean, this is an absolute bloody horror story I'm hearing ... I mean, I was . . . God, no one will ever know how I felt that night. I was terrified. I even cried. I was completely and utterly bloody freaked. I even saw my daughter the next day and I broke down while I was talking to her, too. I said to her: 'Darling, I want you to forget everything I've ever told you about crop circles. I think I'm in terrible trouble. You know, I'm in bloody trouble.' Of course, she didn't know what I was talking about but I just wanted my family out of it. It took everything I knew to get over that ordeal and carry on a relatively normal life... (At this point Colin took a few moments to himself. It was obvious that the ordeal had affected him very deeply - indeed, that the memory was as painful as the ordeal itself. A short while later we resumed.) ... ... So anyway ... I was told that there would be another couple of contacts made and that these would be 'voice-only' contacts via the telephone. And sure enough they phoned me, but by this time I'd had time to think about the situation and I'd decided I was going to take his head off, you know. There was no way I was going to give them what they wanted. ... I was given a contact number at the Ministry of Defence [after I tried to figure out what to do] and I rang that number and told them that I'd had this approach, but I was told they had no jurisdiction. Can you believe that? A British subject was being harassed by a member of US Intelligence and the MoD had no jurisdiction to protect me! My God! I mean, it really made me ashamed to be British. Anyway, they also told me that I was not to be concerned, that I should simply refuse to co-operate with them. They said that if I refused to go along with it there should not be any danger to me. Hah! I thought: Thanks for the invaluable assistance!' ... In the event, yes. That's precisely what I did. I literally ignored the phone calls. And I guess, in retrospect, it might just have saved my life, the fact that I'd contacted the MoD. Perhaps they have a little more jurisdiction than they admitted to. Perhaps the fact that I contacted the MoD meant that the CIA dared not harm me in any way. ... Oh, it was them, all right. The guy was on the answer machine saying: 'Pick up the phone. Pick up the phone.' But I didn't. I just let it go. Then the voice said: 'Ring me back at this number.' And then they gave a number, but I didn't ring back. A few days later they phoned again, and this time what they said was vile, and frightening. But my answer was: 'Sorry, I'm not playing.' And that was that so far as I was concerned. Like I said, perhaps they knew I'd contacted the MoD. Maybe, just maybe, this was enough for them to leave me alone. ... Well, nothing quite like that. But I have certainly been approached, yes. A computer analyst at the Pentagon, for example, approached me with a person called [name deleted] Pretty soon this woman, [name deleted], sought [name deleted] out and asked to see her in her office. Now this meant that my new office - which I used to share with [name deleted] - had already been infiltrated by people who we now know for sure were CIA. I have since had several approaches by both of these people."

November 29, 2013, Podcast UFO interview with Nancy Talbott (greatly opposed by Colin Andrews): "Toward the end of that time period, Laurance Rockefeller contacted me because he had heard about our papers and he wanted to be brought up to date. So I went to New York and I gave him an overview of the work we had done, what we had found so far, and he offered to fund some more work. I wrote up some proposals and he picked one in particular. That is this clay mineral X-ray to fraction study that we then carried out. In this study, it's the most comprehensive and the most complete work that anybody has so far on the scientific aspect on the crop circles. Levengood did what he always does in this particular study. He did the plant work. But I hired totally independently the x-ray to fraction expert, who simply did the x-ray to fraction work. I then hired a statistician who did nothing but the statistics. And I was lucky enough to have the help of Dr. Robert C. Reynolds, Jr., head of the Department of Sciences at Dartmouth and the world's acknowledged leading authority on clay minerology and x-ray to fraction technique. He agreed to interpret our results. None of these men, except Levengood, had even heard of a crop circle. They did not know even what they were. And none of them knew each other, nor did they know Levengood. So we have here a strong statement about that there could be no experimental bias here, because three of the guys involved had never even heard of crop circles, none of the people knew each other, and each person only did their own work. The circle that we sampled for this particular work happened to be in Canada. ... When Dr. Reynolds saw our results, he was at first so stunned he said: "Oh no, there must be some mistake. This can not be so. We simply have never seen such a change [at the surface; only under high pressure from above and heat from the earths core]." We were looking at the crystalline structures of very specific clays in the surface soils of these crop circles. The theory was that if heat affected the plants, then it might also affect some of these clay minerals. Clay minerals are known to be affected by heat readily. ... Based on these facts [and after very extensive studying and restudying] he said: "We must then be dealing with an energy unknown to science." And that's exactly what he said. And furthermore, his wife told me he was modest in his comments with me, as most academics are. ... He was on the telephone talking to his son, who is apparently also a geologist. And the remark he made to his son was: "I wonder if these people know what they've got." ... We've never had the money to do the entire study again. That study was 120,000 bucks."

Rosenbaum, Tibor Imgas

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (acquired several 1980s membership lists, according to Steinberg of EIR); p. 66-71; 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

New York Times named him Tibor Pinchas Rosenbaum. Seemingly became known as Rabbi Pinchas when he was 18 years old. December 5, 2003, The Forward, 'Friendship, Culture Link America, Israel; On the Go': "There's Pinchas Rosenbaum, for example, a rabbi's son who joined the underground after his entire family perished and, for more than a year, disguised himself as a high-ranking Nazi in the Hungarian Arrow Cross and risked his life to save more than 1,000 Jews from death, mostly orphans." Shalom-magazine: "Pinchas Rosenbaum was born on 2 November 1923 (23 Cheshvan 5684) in Kleinwardein, Hungary, the progeny of a long line of rabbis. ... Rav Shmuel Shmelke, the last rabbi of Kleinwardein before the Shoah, was deported together with his family and community to Auschwitz. Pinchas was the only one of this illustrious family to escape. A remarkable Torah scholar in his own right, Pinchas had been ordained for the Rabbinate at the age of 18 by leading Hungarian rabbis. During his time studying in yeshiva he joined the “Bnei Akiva” youth movement, and enthusiastically adopted the Zionist principles of “Torah and work”. Within a very short time he had become one of the national leaders of “Bnei Akiva” in Hungary. During the Nazi occupation, Pinchas was involved body and soul in the organization of Jewish youth who mounted rescue and escape missions to snatch Jews from the Nazis’ grasp. Together with his companions he managed to save hundreds of his coreligionists, sometimes complete families, finding them shelter and providing for their needs. ... At the end of the war Pinchas Rosenbaum married Stephanie Stern and settled in Geneva, where he worked in banking. They had three children, two sons and a daughter, and all three live today in Israel. Alongside his finance activities, he was a dynamic, militant Zionist, working with all his strength for the State of Israel, even carrying out a few missions for the Mossad and for Israeli security. He died on 23 October 1980 (13 Cheshvan 5741), when he was only 57, and was buried in the Har Hamenuchot cemetery in Jerusalem. ... * Menachem Michelson is a journalist on the Israeli daily newspaper, Yedioth Aharonoth. He is currently writing a major biography of Pinchas Tibor Rosenbaum zl, which will soon be published in Hebrew and English." January 1981, Volume XXXVI No. 1, Association of Jewish Refugees in Great Britain, p. 10: "Obituaries: ... Dr. Tibor Rosenbaum: Dr. Tibor (Pinhas) Rosenbaum, the Swiss financier, has died at the age of 57 and was buried in Jerusalem. ... lost both his parents and six brothers and sisters. ... He reached Geneva as a refugee and participated in the organisation of Aliya Bet, working for the Swiss Jewish Agency. .. Treasurer to the World Jewish Congress, was chairman of the World Zionist Organisation's Finance Committee and sat on the Executive Boards of the Mizrachi Movement and the Bar-Ilan University [in Tel Aviv]." Became a Mossad agent in 1951. Worked at the Swiss Israeli Bank through which he funded Mossad operations. Head of the Jewish Agency, an organization which supported Jews who were interested in migrating to Israel. In 1958 he set up the Swiss Banque du Credit International (BCI) with the help of Edmond de Rothschild. Rosenbaum and his BCI directors laundered illegal drug and gambling money for mafia boss Meyer Lansky by investing it in real estate. Through the BCI Mossad and Permindex operations were financed and reportedly Rosenbaum was a significant stakeholder in Permindex. In the early 1960s, the BCI bought a significant stake in Henry Luce's Time Life. Edmond de Rothschild introduced Rosenbaum to Bernhard in the mid-1960s. In 1970 Bernhard invited Rosenbaum into the 1001 Club, but after Rosenbaum got in trouble for having embezzled money of the BCI, Bernhard had to expel him again. This happened in 1973-1974 (but he was still listed in the 1978 list). Member of presidium of the World Mizrachi Movement. In 1974, Prince Bernhard sold his Castle Warmelo to the Evlyma Trust in Liechtenstein, a subsidiary of Tibor Rosenbaum's BCI. The Trust was managed by 1001 Club member Herbert Batliner, a person later linked to laudering funds for Marcos, Mobutu, Escobar, and Helmut Kohl. The BCI was closed down and for a short time Tibor went to jail. The rest of his life he tried to pay his debts.

BCI director Ernest Israel Japhet:

Who's Who: With Jacob Japhet & Co. Ltd., 1938—1951; general manager Union Bank of Israel, 1952—1963; with Bank Leumi le-Israel B.M., Tel Aviv, 1963—, joint general manager, 1964—1970, chief executive officer, 1970—, chairman, 1977—, Bank Leumi Trust Co. New York , 1974—, Bank Leumi (UK) PLC, 1976—, Bank Leumi le-Israel SA, France, 1977—, Bank Leumi le-Israel, Switzerland, 1977—, Canada, 1982—, Union Bank of Israel Ltd., 1970—, Leumi & Co. Investment Bankers Ltd., 1980—, Leumi Industrial Devel. Bank Ltd., 1970—, Bank Leumi Investment Co. Ltd., 1970—, Leumi Fin. Co. Ltd., 1972—, Leumi Insurance Holdings Ltd., 1974—, Leumi International Investments N.V., 1977—, Ogen-Pension Funds Management Ltd., 1979—. Director Otzar Hityashvuth Hayehudim B.M., Otzar Hityashvuth Hayehudim-Jewish Colonial Trust, Oagon Batey Mamguroth le-Israel Ltd., Haifa; member adv. committee, adv. council Bank of Israel; frequent lecturer econs.; board governors Jerusalem Institute Management; deputy chairman board governors Hebrew University, Jerusalem; deputy chairman board governors, chairman budget and fin. committee Weizmann Institute Sci.; board governors, member executive committee, chairman funds committee Tel Aviv University; board governors, chairman international fin. committee Technion Institute. Decorated Knight Commander Order Brit. Empire. Mem.: Association Banks Israel (president, chairman executive committee), B'nai B'rith (Humanitarianism award 1983).

Reportedly: Japhet was, at the time, the chairman and president of the Bank Leumi, the largest bank in Israel-a bank that we have already identified as a critical component of the diamonds-for-dope traffic into Hong Kong. ... Bank Leumi keeps its hands in the drug trade through its 100 percent-owned subsidiary Union Bank. Ernest Israel Japhet is the chairman of Union Bank, which handles over one-third of the world's financing in diamonds. www.union.co.il: "Union Bank has an ongoing, historic relationship with the diamond industry..."

January 24, 1985, PR Newswire: "Willard C. Butcher, chairman and chief executive officer of the Chase Manhattan Corp. [hand-picked by David Rockefeller], was honored last night by the B'nai B'rith youth services at a gala dinner dance in the Waldorf Astoria Hotel. ... The award, a bust of Abraham Lincoln by the American sculptor Leo Chenne, was presented to Butcher by David Novick, president and chief executive officer of Bank Leumi Trust Co. of New York, who acted as the dinner chairman. ... Novick also pointed out the very fine relationship that Bank Leumi maintains with Chase. He read a congratulatory telegram from Ernest I. Japhet, chairman and chief executive officer of the Bank Leumi le-Israel Group, Israel's oldest and one of the world's largest banking corporations. In his message, Japhet expressed his admiration for Butcher's outstanding role as an international banker and civic leader. In his response, Butcher expressed his deep appreciation for the award and stressed the need for youth programs such as those offered by the B'nai B'rith Youth Services for all young people in a world filled with potentially destructive influences. He recalled his visits to Israel and his special friendship with Ernest Japhet."

2002, Jonathan Nitzan and Shimshon Bichlerp, 'The Global Political Economy of Israel', p. 113: "Yekhezkel [Saharov], was Chaim Weitzman’s bodyguard and Israel’s first chief-of-police. His deputy in the force was Amos Ben-Gurion, who was nominated for the post while his father, David Ben-Gurion, was Prime Minister. In their infinite wisdom, both Chief Saharov and Deputy Ben-Gurion were hectically mixing public duty with private business, and eventually, after dozens of scandals, were forced to quit their posts. Both were given a second chance. Amos Ben-Gurion was made manager of Israel’s largest clothing company, Ata, which belonged to Swiss financier Tibor Rosenbaum, and whose Israeli representative at the time was Amos Manor, former head of Shin Beit (Israel’s internal security service). When Rosenbaum’s Banque de Crédit Internationale collapsed with much fanfare in the mid-1970s, Ata was passed on to Saul Eisenberg, who replaced Amos Ben- Gurion with Yossef Hermelin, another former head of the Shin Beit." p. 116: "... Gideon Persky, Shimon Peres’ brother, was setting up shop in Geneva. Israel was short of foreign exchange, and Persky’s contribution to the Zionist cause was to found Swiss-Israel Bank, whose commissions were earmarked for the Defence Ministry’s clandestine operations in Europe. The business, though, didn’t go well. Its clandestine aspects were eventually assumed by Tibor Rosenbaum’s infamous Banque de Crédit Internationale..." p. 278: "Take Dr Tibor Rosenbaum, who presided over the Jewish Agency and the World Zionist Organisation, while his Banque de Crédit Internationale, based in Geneva, was busy laundering money for the Mossad and the Mafia." p. 279: "On the request of Finance Minister Sapir, Rosenbaum lent the Labour Party $300,000. Needless to say, no one ever bothered to repay this ‘loan’. Rosenbaum also ‘donated’ $75,000 to the party. The process was relatively straightforward. A company named Ramtam was set up, and promptly received from the Labour government a monopoly over the sale of duty free items. The owners of the company were Tibor Rosenbaum himself (48 per cent), the Labour Party (48 per cent), and Amos Manor, former head of the Shin Beit and Rosenbaum’s representative in Israel (Yadlin 1980: 151). Money put into this company, as well as its monopoly profits, could then be transferred between the various participants, away from the public eye."

April 9, 1975, New York Times, 'A Global Bank Tangle And Its Lost Millions': "The son of a rabbi ... Treasurer and member of the governing council of the World Jewish Congress and a member of the presidium of the World Mizrachi Movement, the parent organization of the National Religious Party in Israel. On the same presidium is Bernard Bergman, another non-practicing rabbi, born in Rumania, who is the center of inquiries into New York nursing homes that he controls [Rosenbaum considered him an "old friend" and had lent money to him]. ... Ultra-Orthodox, he formed his own synagoge in Geneva because, as one friend put it, he did not find the existing ones serious enough. ... An ordained but non-practicing rabbi who was close to many in the Israeli Establishment, Mr. Rosenbaum built his bank into an institution with intimate relations with Israel."

April 9, 1975, New York Times, 'A Global Bank Tangle And Its Lost Millions': "I.C.B. handled some Israeli international business, such as European arms purchases, and helped channel funds from the international Jewish community in Israel. ... I.C.B. performed a number of services for Israel. Once, according to an Israeli source, when Defense Minister Shimon Peres, then director general in the Defense Ministry, called Mr. Rosenbaum and told him that Israel needed $7 million within 24 hours for her national security, Mr. Rosenbaum found the money overnight. He did not ask for, but received a commission of $500,000 for his services, according to the source. ... The Defense Ministry maintained an account at the bank to buy arms in Western Europe. ... large sums of money were transferred to Liechtenstein-registered companies [where Herbert Batliner would have come in]."

ISRAEL CORPORATION:

November 7, 1997, Jerusalem Post, 'The Rothschild Legacy': "Once told by David Ben-Gurion that the most valuable thing he could do for Israel would be to create jobs, Baron Edmond went beyond the philanthropic activities of his Rothschild cousins and bravely tried his hand at investing in Israel. Beginning in the 1950s, he helped build the Eilat-Haifa oil pipeline, spearheaded the development of the Caesarea hotel and golf course, and was one of the founders of the Israel Corporation and the Israel General Bank. ... In the early 1970s he became involved in a scandal when it was discovered that without his knowledge, Israel Corporation managing director Michael Tzur - a protege of Finance Minister Pinhas Sapir - was funneling company funds to help out a failing Swiss- Jewish banker, Tibor Rosenbaum, who also had strong political connections."

March 31, 1997, Globes [online] - Israel's Business Arena, 'Greatest Broker of Them All': "In 1968, following the Six Day War, Eisenberg informed the then Minister of Industry, Pinhas Sapir, that he was prepared to invest in Israel, provided a solution was found to the problem of taxation. As the owner of multi-national companies, Eisenberg feared dual taxation. He proceeded to found the Israel Corporation while the Knesset, prodded by Pinhas Sapir, enacted the "Israel Corporation Law", allowing him tax relief. The Israel Corporation set up an impetus of investment in Israel, acquiring control of Zim Israel Navigation Co. and the Oil Refineries and issuing securities on stock exchanges in the United States."

May 31, 2001, Globes [online] - Israel's Business Arena, 'Navigating through uncertainty': "Within a few years, Baron Edmund de Rothschild, and then Shaul Eisenberg acquired control of the Israel Corporation. Two years ago, just before the expiration of the period in which the Eisenberg family could sell the company without paying tax, Sammy and Yuli Ofer acquired a 59.88% stake in the company. Other current shareholders are Bank Leumi (19.04%), Bank Hapoalim funds (5.62%), Bank Leumi funds (1.06%)..."

Ran the Israel Corporation with Edmond de Rothschild (once chairman), a fundraising institution which gathered funds for land purchases in Palestine. The Mossad and the Israeli Labour Party (headed by David Ben-Gurion, a close friend of the Rothschilds) sent funds to Rosenbaum so they were able to invest anonymously in Europe and the United States. Rosenbaum secretly speculated with a large part of these funds.

March 1, 1976, Wall Street Journal, p. 12 (summary of the WSJ): "Article notes Lockheed Aircraft Corp's alleged $1 million payoff to Netherlands' Prince Bernhard was not only incident of Prince being used for business purposes and gains. Notes fugitive financier Robert Vesco and Tibor Rosenbaum, who was reptedly charged with fraud and embezzlement in '74, both sought Prince's favor as means of receiving financial backing from country's bankers. Describes encounters and unfavorable reception by bankers (M)."

April 5, 1976, Newsweek, 'A Slap for the Prince': "Rosenbaum founded the International Credit Bank of Geneva in 1959, and was introduced to Bernhard by Baron de Rothschild, who had placed millions in the ICB on behalf of the Israeli Government. In 1967, a Life magazine story charged that the ICB had served as a "laundry" for $7 billion to $8 billion of mob money skimmed from casinos in Las Vegas and the Caribbean. Even so, Rosenbaum and Bernhard remained friends. In the late 1960s, for instance, the Prince brought Rosenbaum to the royal palace, where top Dutch bankers were asked to listen to him lecture on the stimulation of cash flow in Europe. Recalls on listener: "I thought, why is this man of that tiny bank teaching us something we know so much more about?" A Castle Sale: In the summer of '74, Bernhard sold a castle he owned in east Holland called Warmelo for $400,000 to an obscure Liechtenstein firm named Evlyma, Inc. Evlyma, if turn out, was owned by Rosenbaum's ICB-and the Dutch press has charged that the price was suspiciously low. Less than one year later, the ICB was closed and Rosenbaum stood accused by Rothschild of fraud and embezzlement in connection with the Israeli deposits."

1998, Alan A. Block, 'Masters of paradise: organized crime and the Internal Revenue Service in The Bahamas', pp. 83-85: "Rosenbaum worked with John Pullman in the International Credit Bank based in Geneva with a branch in The Bahamas. In the early 1960s, the mob’s International Credit Bank became vitally important to Cornfeld’s robust creation. It served as the Laundromat for smuggled funds, mostly from South American clients of I.O.S. Bernie’s sales managers provided an added service for those with at least $50,000 to move. They had the money smuggled out by special courier to I.C.B. in Geneva and then loaned back at six percent interest to the original owners. The major courier for this service was Sylvain Ferdman, a naturalized Swiss citizen who had been Cowett’s Harvard roommate. Ferdman worked with Rosenbaum, Cowett, and particularly John Pullman. Unfortunately for all the schemers, Ferdman was careless. At the Miami airport in the third week of March 1965, he inadvertently dropped a note written on International Credit Bank stationary. “This is to acknowledge,” it said, “this 20th day of December 1964, the receipt of Three Hundred and Fifty Thousand ($350,000) in American bank notes for deposit to the account of Maral 2812 with the International Crdit Bank Geneva. The note bore the signatures of both Ferdman and Pullman. This chance event revealing the intertwining of I.O.S. and Lansky’s syndicate galvanized law enforcement efforts and Ferdman eventually found himself before a federal Grand Jury in New York testifying about his role as a courier for organized crime, moving funds between America, Switzerland and The Bahamas. His most difficult moment, however, came in 1967 when Life magazine ran his picture identifying him as a Mafia money courier. … The electronic surveillance started in September 1966 and confirmed Pullman’s standing in organized crime and his relationship with Lansky called “the Chief, the Little Guy,” and “Dupont.” … Cornfield’s creation and the Lansky syndicate were very tight. However IOS did maintain some degree of independence. Bernie decided to buy his own bank (the Overseas Development Bank), and although Tibor Rosenbaum thought it unnecessary, arguing in vain that Bernie could always rely on the I.C.B., this wasn’t real separation; I.C.B. held a 20 percent equity interest in Bernie’s bank."

April 9, 1975, New York Times, 'A Global Bank Tangle And Its Lost Millions': "According to a source who knows the Rosenbaum operation, Mr. Rosenbaum was introduced to Scopitone by Alvin Ira Malnik and Sylvain Ferdman, who both played roles in other I.C.B. activities. Mr. Malnik, Scopitone's promoter, is a Miami Beach lawyer identified by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as having represented underworld figures and has been indicted on tax charges in the United States. Earlier, he founded the Bank of World Commerce in Nassau, which until it was struck off the commercial register on July 2, 1965, reputedly served as a conduit for moving gambling funds into Switzerland. Mr. Ferdman, an economic advisor to I.C.B., has opened accounts at the Geneva bank for Mr. Malnik and for such figures as John Pullman, who served a prison sentence for violating U.S. liquor laws and who now lives in Lausanne. Mr. Pullman has been named by the Justice Department as the financial advisor of the mobster Meyer Lansky. I.C.B. was cited in Life Magazine in 1967 as one of the Swiss banks that received funds from mobsters skimmed from casinos in the United States and the Bahamas, then recycled into mob-controlled investments in legitimate American businesses. The man who alledgedly carried the money was Mr. Ferdman, the Belgian national now living in Geneva who is still in the financial world. While unloading suitcases on the Miami airport on March 19, 1965, Mr. Ferdman dropped a piece of paper that later found its way top the FBI. It was a note on ICB stationary acknowledging receipt of $350,000. Listed as a witness on the note was John Pullman. ... I.C.B., with Mr. Ferdman on the payroll and with two branches in the Bahamas, has been accused of actively recruiting the [dirty] money. ... I.C.B. was formed in 1959. It achieved its first big breakthrough in a partnership formed between Mr. Rosenbaum and his Geneva neighbor, Bernard Cornfield, whose mutual fund complex, Investors Overseas Services, was just getting started. Mr. Cornfield's army of mutual fund salesmen was doing a huge business in areas such as Latin America where it was illegal to export money but where it was above board to contract a loan through a foreign bank. So an ingenious device was arranged. After a sale was made, cash was entrusted to an I.C.B. officer, Mr. Ferdman, who took the money to Geneva and opened an I.C.B. account for the client. The client then "borrowed" his own money, buying Investors Overseas Services mutual fund shares, while representing the borrowing on his own books for the local authorities as foreign representation or promotion fees. In this way he was able to send fresh money out of the country perfectly legally to sustain the "loans". When Mr. Cornfield went into the banking business himself he took Mr. Rosenbaum as a 25 per cent partner. The partnership was later dissolved, but the two men remained friends. Geneva banking sources said that in 1967, after I.C.B. was publicly singed by the underworld connection, Mr. Cornfield transferred $3-million from his Overseas Development Bank to I.C.B. to help its balance sheet and forestall a run on deposits. After the I.O.S. empire collapsed in 1970, Mr. Cornfield spent 11 months in a Geneva jail and was released on a $1.5-million bail, highest ever set in Switzerland, and possibly the world."

October 11, 1974, New York Times, 'Scandal Erupts in Israel Over Links to Rosenbaum': "In Parliament in Jerusalem yesterday, Dr. Simha Ehrlich of the Likud opposition claimed Mr. Rosenbaum's bank was known for its contacts with the mafia."

JOHN PULLMAN:

September 5, 2002, Hamilton Spectator (Ontario, Canada), 'Casino Niagara the worst place to launder cash; Alleged terrorists drew attention': "The ineptitude of the high-rolling Americans would have appalled Meyer Lansky, the legendary mobster who reputedly taught the Mafia how to hide its money. ... Possamai disputed Lansky's reputation as the godfather of money laundering. He said the real pioneer was a Canadian called John Pullman who moved to Switzerland and married a Swiss woman. Through his contacts with Swiss bankers, he set up the first offshore laundering schemes and washed money for a number of mobsters, including Lansky, before he retired from crime."

June 7, 1988, Globe and the Mail, 'Months of cross-examination expected for Toronto financier accused in tax case': "The Crown has alleged that part of Mr. Burnett's problems resulted from his association during the 1960s and early 1970s with financier John Pullman, who has been described as "a known underworld figure." Mr. Pullman, who died in 1985, readily acknowledged a long friendship with Meyer Lansky, who has been described in evidence as the financial mastermind behind the laundering of organized crime profits in North America."

November 28, 1992, Globe and the Mail, 'A primer for would-be money launderers': "He also takes us into the murky world of political party bagmen, notorious Italian bankers, Colombian drug dealers and a likable Canadian named John Pullman who lived in Switzerland and is believed to have introduced mobster Meyer Lansky to the joys of offshore banking."

ALVIN IRA MALNIK:

March 5, 1999, Palm Beach Post (Florida), 'Meyer Lansky's lawyer now title loan king': "For more than 20 years, Alvin Malnik, the man once regarded as the heir apparent to mobster Meyer Lansky, has called Palm Beach County home. During that time, the 65-year-old restaurateur, described by federal authorities as a top associate of organized crime figures, has also been declared unwelcome in casinos in two states. But here, he lives in the tony suburbs of Boca Raton on a 34-acre estate with 11 buildings, an arena for Arabian horses and a bowling alley. Newly married and the father of 8-month-old triplets, he's busy as well building a new residence, a mansion on a $ 2.5 million waterfront lot in Ocean Ridge that was once rumored to be Oprah Winfrey's future home. Among his friends, Malnik counts Saudi royalty. His son once married a princess descended from the Middle Eastern kingdom's founding family. ... Alvin Malnik has never been convicted of a crime. But government accusations that he was an underworld businessman have dogged him and many of his associates for decades. When the owners of Caesar's World applied to open a New Jersey casino, the state's Casino Control Commission turned down the request, citing the owners' links to Malnik in a lengthy investigative report, issued in 1980 and reinforced 13 years later. In the findings, Lansky figured most prominently among Malnik's alleged mob connections. Described in newspaper headlines as ''Chairman of the Board'' and the ''Financial Wizard of the Underworld,'' Lansky opened gambling operations in South Florida after World War II and controlled casinos in Cuba and Las Vegas. His notoriety led to his inclusion in The Godfather, Part II. ''It was a known fact among the criminal underworld that dealing with Al Malnik was the same as dealing with Meyer Lansky,'' Vincent Teresa, ''a convicted criminal and frequent government witness currently in the federal Witness Protection Program,'' swore to investigators, according to the New Jersey report. When Lansky died in 1983 at age 81, Reader's Digest named Malnik his ''heir apparent.'' The moniker stuck. In a rare interview Wednesday, at his lakefront estate, Malnik denied mob connections. He said he's done nothing illegal and never worked with Lansky, except as his attorney. ''I had, I must say, quite a good reputation,'' he said, saying the work for his infamous client was probably the result of a referral. The pair met face-to-face just once, by chance, Malnik said. ''My representation of a man in some civil matters in the early '60s has been converted by the media into relationships that never existed,'' he said. ''It's the most preposterous, ridiculous, indefensible situation to be in.'' Some are reluctant to forget it. Even now, gaming officials in Nevada and New Jersey don't want him in their casinos. ''He is not welcome here,'' James Hurley, the chairman of the New Jersey Casino Control Commission, which regulates the state's gambling industry, said last week. ''He's done nothing to overcome his reputation of being closely identified with Meyer Lansky and other organized crime figures.'' ... In 1962, Malnik was listed as a director of the Bank of World Commerce, a Bahamas-based institution that involved ''some of the nations' top gangsters,'' the report said. ''Millions of dollars passed through the door and were reinvested in syndicated controlled projects in the United States.'' While connected with the bank, Malnik was indicted in Florida on charges of under-reporting his income. He was later acquitted. In 1964, Malnik organized a company, Scopitone, that produced jukeboxes with attached video screens. Among its stockholders were men police believed to have organized crime ties. They included Irving Kaye, who in 1965 was denied a Nevada gaming license because of his questionable associations, and Vincent ''Jimmy Blue Eyes'' Alo, who was convicted of obstructing the administration of federal securities laws. In charges related to Scopitone, Malnik was indicted on charges of tax evasion in 1966 by the U.S. attorney's office in New York. The indictment was dismissed. In the early 1970s, Malnik invested with Clifford Perlman, chairman of the board of Caesars World, in the Cricket Club, a Miami high-rise with 220 condos. The developer: Cal Kovens, who served three years in prison after being convicted with Teamsters boss Jimmy Hoffa on fraud and conspiracy charges in 1964. A builder worth millions, Kovens would later chair the board of Mount Sinai Medical Center in Miami. In 1971, Malnik and Sam Cohen, who had been indicted with Lansky on charges of ''skimming'' more than $ 30 million from the Flamingo Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas, bought 325 acres of undeveloped land that belonged to a Dade County country club called Skylake. Malnik ultimately realized a net profit of $ 14.7 million, according to the report. ''The evidence establishes that Mr. Malnik associated with persons engaged in organized criminal activities, and that he himself participated in transactions that were clearly illegitimate and illegal,'' the gaming commission said in a 1993 reiteration of its earlier findings."

MEYER LANSKY:

June 23, 1980, Associated Press, 'Israel, in a reversal, bars Meyer Lansky': "Israel reversed an earlier decision and declared Monday it will not grant a tourist visa to Meyer Lansky, reputedly a former financial wizard of the Mafia. The action came after several Israeli legislators claimed the 78-year-old Lansky, who is living in Miami Beach, Fla., is still active in organized crime and has links with Israeli underworld figures. Two weeks ago, the Interior Ministry agreed to grant Lansky a tourist visa good for one month, saying it was approved because "he is old and sick." But a ministry spokesman said Monday, "The offer has been suspended - no special reason." He did not elaborate. Lansky, an ardent Zionist who once sought Israeli citizenship, was expelled from the Jewish state in 1971 at the request of the FBI, which sought him on charges of tax evasion. He was acquitted and renewed his efforts to settle in Israel. Earlier this year he underwent surgery for cancer. Some Israeli legislators supported the Interior Ministry's initial decision to grant Lansky a visa on humanitarian grounds. Others criticized the ministry, claiming Lansky would use his visit for illegal activities."

JIMMY HOFFA (ANOTHER ZIONIST):

February 12, 2008, Jerusalem Post, 'How Hoffa helped forge an unlikely union with Israel. His support for Zionism was one of this controversial figure's lesser-known attributes': "Hoffa is best known today for building the International Brotherhood of Teamsters into a national labor power; his fierce conflicts with Robert F. Kennedy; his 1964 conviction on charges of trying to bribe a juror in a grand jury investigation; the controversial 1971 commutation of his sentence by president Richard Nixon; and his sudden disappearance outside a Detroit eatery in 1975 his fate - and the whereabouts of his body - still a mystery. Apparently though there is another side of Hoffa that is less known. In the late 1940s inspired by and sympathetic to the labor-led Zionist cause he used his Teamsters influence to help smuggle arms and supplies to the Jewish community in Palestine and subsequently forged links between the Teamsters and the newborn State of Israel. In 1955 he sponsored a charity dinner that raised $ 300 0 for an orphanage in Jerusalem and visited here the next year to personally dedicate it. All this plus the fact that his son James P. Hoffa followed in his father's footsteps to become the current president of the 1 400 0 International Brotherhood of Teamsters and will also be honored at the Washington event makes the Rabin Center's Washington dinner more understandable. ... One final point worth noting: When Meyer Lansky tried to make aliya in the early 1970s then-prime minister Golda Meir denied his request for citizenship despite his past work on behalf of the Zionist cause. But as Davidson points out when Jimmy Hoffa visited Israel in the 1950s he was very warmly greeted by Golda, and there are several photos of them together."

1978, Dan E. Moldea (introduction by Jonathan Kwitney), 'The Hoffa Wars: The Rise and Fall of Jimmy Hoffa', p. 123, 178: "Although Hoffa's friend ... Meyer Lansky ... Trafficante was deeply devoted to Lansky. This devotion was best dramatized by his declaration upon being formally inducted into the criminal syndicate: 'With an ancient Spanish dagger ... Trafficante cut his left wrist, allowed the blood to flow ... The he held up the blood hand: 'So long as the blood flows in my body ... do I, Santos Trafficante, swear alligiance to the will of Meyer Lansky and the organization he represents. If I violate this oath, may I burn in hell forever.'" Pp. 178-179: "the brains and money behind the "Keep Hoffa out of jail" movement in 1964 were carlos Marcello and Santos Trafficante... Marcello and Trafficante, who had long been business associates in the drug traffic, had become closer than ever. They even shared the same New Orleans doctor, according to law enforcement agents. When they were not in direct communication with each other, David yaras served as a respected go-between for them. ... Frank Ragano, the Hoffa-Trafficante attorney." Pp. 179-180: Garrison knew Carlos Marcello and bought a house from one of his aides. Denied existence of mafia in his own town. Probably didn't kow that Ferrie was a Marcello aide. pp. 78: "Meyer Lansky and Santos Trafficante - who were on excellent terms with the Batista regime... New Orleans don, Carlos Marcello, was able with Lansky's help, to monopolize at least a third of the Cuban dope business." P. 132: "On October 18, 1960, J. Edgar Hoover sent a memorandum to Richard Bissell: '... during recent conversations with several friends, Giancana stated that Fidel Castro was to be done away with very shortly.' ... Although Hoover was not told how deeply Giancana was involved in the murder plot..."

November 26, 1996, CNN, 'Their Power Faded, The Mafia Remains Prominent in the Memory of Some Cubans': "UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: I remember serving Myer Lansky, Santos Trafficante, Lucky Luciano, Anastasio (ph) in the garden of Hotel National."

February 21, 1998, Calgary Herald (Alberta, Canada), 'President set precedent in pursuit of sex: Remember the remarkable behavior of JFK': "Ben Bradlee, Newsweek's White House correspondent, introduced JFK to his sister-in-law Mary Meyer who, in turn, introduced the president to marijuana. Enjoying sex in the White House bedroom, Meyer joked with the president about being high when it was time to push the nuclear button. "He was as compulsive as Mussolini," said one woman who knew JFK in the late 1940s. " 'Up against the wall, Signora, if you have five minutes,' that sort of thing." "The whole thing with him was pursuit," said another woman he courted. "I think he was secretly disappointed when a woman gave in. It meant that the low esteem in which he held women was once again validated." Just as right-wing prosecutor Kenneth Starr now wants to skewer Bill Clinton on his prodigious petard, enemies of JFK and Bobby Kennedy circulated a pamphlet entitled The Strange Death of Marilyn Monroe to publicize his most notorious affair. But JFK's most dangerous liaisons weren't with Monroe. As a senator, Kennedy was once supplied with three prostitutes -- at once -- by Santos Trafficante Jr., when he stayed at the mobster's Commodoro Hotel in Havana. Second-in-command to Cuba's Mafia boss Meyer Lansky, Trafficante let it be widely known he had enjoyed watching the foursome frolic through a one-way mirror. According to Seymour Hersh's new book, one of JFK's mistresses was a suspected East German spy. As well, in 1960, JFK was introduced to Judith Campbell-Exner by Sinatra in Las Vegas. Two years later FBI boss J. Edgar Hoover was pleased to supply Robert Kennedy with proof Exner was simultaneously the mistress of Sinatra and Chicago Mafia capo Sam Giancana. The sex links to mobsters turned lethal. As Brazilian journalist Claudia Furiati has extensively documented in ZR Rifle: The Plot to Kill Kennedy and Castro, those who repeatedly tried to assassinate Fidel Castro were CIA/Mafia types implicated in the assassination of JFK in Dallas. (Robert Maheu, a former FBI agent working for Howard Hughes, was recruited by the CIA to enlist mobsters Giancana, Trafficante and John Roselli of Las Vegas -- all of whom had grudges against Kennedy. Trafficante had connections to a Dallas hood named Jack Ruby.)"

July 20, 1979, Facts on File World News Digest, 'House Panel Reaffirms Probable Kennedy, King Death Plots; Final Report Releassed': "The House Select Committee on Assassinations July 17 released its final report, concluding that conspiracies were "likely" in the murders of President John F. Kennedy ... The final report by the defunct committee maintained that President Kennedy might have been killed in 1963 by "an individual organized crime leader, or a small combination of leaders...." "The committee's extensive investigation led it to conclude that the most likely [crime] family bosses to have participated in such a unilateral assassination plan were Carlos Marcello and Santos Trafficante," the report stated. Both men had denied such involvement. [See 1978, p. 750B1-C2] The committee also suggested that former Teamsters union chief James R. Hoffa might have played a role in the killing, because he had the motive, means and opportunity for planning an assassination attempt. But the House panel backed off, saying that it did not believe that Hoffa, Marcello or Trafficante was involved. The final report cleared the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency and the Soviet and Cuban governments of any involvement in the Kennedy death."

February 5, 1977, The Economist, 'The baron fights back': "Mr Tzur and Mr Rosenbaum devised a complex transaction to provide the German group with money from sources never to this day identified. The Germans would then send it to the IC via various subsidiary companies and financial institutions, most based in Luxembourg. Naturally, as the $33m loan moved from post to post, commissions were collected and at least one of the collectors was later found to be a company that Mr Tzur privately owned. To this day, the report notes, not all the money, running into millions of dollars, has been traced. A fraction of this particular deal came to light by chance in September, 1974, when Mr Rosenbaum's International Credit Bank of Geneva suddenly collapsed. It was then found that 50m Israeli pounds ($5.5m) of IC money, which board members believed to be safe in the bank, had been funnelled off to one of the companies owned by Mr Rosenbaum and his associates. This money was recorded in the IC balance sheet as a "time deposit with a financial institution". The state comptroller strongly criticises IC board members for approving without question transactions which were either illegal in one or another of the countries where they took place, or fictitious. The comptroller asks how a board composed of some of the greatest businessmen in the world money markets could have been so easily bamboozled. Later, the directors claimed that when they asked Mr Tzur where the money was deposited, they were told simply "with Rosenbaum" - which was true. None imagined he referred to undercover companies in Luxembourg, and not to the bank in Switzerland. The directors said they had had implicit faith in Mr Tzur, who was put up for the job as IC general-director by the finance minister, the late Pinhas Sapir. The comptroller goes on to criticise Baron de Rothschild for deciding for deciding in 1973 to employ Mr Tzur as his own financial adviser, for a fee of $25,000 a year, for five year, without informing his fellow-directors in IC. ... A board member, Mr Tibor Rosenbaum, founder and director of the failed International Credit Bank of Geneva, awaits trial in Switzerland and is suspected, inter alia, of complicity in misappropriating IC funds. The complaint against him was laid with the Swiss police by the chairman of the board of directors, Baron Edmond de Rothschild."

SHAUL EISENBERG:

March 31, 1997, Washington Times, 'Israeli billionaire dies after decades of quiet influence; Eisenberg wielded power in shadows': "Living a lifestyle worthy of his legend, he traveled the world in a personal Boeing 727 with gold fittings. He reportedly had a wall covered with pure gold at his house in the Tel Aviv suburb of Savyon, one of his seven residences. But what made him most interesting were his links to the Israeli secret service, the Mossad. Israeli intelligence sources say he shared information with the Mossad for decades and employed many former senior intelligence and army officers. Mr. Eisenberg aroused the interest of U.S. analysts and Israeli critics in the 1980s by masterminding multibillion-dollar arms sales to China, where he long maintained a permanent suite of offices in the Beijing Hotel. The sales appear to have involved radio systems and other communications equipment, 105mm cannons for Soviet-made tanks, night-vision scopes for tanks, air-to-air-missile technology, tank engines and electronic fire-control systems manufactured by Elbit of Israel. Pentagon experts worried that the largely secret trade was allowing China to get advanced U.S. military and aerospace technology. Israeli critics suspected the Chinese were passing secrets about Israel's military technology to Iran, the largest buyer of Chinese arms. But none of the criticism slowed the work of Mr. Eisenberg. He reportedly was a lifelong friend of former Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres, with whom he cooperated in building up the Israeli arms and aerospace industries. "Shaul Eisenberg was a most unusual figure in the international business world," former Finance Minister Avraham Shohat told Israeli army radio. "For decades he was active in places where Western businessmen never went." Mr. Eisenberg had close relations with Al Schwimmer, former head of Israel Aircraft Industries, and Ya'akov Nimrodi. They reportedly were leading figures in the clandestine Israel-Iran arms trade before the U.S. arms sales to Iran that sparked the 1986 Iran-Contra affair. In South Korea he was involved in more than a dozen large-scale projects that built up the country's industrial base. He once sold Seoul a Canadian nuclear reactor, earning $5 million in commissions and $8 million to cover expenses. U.S. nonproliferation experts say the reactor could produce material to make nuclear weapons. After 1992, Mr. Eisenberg engineered massive investment in the newly independent republics of Central Asia. ... Little more than a decade later, he was "the tanker king," controlling the oil trade between Indonesia and Japan, which was crucial to the industrialization of Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. Moving to Israel, Mr. Eisenberg became the most powerful tycoon in its history. The "Eisenberg Law" was passed in the 1970s to free him of the country's massive tax burden so he would continue to operate from there. No Israeli government had the courage to fight him. He controlled the giant Israel Corp. holding company and held a 49 percent share in the national shipping company, Zim, one of the largest shipping and transportation companies in the world. He also dominated Israel Chemicals."

July 5, 1988, Globe and Mail (Canada), 'Begin's friend cited in arms sale': "A trading company owned by a close friend of former Israeli premier Menachem Begin helped to negotiate the sale of Chinese Silkworm missiles to Iran, Newsweek reported in its current edition which went on sale yesterday. It quoted unidentified western arms traders as saying salesmen for China's armed forces acknowledged that United Development Inc. played a key role in the transaction. UDI is owned by Shaul Eisenberg."

February 19, 1998, Canadian Jewish News, 'Israel's booming arms industry': "Israel's arms industry has evolved into the world's fifth largest, behind the United States, Britain, France and Russia. ... In 1996, Israel racked up foreign sales of $1.3. billion (US). Customers ranged from the United States, Britain and Brazil to Singapore, Guatemala and Latvia. ... In addition, as in Turkey's case, Israel is noted for its upgrade packages. Late last year, Israel won a $650-million contract to upgrade Poland's Huzar helicopter. In 1994 and 1995, Israel signed deals with the Czech Republic, India and Romania to upgrade their respective fleets of L-39 trainer aircraft and MIG-21 fighters. Switzerland has bought pilotless spy planes, while Britain -- which lifted an arms embargo against Israel in 1995 -- has purchased 155-millimetre artillery shells. In South America, Ecuador has acquired Kfir jets. China and the United States are two of Israel's most important markets. ... Armed Forces Journal and Jane's Defence Weekly report that China has bought from $1 billion to $3 billion worth of supplies since the early 1980s, from anti-tank missiles and tank cannons to communications equipment and night vision scopes. The China market was almost single-handedly developed by the late Shaul Eisenberg..."

October 3, 1993, South China Morning Post (Hong Kong), 'World's greatest business broker': "Mention of the Forbes article with its accusations that he has not always been scrupulous in dealings with Asian leaders pains Mr Eisenberg who dismissed the piece as "anti-semitic", and added: "To think it was written by a Jew." ... Mr Eisenberg's Panama-registered United Development Incorporated (UDI) is also one of the biggest foreign traders in China, dealing in everything from pig-iron and power plants to Disney comics. ... Seated in his converted jet surrounded by his lieutenants, including a retired brigadier-general of the Israeli air force, Mr Eisenberg is en route from Beijing to Nanjing, the capital of Jiangsu province, where he is to be a guest of the governor, rather like a state visit. ... Mr Eisenberg joined his parents in Shanghai where his father had established himself as a vegetable oil seller. The young Mr Eisenberg then ventured to Japan. There he sold Chinese carpets during the war to wealthy Japanese and, after, to the US army, before moving on to deal in iron ore and scrap in the post-war period, learning from the Japanese business samurai in the process. "I was friendly with Mitsui (Japanese trading company)," he recalled. "I learned a lot from them. They're good business people. They said they might have lost the war, but they wanted to win the economic war, and they planned it properly - like a war. "In those days, there were a lot of military people in Japanese companies." Mr Eisenberg himself has followed this formula. UDI is peppered with military types. He likes military-style efficiency . . . and people who are prepared to work long hours without complaining. ... On one issue, Mr Eisenberg is particularly sensitive, and that is the question of Israeli arms sales to China. "People think I am an arms dealer," he said. "But I only did it for Israel. I hate the military business, and I don't do it in other countries. In any case, it's only small business between China and Israel. We did not give them hardware, only knowhow." Independent sources say the relationship was more extensive, possibly running into hundreds of millions of dollars in the past decade. According to a Rand Corporation study in 1991, Israel has helped China develop a surface-to-air missile, an intermediate-range missile, an air- to-air missile, advanced armour technology for tanks and an airborne early warning system, among other items. While Mr Eisenberg spends more than half his time roaming the world "cooking" deals, his home base has been firmly in Israel since the mid-1970s when the Israeli Knesset, passed what became known as the "Eisenberg law". This was drafted with Mr Eisenberg in mind to allow Israeli tycoons to operate from Israel without having to pay local tax on their worldwide earnings. ... Mr Eisenberg's connections bring some strange business propositions. He was recently approached by North Korea with a proposal that Israel help develop a goldmine. In return Pyongyang's would undertake not to supply nuclear technology to Iran or arms to Syria. Mr Eisenberg dismisses the proposal as "blackmail", but sensing there may be opportunities in North Korea, which cannot remain closed forever, has begun, tentatively, to do business there, placing an order for textiles. ... "I know every week how much money we make and how much we spend," he said. "Before I go home for the weekend I want to know if I'm broke or if I am rich." So where does Mr Eisenberg, at an age when most tycoons have quietly retired to the golf course or to their country estates, go from here? Apart from China he has established a presence in central Asia and in the Russian federation, although experience has taught him to be wary of those markets. He is also focusing attention on India which is undergoing a process of privatisation."

November 30, 1999, Agence France Presse, 'Chinese official leaves Israel after boosting military cooperation': "The two sides were brought together by Israeli magnate Shaul Eisenberg. The millionnaire, who died in 1997 -- in Beijing, fittingly -- headed the Israel Corporation, a huge finance company which was behind most of the large-scale Chinese-Israeli contracts. Trade has continued ever upwards, exceeding 350 million dollars in 1998. If Hong Kong is included, it has already gone over two billion. To that must be added Israeli arms sales. Beijing has been under a weapons embargo by the West since the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989. But China, with an army of 2.5 million, is keen to cut its manpower by modernising its equipment. As the world's fifth biggest weapons exporter, Israel hastened to fill the gap, selling anything and everything from radar systems, optical and telecommunications equipment, to drones and flight simulators and much more. Recent reports from Israel -- confirmed by the US Pentagon and State Deparment, but denied by the Chinese -- say that Israel is to sell China an AWACS radar system mounted by IAI on a Russian-made Ilyushin-76 cargo plane. Schiff said the contract, worth 250 million dollars, was signed in 1996 as part of a plan, codenamed Ring, to supply eight such AWACS systems. They operate over a radius of 400 kilometers (250 miles) and are able to home in on 60 targets at one time and to guide 12 planes. The United States, initially unhappy about the deal, admitted that the systems did not include any US technology. Haaretz said Israel is also coproducing, with China and Russia, a fighter-bomber, the F-10. It is said to out-perform the Russian Sukhoi-27, and will be equipped with Israeli Python-4 missiles. The pilots will be fitted with special Israeli-made headsets, directly connected with the firing systems. According to the specialist British magazine Jane's Defense Weekly, Israel is also helping Beijing develop an electrically propelled Song-class submarine. In a sure sign that military cooperation, discreet though it may be, is nevertheless going strong, Chinese officers recently participated in a training course in Israel, Schiff said."

January 10, 1987, Associated Press, 'Ex-Mossad Man Says Was Just 'Matchmaker' in U.S.-Iran Deal': "David Kimche, the ex-spy who helped orchestrate the U.S.-Iranian arms intrigue, says he was merely a "matchmaker" in a deal that has since unraveled into a major international scandal. Some would say the British-born Israeli diplomat was the perfect man for the intricate job of coordinating the Israeli-American-Iranian triangle. ... In November 1985, on a subsequent trip, Kimche said, he discussed the arms deal over a hasty lunch near the White House with the chief troubleshooter of the operation, Marine Lt. Col. Oliver North. A month later Kimche traveled to London, where he met in the apartment of Israeli arms dealer Yaakov Nimrodi with North, McFarlane and Iranian go-between Manucher Ghorbanifar. ... Former colleagues say Kimche aspired to become the Mossad's director and left when he was passed over. His one-time boss at the agency, Yitzhak Shamir, now Israel's prime minister, brought him to the Foreign Ministry. As director general, he was No. 2 to Foreign Minister Shamir. ... The longtime secret agent does not rule out returning to the Mossad or the Foreign Ministry. Meanwhile, he is a shekel-a-year consultant for the ministry and is handling investment projects for international businessman Shaul Eisenberg."

May 23, 1987, New York Times, 'Man in the News; David Kimche; An Urbane Secret Agent': "Mr. Kimche is now a consultant to the Foreign Ministry. He also lectures and works for Shaul Eisenberg, an international businessman."

AL SCHWIMMER AND YAAKOV NIMRODI [FRIENDS OF EISENBERG] CROWD:

August 30, 1989, The Guardian, 'Israeli security men sell out to drug barons': "According to Israel Radio, Lieutenant-Colonel Yair Klein, the former army man at the centre of the row, conducted weapons training courses in Colombia as recently as four months ago. Col Klein and another ex-officer, Mr Amatzia Shuali, are under investigation, but say their firm, Hod HaHanit (Spearhead), is only the tip of a very large iceberg. If they have broken the law, they told police, than so have many others. Col Klein says that his work in Colombia was carried out with government approval and merely involved training farmers to defend themselves against attacks by leftwing guerrillas. He has denied any connection with the powerful and ruthless drug barons. According to Israeli press reports, a former paratroop officer is suspected of having helped the head of the Cali drug cartel plan the murder of his rival in Medellin. The assassination was to have been carried out by an explosives-laden remotely piloted drone."

September 3, 1989, St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri), 'Israelis trained Medellin Cartel's forces': "BOGOTA, Colombia - Israeli instructors trained paramilitary units whose members included a leader of the Medellin drug cartel's death squads, according to videos prepared by the Israelis themselves. The 48-minute video shows Yair Klein, a former Israeli colonel, running military and assassination training exercises for about 50 men, including one known as Vladimir. Vladimir, whose real name is Alfredo Vaquero, is identified by Colombian authorities as the leader of the Medellin cartel's paramilitary organization. He was arrested 10 days ago on charges of murdering four judges and nine court workers. Colombian security authorities also identified at least four key figures in Colombia's drug trade as attending a graduation ceremony at the end of the training program. A secret report prepared for a government security agent also disclosed that the trainees in the video had been recruited at the behest of Pablo Escobar and Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha, two leaders of the Medellin cartel. Th e video was prepared by Klein as a promotion for a company, named The Spear of Glory, that he had established to train paramilitary groups, according to Gen. Miguel A. Maza, who heads Colombia's Administrative Security Department, its equivalent of the FBI. Maza said in an interview with two American reporters that the film ''is undeniable evidence'' that the Israelis had trained the drug cartel's forces. The film was captured in a raid on the house of a Henry Perez, who is alleged to be a recruiter for the death squads. And, according to Maza, Vladimir has told interrogators that ''his instructors were Israelis.'' The general also declared that ''I know we can make the connection'' between the Israeli-trained drug forces and the murder Aug. 18 of Luis Carlos Galan, the leading candidate in the country's scheduled presidential election. Galan's murder touched off the current drug crackdown in Colombia. Maza said a witness to the assassination, himself a former member of a drug-sponsored paramilitary group, asserted that three suspects now under arrest in Galan's killing had trained with the witness under Israeli instructors. Maza said at least 11 British instructors also had trained paramilitary units for the Cali cartel, but he made clear that the Israeli trainers were his targets. ''With this (film, everything is proved, and in this country everything has to be proved,'' he said. Klein, a former commander of an Israeli anti-terrorist unit, returned to Israel last year. He told Israeli television last month that he had worked in Colombia for six months, from December 1987 to May 1988. He said the group that he trained, ''included only farmers who have been physically injured by guerrilla bullets and survived or had their families killed. Nobody else was accepted into this organization.'' Klein also said that Colombia knew of his activities and that the training had been carried out in full view of an army camp. Maza said the Israelis had now left his country. But Maza said some British mercenaries remained in Colombia and that there were several ''schools'' operated by the cartels to train their private armies. He said that he did not know if the government was aware of the Israeli training mission and that ''it would be very grave if it is true that they trained near a military base.'' But there was nothing in the film that indicated any military facility in the area, which is situated near the town of Cimitarra in the heart of the cartels' cocaine producing region. The training itself was impressive: Armed with American-made AR-15 automatic assault rifles, Soviet designed AK-47 rifles and Israeli-made Uzi submachine guns and automatic pistols, the trainees were shown in mass charges of enemy positions. Assaults on a town were simulated, including house-to-house fighting. Exercises in ambushes of automobiles - and in the countering of such ambushes - were conducted. In addition to these traditional military and anti-terrorist activities, the film also showed maneuvers that Maza characterized as terrorist tactics. These involved drive-by attacks in cars, during which men inside the vehicles suddenly leaned from the windows, firing at other cars, passers-by and nearby buildings. There were exercises as well in setting off bombs. Often, the video had a surrealistic quality. A sign at the entrance of the camp read: ''Welcome. One enters here, but one doesn't leave.'' As the men went through their training they shouted in unison: ''I want vengeance, much vengeance! I want blood, much blood!'' But what was striking - and evidently intended as part of the campaign to sell the video - was the presence of the trainers, all young men with the exception of Klein, 44. Then, in the concluding exercise of the video, Klein and other Israelis were seen leading all the men, including Vladimir, in a mass charge up a steep hill. After firing thousands of rounds of ammunition and setting off bombs, the trainees took the top. At the end, with drug lord Rodriguez Gacha and his lieutenants looking on, Klein assessed the operation: ''The mission is complete,'' he said in Hebrew as an Israeli identified only as Teddy translated in heavily accented Spanish. ''The exercise was good, but there were some things to improve.'' After the video concluded, Gen. Maza said the paramilitary forces, when first founded by ranchers and farmers, had started out by fighting the leftist guerrilla groups that have plagued rural Colombia for decades. But as the drug traffickers began buying land in the Medellin and Cali areas, they quickly took over the groups, using them at first to fend off the guerrillas, Maza said. Now, he concluded, ''they are used to protect their (coca growing areas against the government, to attack enemies inside (the drug business and the government. They are used against any obstacle.''"

August 30, 1989, New York Times, 'Mercenaries Shown Training Drug Gangs': "A retired Israeli Army officer, Lieut. Col. Yair Klein, who has acknowledged training the Colombians and making the tape, said in a radio interview broadcast in Bogota today that he was training men to fight Communist guerrillas. But the Colombian police, in interviews and in a report made available today, said about a half-dozen Israelis and at least 11 British mercenaries were training paramilitary forces and assassins for the Medellin and Cali drug cartels. In an interview today, Gen. Miguel Maza Marquez, the head of a national security and intelligence organization, said one of the Israeli's students, Alfredo de Jesus Baquero, was arrested 10 days ago on charges of gunning down a group of four judges and nine judicial workers on a country road early this year. The police said they believed that hundreds of other killings had been carried out in the last year by gunmen trained by Israeli and British mercenaries."

August 29, 1989, Washington Times, ' Columbian justice minister stays on job despite threats; Military-backed units went to work for cartels': "A Western source in Bogota yesterday said a March report by the Department of Administrative Security, the Colombian federal investigation service, concluded that private Israeli and British instructors were training right-wing hit squads linked to the drug barons. The units, the report concluded, were trained in terrorist tactics, including the making of letter bombs and the launching of attacks with frozen hand grenades that explode only after they defrost. The source quoted the report as saying Jose Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha, one of the leaders of the powerful Medellin cocaine cartel, had attended the graduation ceremony of at least one of the hit squads. The report didn't name Col. Klein but referred to an Israeli trainer code-named "Amancia." Historically, Colombia's drug barons had been protected by the Marxist-led M-19 guerrilla movement and other Marxist guerrillas with direct links to Cuba. Col. Klein, speaking to reporters in Jerusalem yesterday, said the men he trained were anti-communists apparently swayed by the cocaine cartels willing to use any enforcers, despite their political connections. "The force we trained was so strong that the drug dealers wanted them for their own," Col. Klein said. "And with the money they have, they probably succeeded. ... Col. Klein was first identified in an NBC broadcast film showing him giving weapons training to Colombians in the Magdalena Medio region, a stronghold of drug lord Gacha and of the right-wing paramilitary groups. Israeli officials said they first began investigating in April the links of private Israelis to right-wing paramilitary groups after Colombian newspaper reports sent to Israel by its embassy here in Bogota. ... A report in the April 11, 1989, edition of the Colombian weekly Semana said various Britons and five Israeli instructors have helped train about 50 students who knew the Israelis only by their pseudonyms, including Amancia, Zadaca, Dean and Teddy. ... In an interview with the Bogota newspaper El Tiempo, Col. Klein said he was initially introduced to his Colombian contacts by Shoshani Meraiot, an Israeli businessman who had spent several years in Colombia. Col. Klein said Mr. Meraiot had received 10 percent of the colonel's training fees for the introduction. U.S. officials wouldn't comment on a recent Israeli press report that officials of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency had earlier this year arrested two Israelis carrying weapons, explosives and pilotless aircraft destined for the Colombian drug lords. Senior Colombian government officials described the paramilitary groups as a major problem but said the foreign mercenaries, also including unconfirmed reports of one or two Americans, did not constitute a major issue. ... Well-placed Colombian sources noted that Israeli involvement in Colombia wasn't limited to paramilitary groups. Ricardo Gomez Mazuera, who served until recently as an intelligence officer in the Colombian armed forces, described in a 16-page letter dated Aug. 1, 1989, to the Ministry of Justice his knowledge of the torture and assassination by the military of opponents of the government. "This type of illegal operation was accomplished with the help of foreign personnel," the letter said. "Mr. Vigan, the head of security of the Israeli Embassy in Bogota, accompanied by a Mr. Yossia, who also belongs to the security unit of the same embassy, gave courses on methods of surveillance, espionage tactics and similar issues to members of the Cherry Solano battalion." Mr. Gomez said the Cherry Solano battalion was an intelligence and counterintelligence unit of the Colombian armed forces. Micha Ronen, the Israeli Embassy spokesman in Bogota, dismissed the letter as part of a "wave of disinformation." ... Other Colombian sources said Israeli advisers are training the Colombian air force in the use of fighter planes bought form Israel. Colombia has also purchased small arms, from Israel, the sources said. In a related development, sources close to Defense Minister Oscar Botero denied a Colombian newspaper report that Rafael Eitan, a former Israeli intelligence officer, had been involved in the training of paramilitary groups. Mr. Eitan gained notoriety in 1985 for running a secret unit within the Israeli Defense Ministry that controlled Jonathan Pollard, the former U.S. naval intelligence officer found guilty of spying for Israel. Mr. Eitan, now a private consultant, visited Colombia several times during the past year at the invitation of the country's government, but efforts to reach a business agreement failed, the sources said."

February 2, 1990, Facts on File World News Digest, 'Israeli Tied to Drug Cartels Slain': "An Israeli tied to Colombia's drug cartels, who U.S. authorities said had been helping them plan security for an upcoming trip to Cartagena by U.S. President Bush, was found slain in Miami January 24. [See 1989, pp. 961A2, 768C2] The body of the man, Arik Afek, was discovered in the trunk of his car at Miami International Airport. He had ties to Colonel Yair Klein, an Israeli mercenary alleged to have trained gunmen for the Medellin and Cali cartels. Colombia in September 1989 had issued arrest warrants for both Klein and Afek. [See 1989, p. 729B1] A U.S. Secret Service agent January 28 confirmed reports that the service had questioned Afek on the military capabilities of the Medellin cartel. News reports recently had said the cartel was trying to acquire, or already possessed, SA-7 shoulder-fired antiaircraft missiles and other weapons to be used in a plan to attempt to assassinate President Bush when he traveled to Cartagena for a drug summit February 15. The Miami Herald had reported January 27 that Afek had told friends that he had traveled to Colombia with Secret Service agents four times to help them prepare for President Bush's trip."

July 8, 1990, New York Times, 'Israel is Watching': "Any alert newspaper reader will have gained the impression in recent years that Israeli intelligence operatives - or at least former Israeli operatives - are everywhere, in the woodwork of the Iran-contra affair, in Panama, among the drug lords of Colombia. The reader would be right. All the arms merchants and fringe characters who flitted through Iran-contra are here - the ex-Mossad agent Yaakov Nimrodi [Israeli military attaché to Shah; arms dealer; associate of Kimche, who played a role in the rise of Idi Amin], his partner Al Schwimmer and Amiram Nir, the Israeli Oliver North - along with the elusive Mike Harari, another former Mossad operator, who was at Manuel Noriega's side in Panama when the Americans invaded, but somehow escaped to the safety of Israel. Mr. Harari was in charge of the Mossad hit team that tracked down the Black September terrorists. He was one of the few Mossad agents to escape from the debacle in Norway without being arrested. Later, after becoming Mossad station chief in Mexico City, he metamorphosed into Mr. Noriega's indispensable right-hand man in Panama. Then there is Yair Klein, a reserve lieutenant colonel, once commander of an Israeli antiterrorist unit, who was videotaped and shown worldwide on television training death squads for the Medellin drug cartel in Colombia. He said he thought they were farmers. ... The Mossad does send women into action for purposes of sexual entrapment, but . . . reluctantly. First, intelligence chiefs prefer to use single women for such assignments. Second, they are almost always used in this way only once. The Mossad hesitates before ordering its agents, male or female, to engage in sexual relations for the sake of the mission. . . . While there is no pressure on female agents to exploit their gender, it is expected of them to use sex as one of the many weapons in the field. If sexual blackmail or entrapment is an integral part of the mission, however, the Mossad often employs actual prostitutes. Some of Israel's streetwalking lawbreakers have proved to be surprisingly patriotic, although the secret agency does not tell them any details of the operation or even the identity of the men whom they are ordered to bed. It is common practice, for instance, to debrief Arab informants run by either the Mossad or Aman by smuggling them across the border into Israel and bringing them to a quiet town. There, they are interviewed at length and then rewarded for their work by providing them with prostitutes. Their antics are occasionally photographed for potential blackmail leverage to ensure the Arab agents' loyalty in the future."

June 11, 1987, New York Times, 'Nimrodi gives a party and all the big guns come': "Yaacov Nimrodi ... invited 1,500 of his most intimate friends to his daughter's wedding reception Tuesday night. ... Al Schwimmer, an American-born Israeli arms dealer who has been subpoened to testify in the Iran affair, was there, rubbing elbows with the former Foreign Ministry director general, David Kimche, also under subpoena. Mr. Nimrodi, who has his own subpoena, greeted each guest with a warm smile and a gentle embrace. The photographers had a field day when Rafi Eitan, the man who ran Israel's Washington spy, Jonathan Jay Pollard, sidled in and started shaking hands with one and all. ... President Chaim Herzog was there too, along with Industry Minister Ariel Sharon, Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin, and their Cabinet colleagues Ezer Weizman, Moshe Arens, Chaim Corfu and Gideon Patt. ... The reception was held at the luxurious Tel Aviv suburb of Savyon in the football-field-sized front lawn of Mr. Nimrodi's house, which is a smaller replica of the White House. The theme of the evening, which cost more than $200,000, was the Wild West."

December 1, 1999, Associated Press, 'Iran-Contra file affair uncovered during murder conspiracy investigation': "Nimrodi's father, an arms dealer, was involved in the illegal arms trade with Iran in the 1980s known as Iran-Contra. Yaakov Nimrodi, a former Mossad intelligence chief in Iran, arranged U.S. arms shipments to Iran in 1985. U.S. officials eventually admitted they were using proceeds from arms sales to Iran to fund anti-Sandinista insurgents in Nicaragua. The younger Nimrodi has suspended himself as publisher pending the murder investigation's outcome, and Yaacov Nimrodi has taken over. Ofer Nimrodi completed a prison sentence this year for his role in wiretapping rival newspaper offices. It has been alleged in recent weeks that he plotted to murder Yaacov Tsur, a detective and an accomplice in the wiretapping scandal that rocked the Israeli media in the mid-1990s, because Tsur had turned state witness."

December 1 1986, The Times, 'Spectrum: How Reagan's men dealt with the ayatollahs': "Yaacov Nimrodi, Mossad's legendary master-spy in Tehran for 14 years, was proud when in March 1985 he was summonded by his good friend Shimon Peres, Israel's prime minister, to undertake a top-secret mission for the United States government. Returning from the cold into the heart of a major operation is the dream of most retired intelligence operators, and the 60-year-old Nimrodi was no exception. Famed for his outstanding contacts with Iranians, the millionaire son of Iraqi immigrants believed he was a natural choice to help both his country and the leader of its closest ally, President Reagan. Between 1956 and 1970, Nimrodi has developed a spectacular Mossad network which, based in Tehran, had penetrated the inner sanctums of Israel's hostile Arab neighbours. In parallel, Nimrodi had used his fluent Farsi to negotiate Israel's huge arms sales to Iran. 'I was in partnership with the Shah,' he tells friends. After the Ayatollah's return in 1979, Nimrodi had been urging the need to overthrow the Islamic fanatics who had deposed his friend. ... Peres' brief to Nimrodi was simple. President Reagan, sensitive to the pleas of the helpless families of the American hostages in Beirut, was anxious for any help that might secure their release. Nimrodi's task was to find an Iranian in western Europe with close connections to the Ayatollah's regime who could secure that objective. After a series of discreet telephone calls, Nimrodi arrived in Geneva in May 1985. There he met an old acquaintance, the Saudi arms dealer Adnan Khashoggi. One week after that meeting, Khashoggi contacted Nimrodi to tell him that a rendezvous had been arranged at the Hilton Hotel in Geneva. There he was to meet Manucher Ghorbanifar, an Iranian whom Nimrodi had known 10 years earlier as an officer in the Savak, the Shah's secret police. At the meeting, Ghorbanifar described himself as a deputy to Hussein Moussavi, the Iranian prime minister. Told that the Americans wanted the hostages' release. Ghorbanifar promised he would pass the message on to Tehran but, not unexpectedly, indicated that there would be a price for Iranian help. Immersed for six years in a war of attrition with neighbouring Iraq, Iran's army was in desperate need of weapons which it had been denied by Washington's blanket embargo. Heading Iran's billion-dollar shopping list were TOW anti-tank missiles. Ghorbanifar suggested to Nimrodi that his efforts to persuade his boss to help America would be smoothed by a gift of such missiles to Iran. Ghorbanifar then suggested that the first hostage to be released might be William Buckley, the CIA's station chief in Beirut, who had been kidnapped in March 1984 by the Islamic Jihad and of whom nothing had thereafter been heard. Five days later, Ghorbanifar telephoned Nimrodi, identifying himself with an agreed codename: 'Askari'. Cryptially, 'Askari' suggested that another meeting would be fruitful. Although early reports placed that meeting in London, other sources suggest that the venue was the luxurious Hotel George V in Paris. Since it was now probable that proper negotiations would start, Nimrodi arrived at the end of April accompanied by three others. Leading the Israelis was David Kimche, the brilliant South African-born director of the Israeli foreign office and former deputy chief of Mossad. In his frequent visits to Washington, Kimche had long urged senior Amercian officials and politicians to recognize that catastrophic loss to the West of Iran as an ally. His solution was for the West to search for and support moderate Iranians who could be encouraged to topple the Ayatollahs. Many believe him to be the architect of Israel's policy, which started in 1980, of making secret arms supplies to such moderates. The second Israeli was Al Schwimmer, a founder of the Israeli aircraft industry, a lifelong friend and business associate of Nimrodi and also a close friend of Shimon Peres. At the original meeting in March in Peres' office, it had been decided that while Nimrodi would search for the Iranian go-between, Kimche and Schwimmer would deal with the Americans, who were represented in Paris by Michael Ledeen, an academic specializing in counter-terrorism who had been hired as a 'consultant' to the National Security Council by Kimche's key contact, the then National Security Adviser, Robert McFarlane. Ensconced in the White House basement, Ledeen had become a close associate of Lt-Colonel Oilver North, the NSC's deputy director for political-military affairs - whose resignations was to follow last week's revelations. The author of a widely acclaimed insiders' investigation into the Shah's fall, Ledeen had persistently urged successive National Security Advisers to develop a better relationship with the Ayatollahs. Yet many senior officials in Washington had become highly suspicious of him, following the exposure by the Wall Street Journal of a highly dubious business escapade which had resulted in the imprisonment of his Italian partner. During the course of their negotiations, mutual suspicions arose between Nimrodi and Schwimmer on one hand and Ledeen on the other over the conduct of the deal, gradually developing into acrimony. At the outset, though, their relationship seemed amicable. During the four-hour meeting Ghrobanifar promised that the Iranian prime minister would arrange the release of 'the important one', as Buckley had become known, in exchange for one plane-load of TOW missiles. Mindful of Washington's arms embargo, the Israelis first tried to persuade Ghorbanifar to accept Israeli 106mm recoilless rifles. His refusal led the Israelis to he belief that Ghorbanifar had told Moussavi that he was dealing with the Americans, not the Israelis. Frustrated, the four left the hotel and flew to Israel, where the Israelis failed to persuade Peres to release TOW missiles from Israeli's own stocks. While Nimrodi returned to Europe, Kimche, Schwimmer and Ledeen flew to Washington to consult McFarlane. Until then, the National Security Adviser had suspected that Ghorbanifar was just another of the tricksters who infest the international arms business. But by the time Ledeen arrived in his office, the CIA had submitted a sheaf of reports which overwhelmingly confirmed the Iranian's claims. During their meeting in Paris, Ledeen had encouraged Ghorbanifar to consult his master in Tehran by telephone to confirm his negotiating position. Those calls had been tapped by CIA agents, while Ghorbanifar's subsequent movements had been closely monitored. To McFarlane's delight, the Americans, through intermediaries, were indisputably in contact with the heart of the Ayatollah's regime. According to the Israelis, McFarlane needed no persuasion and volunteered to break the arms embargo by secretly supplying the TOW missiles. The actual arrangements were delegated to Major-General Richard Secord, a retired US Air Force officer who had become an adviser to North in the supply of weapons to the Contras in Central America. By August 18, 1985, Secord had arranged for 600 missiles to be made available in Israel for the deal. In the meantime, Schwimmer had arranged the charter of a DC-8 cargo plane - registration number 213889 EPDIR - with two Colombian-born but US-naturalized pilots. The pilots spent two nights in a Tel Aviv apartment provived by Nimrodi. On August 20, about 100 TOW's were flown from Tel Aviv to Tabriz airport, Iran. After the cargo had been unloaded, the DC-8 returned directly to Germany. To the dismay of the Israelis and Americans, no hostage was released. Suspecting treachery, Nimrodi flew to confront Ghorbanifar at the Vierjahreszeiten Hotel in Hamburg. The Iranian explained that the arrival of the TOW's had completely surprised his government. Apparently, no one in Tehran had really believed that the Americans would break their own embargo. Nimrodi insisted that Ghorbanifar phone the prime minister immediately. Ghobanifar dialled Tehran 667829 and spoke directly to Hussein, After letting them speak for some time, Nimrodi snatched the phone from Ghorbanifar and spoke to Hussein himself. 'It was a tense moment,' according to an observer in the room. Exploiting his intimate understanding of Shi'ite mentality, Nimrodi convinced Hussein - who apparently thought he was speaking to an American - that it was a matter of honour for Iran to fulfil its promise. The result was a TOWs, the 'important one' would be released. Money, Nimrodi insists, was never discussed. It was a straight exchange. Both the Israeli and Ghorbanifar flew soon afterwards to Israel, while the Irarnians dispatched a team to the Lebanon to arrange the release of one hostage. On September 14, at the agreed signal from Tehran that an exchange had become possible, Ghorbanifar personally accompanied the second shipment of 500 TOWs on the same DC-8. When the Rev Benjamin Weir, a Presbyterian minister who had been held in hostage in Lebanon for more than year, was released that same day instead of Buckley, some Israelis were puzzled. Ledeen, however, told Nimrodi that he was not surprised, claiming that he had known for some time that the CIA agent had been killed. For both Israeli businessmen, it was the first inkling that they were pawns in a much larger game - that, in fact, the Americans had been conducting parallel negotiations with Ghorbanifar without their knowledge. But the stakes were already much higher than the Israelis realized. 'We were pleased to help the Americans', Nimrodi states, 'and we wanted to do more. ' Theire roles in the conspiracy were fast diminishing. A third and much larger arms deal was being assembled by officials in Peres' office, in the basement of the White House and by the CIA. But while negotiations were still delicate, their help was required. In early December, after lengthy consultations, the original four emissaries again met Ghorbanifar in Hamburg. Their conversation was about further hostage releases. Encouraged by Ghorbanifar's optimistic assurances, Ledeen insisted that all five fly immediately to London to meet 'an important team' arriving from Washington. From the available accounts, that meeting in Nimrodi's small Kensington apartment was viewed by the Americans as 'potentially historic' and by some Israelis in restrospect as 'bordering on the farcical'. Ghorbanifar was introduced to McFarlane, North and Secord. Although he had resigned his post the previous week, McFarlane was visiting London on official business while his associates had travelled across the Atlantic under assumed names. Following mutual but restrained pleasantries, McFarlane astonished his audience. Ghorbanifar was asked whether all the remaining hostages could be released by Christmas in exchange for more arms - and, more surprisingly, whether McFarlane could meet the Iranian prime minister. His demands, according to the Istraelis, betrayed a sense of unreality. On their return to Israel, Kimche, Nimrodi and Schwimmer were all personally thanked by Peres, who apparently told them that the question was complete and that future negotiations were to be left to others. Ledeen claims to have been told on his return to Washington that the operation was over and that, following McFarlane's departure, his services were no longer required - a scenario viewed sceptically by the Israelis, who suspected that Ledeen had struck a private relationship with Ghorbanifar. Accurate details of subsequent dealings between the US, Israel and Iran have yet to emerge. Nimrodi, however, feels that he has been unjustly tarnished by the scandal. 'I worked tirelessly for nine months, using my own money and contacts, without getting anything in return,' he claims. Even in retirement, a spy does not enjoy being deceived."

Rothman, Sydney

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Joined L. Rothman & Company, 1919, Partner, 1923, Rothmans Ltd. Ministry of Supply, 1941–45. Chairman and Managing Director, Rothmans Ltd, 1929–53. Rothmans was bought by Anton Rupert in 1953. Chairman of Rothmans Tobacco (Holdings) Ltd, 1953–79.

Rothschild, Baron Edmond de

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Grandson of the Edmond de Rothschild who invested untold millions of dollars in the development of Jewish Palestine. Son of Baron Maurice de Rothschild and Baroness Noemie Halphen Rothschild. Maurice de Rothschild enhanced his own fortune with investments in the United States and reportedly left his son Edmond a billion francs -- about $200 million. Born in Paris in 1926 and a lifelong French citizen, Baron Edmond de Rothschild was taken to Switzerland as a child after his father, a senator in France, had refused to vote for the pro-Nazi Vichy regime led by Marshal Philippe Petain in World War II and had been declared a noncitizen. Because he concentrated his business activity in Switzerland and was rarely part of the brilliant social life his cousins Elie, Guy and Alain led in Paris, Edmond de Rothschild was relatively unknown outside European banking until the Socialists led by Francois Mitterrand came to power in France in 1980. When the new Government moved to nationalize the Rothschild Bank, Guy de Rothschild reacted with characteristic Rothschild flair. ''A Jew under Petain, a pariah under Mitterrand,'' he wrote in a much publicized letter, ''for me that's enough.'' He left for New York. Baron Edmond's much smaller bank in Paris, La Compagnie Financiere Edmond de Rothschild, was not nationalized and he began to be known as ''the Rothschild who stayed.'' In 1992, Cie. Financiere was said to have about $2 billion in total assets. Paradoxically, the bank soon became known for its expertise in helping the Government divest itself of nationalized businesses. Baron Edmond always worked independently of the other Rothschilds, but when Guy's son David founded a new Rothschild bank in Paris in 1982, Baron Edmond took a 10 percent stake. He held a similar position in N. M. Rothschild, the family's British branch. The British and French banks have since merged. Most of Baron Edmond's investments were private and their interrelationships complex. But the linchpin of his activities was said to be his Banque Privee in Geneva, a vast holding company with an estimated $17 billion under management in 1995. Other interests included the Banca Privata Solari & Blum in Lugano, Switzerland, the Israel General Bank and the Caesarea Development Company in Tel Aviv, the Israel European Company and the Banque de Gestion Edmond de Rothschild, both in Luxembourg, along with interests in Alpine hotels, De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. in South Africa, Club Mediterranee, several publishing houses in Paris and a television company in Luxembourg. In 1973, he bought a major interest in the Bank of California, based in Los Angeles, which then had $4 billion in assets and 80 branches. The bank was sold in 1985 to Japan's Mitsubishi Bank for about three times the original purchase price. His wine interests included a share in Domaines Barons Rothschild, which owns Chateau Lafite-Rothschild and Chateau Reussic in Bordeaux as well as parts of wine properties in Portugal, Chile and California. He owned Chateau Clarke, another Bordeaux wine property, and several years ago turned ownership of Chateau Malmaison, which adjoins Clarke, over to his wife, Baroness Nadine de Rothschild. Among his lesser holdings were a chain of flower shops in Paris and a 4,000-acre property east of Paris where he raised cattle and produced prize-winning cheese. He was also a major investor in the Savour Club, a large mail-order wine business. Regular visitor of Bilderberg in the 1970s.

Rothschild, Baroness Nadine de

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 2010, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Peter Carr in September 2010)

Wife of Baron Edmond de Rothschild.

Rothschild, Edmund L. de

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Son of Lionel de Rothschild and brother of Leopold David de Rothschild (born 1927). Sir Evelyn and Lord Jacob Rothschild are his younger cousins. Served as an officer in the British Army in France, North Africa, and Italy 1939-1946. In late 1944 he rose to the rank of Major and commanded a Jewish Palestinian Unit (made up of mainly refugees of the Nazis) into Italy. The unit prominently showed the Magen David. Partner of N.M. Rothschild & Sons 1946-1960. Published the book 'Window on the World' in 1949. Friend of the Japanese Tsunao Okumura. Okumura was the president of Nomura Securities between 1948 and 1959 and was seen as the king of Japanese stockbroking in the 1950s. Senior Partner of N.M. Rothschild & Sons 1960-1970. Vice-chairman of the British Newfoundland Corp. 1963-1969. Vice-chairman of Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corp. 1966-1969. One of the Godfathers of Prince Bernhard's extramarital daughters, Alexia Grinda. Bernhard met the mother, the 18-year old Helene Grinda (of the noble Roussel family), in 1966, at a swimming pool of the Rothschild family. Identified as a member of the Pilgrims Society in 1969. Member of the Asia Committee of the Bank of New England Corporation 1970-1971. Chairman of the Bank of New England Corporation in 1971. Governor of the Technical University of Nova Scotia. Trustee of the Queen’s Nursing Institute. Received the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st Class (Japan), in 1973. Chairman of N. M. Rothschild & Son 1970-1975. Nurtured the gardens at Exbury. Attended the 1st World Wilderness Conference in 1977 and trustee of the International Wilderness Foundation, which sponsors these conferences. At the 4th Wilderness Conference in 1987, where Edmund was a key speaker about climate change, Maurice Strong introduced him as the "source" of this whole "Conservation Banking" movement. David Rockefeller was also present at that conference and advised George Hunt, a business advisor who recorded the event, not to distribute any rebukes of what was said or "he would regret it". President of the Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen and Women (AJEX). Presiding Officer representing AJEX at the annual Cenotaph Service of Remembrance. The Rothschild family has been intimately associated with the New West End Synagogue in London. Played himself in the 1998 movie 'In Our Own Hands', about the all-Jewish fighting force in World War II. Member of the President's Council of the Mountain Institute in 1999. One of many donors to the Children’s Blood Foundation, which was inaugurated in 2001. He has been made a Commander of the British Empire. Member of the Pilgrims Society and the 1001 Club.

His younger cousins supported Senator McCain in 2008. March 15, 2008, The Washington Post, 'Lord Rothschild Backs John McCain': "Sen. John McCain plans at least one campaign event on his week-long congressional trip to Europe and the Middle East: a March 20 fundraiser in London. An invitation sent out by the campaign says the luncheon will be held at Spencer House, St. James’s Place, “by kind permission of Lord Rothschild OM GBE and the Hon Nathaniel Rothschild.” Tickets to the invitation-only event cost $1,000 to $2,300. Attire is listed as “lounge suits.”"

December 9, 1987, St. Petersburg Times (Florida), 'Acid rain // Canada on public relations blitz, trying to push U.S. into action': "In Denver last September, Canada's minister of environment, Tom McMillan, looked into an audience of the Fourth Wilderness Conference and warned: "If two countries (Canada and the United States) with such historic ties cannot make progress on an issue like acid rain, what hope is there for progress on environmental issues among nations less bound by links of friendship?""

September 22, 1987, Business Wire, '4th-world-wide-cong': "Over 80 speakers, all leaders in their fields, were heard including David Rockefeller; U.S. Secretary of the Treasury James Baker; Sierra Club Executive Director Michael McCloskey; Audubon Executive Director Peter Berle; the Deputy Minister of Forestry from the People's Republic of China; Dr. Roman Zlotin of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Dr. Irving Mintzer offered a warning about global warming, while the highest use of wilderness was discussed by Dr. Ian Player. ... Attendees at the 4th World Wilderness Congress, representing 60 countries, also heard new ideas about wilderness, including the results of the Congress symposium -- the first ever held -- on creation of oceanic wilderness areas. A major announcement was made by William Penn Mott Jr., director of the National Park Service, on establishment of wilderness areas above the tree-tops, creating no-flight number zones for the majority of national parks, and on creation of below-ground wilderness areas. A major resolution of the 4th World Wilderness Congress was to endorse the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, which was presented to the Congress by Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway, chairman oF the WCED. She spoke to the 4th World Wilderness Congress Sept. 17, reporting on the findings of her commission and holding the final public hearing of the WCED before going to New York to present the report to the United Nations. The endorsement of the 60 countries of the 4th World Wilderness Congress was presented to Prime Minister Brundtland to accompany her to the United Nations. Included in the endorsement was the Denver Declaration, the major mandate of the 4th World Wilderness Congress for the next four years."

Edmund de Rothschild at this conference: "There are … harmless alternative methods for energy and they are available. Alternative uses of water, … harnessing wave energy, solar energy, wind power… to overcome the chilling doom-laden prognostications of Dr. Irving Mintzer’s greenhouse effect."

Rothschild, Baroness Guy de

Source(s): 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008)

Biography of her husband, Guy de Rothschild:

January 6, 1968, The Times, ' £53m bid for Borax gives RT-Z a major stake in US': "Rothschilds, Kleinwort Benson and Morgan, Grenfell are R.T.-Z.'s traditional mercahnt bankers. Sir Mark Turner, of Kleinwort, is R.T.-Z's deputy chairman. Also on the board are Baron Guy de Rothschild, head of the French house, and David Colville, of N. M. Rothschild. Another director is Gerald Coke, Rio Tinto's chairman before its merger with Consolidated Zinc, and a director of S. G. Warburg."

In 1940, as a result of the German occupation of France in World War II, Guy de Rothschild's parents and sister Bethsabée fled France and made their way to safety in New York City. Guy de Rothschild had enlisted in the French Army and was a company commander in the 3rd Light Mechanised Division during the Battle of France in early 1940. After fighting the Nazis at Carvin, he was part of the French Army that was forced to retreat to Dunkirk. He was awarded the Croix de Guerre for his actions on the beaches at Dunkirk, from where he was evacuated to England. He immediately returned to France, landing at Brest, and taking charge of the family's office at La Bourboule, near Clermont-Ferrand. Under the Vichy government, his father and uncles were stripped of their French nationality, removed from the register of the Légion d'honneur, and the family was forced to sell its possessions. Rothschild managed to persuade the buyers to grant options under which he would later be able to buy the family's interests back. He left France again, via Spain and Portugal, to join his parents in New York City. He joined the Free French Forces and boarded the cargo ship, Pacific Grove, to travel back to Europe. His ship was torpedoed and sunk in March 1943, and he was rescued after spending 12 hours in the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. In England, he joined the staff of General Koenig at Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force near Portsmouth. Guy de Rothschild studied law at university then joined de Rothschild Frères in 1931 when it was being run by his father and a cousin, Robert Philippe de Rothschild, who died in 1946. As part of his learning to manage the the family's businesses, in 1933 he joined the executive board of their Northern Railway Company. At the end of War War II, Guy de Rothschild returned to the bank's offices at rue Laffitte in Paris in 1944. On his father's passing in 1949, Guy de Rothschild took formal control of the business. Years later, Rothschild was on the cover of the December 20, 1963 issue of TIME magazine in a story that said he took "over the family's French bank during the disorder of war and defeat, changed its character from stewardship of the family fortune to expansive modern banking." Following in the footsteps of his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, Guy de Rothschild served as a director of the Banque de France. On his father's death, he also inherited part of Château Lafite-Rothschild but did not run it. Georges Pompidou, who would later become President and Prime Minister of France, was recruited by Guy de Rothschild from a job as a teacher, and worked for him from 1953 to 1962, during which time he became the general manager of the Rothschild bank. The bank diversified, from investment management under De Rothschild Frères to the deposit-taking Banque de Rothschild, with branches throughout France. Guy was its president from 1968 to 1978. In 1968 Guy de Rothschild became a partner at N M Rothschild & Sons, London, while cousin Sir Evelyn de Rothschild was appointed a director of Banque Rothschild, Paris. In France, Rothschild developed the country's largest private uranium mining company, the Compagnie Française des Minerais d'Uranium. In 1961, Guy de Rothschild took over as Chairman of Imetal S.A. in which the family had a substantial stake. His involvement marked the first time any Rothschild had personally participated in the management of the business. Among its holdings, the international mining conglomerate owned Société Le Nickel (SLN) in New Caledonia. In 1969, SLN acquired Peñarroya, a Chilean based company which mined and processed lead, zinc and copper. Two years later SLN took over La Compagnie de Mokta, which specialized in iron, manganese, sand, gravel and uranium. Rothschild restructured the family's various mining interests, including Peñarroya which became part of SLN. Chaired the bank Rothschild Frères from 1967 to 1979, when it was nationalized by the French government, and maintained possessions in other French and foreign companies including Imerys. When the Rothschild's bank was nationalized in 1981 by the socialist government of François Mitterrand, a discouraged Guy de Rothschild left France and moved temporarily to New York City. Following another change in government policy, in 1987 a new banking business was established by his son David who founded Rothschild & Cie Banque.

September 5, 1975, New York Times, 'Rothschilds, Through Imetal, Seek First Large U.S. Industrial Stake': "La Compagnie du Nord, the investment vehicle of Baron Guy de Rothschild, owns a 20 per cent controlling interest in Imetal, a company that was created in 1974 to manage more than $1 billion of Rothschild mining and metal properties throughout the world. Baron Guy, 66 years old, is the leader of the Paris Rothschilds and is the chairman and managing director of Imetal."

June 19, 1981, Mining Journal, 'Penarroya: Go Ahead for Neves-Corvo': "THE DIRECTORS of Penarroya (59.45% owned by Imetal) describe 1980 as an average year that started well and ended badly. ... In France, where the group operates three mines producing lead, zinc, silver and germanium, a zinc smelter and three lead refineries..."

March 29, 1980, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 'France-South Korea-Gabon Uranium Mining Agreement': "Controlled by Rothschild, the Imetal monopoly, that came into existence in the early 70s, has already spread its influence to the French uranium companies Cogema, Somair, Mokta and others operating in Gabon and Niger. Imetal is trying to put under its control companies in other capitalist countries, above all the EEC States. And it's the EEC that has become the godfather of South Korean big business in Gabon. All this ultimately leads to the consolidation of the positions of international monopolies in Africa, which naturally is detrimental to the economic sovereignty of the countries."

November 1981, Mining Magazine, 'The Imetal Group': "THE MAIN companies in the IMETAL group are Societe Metallurgique Le Nickel-SLN (50% owned), Societe Miniere et Metallurgique de Penarroya (59.45%), Compagnie Francaise de Mokta - CFM - (78%) and Minemet (53%). ... IMETAL also holds 66% of the Copperweld Corporation in the U.S.A. and is the main shareholder of the Lead Industries Group (U.K.) with 25%. ... Penarroya chiefly produces lead, zinc, silver and by-product metals such as germanium and indium. ... Compagnie Francaise de Mokta (CFM) - previously Compagnie Francaise des Minerais d'Uranium - has holdings in France (SIMURA, SMUC and COMUREX), in Gabon (COMUF), in Canada (AMOK), Niger (SOMAIR) and in the U.S.A. (URANIA). Uranium mines in which CFM has an interest in France are Hyverneresse, Le Cellier and La Croze. At COMUF's Mounana Mine in Gabon a new uranium concentrator is reported to be under erection. ... Other mining interests held by IMETAL are Compania Andaluza de Mines - CAM - (61%) producing iron ore, Compagnie Mineire de l'Oguooe - COMILOG - (16.9%) at Moanda in Gabon producing manganese ore, and Societe Anonyme Cherifienne d'Etudes Minieres - SACEM - (50%) producing manganese ore with diversification into ceramics and baryte."

June 16, 1985, UPI, 'Baron Rothschild -- a twilight in exile': "Of his business accomplishments, Rothschild is proudest of putting together IMETAL, a multinational mining company, ''the largest of its kind in continental Europe -- which did the first takeover bid in America by a foreign entity.'' In 1975, Rothschild succeeded in taking over Copperweld, a Pittsburgh company producing steel tubes and alloys, in a successful attempt to diversify IMETAL to include manufacturing as well as mining companies."

Rupert, Anthony Edward "Anton"

Source(s): August 1, 1980, Private Eye Magazine, 'Lowlife Fund', p. 19 (acquired a "highly confidential" 1978 membership list of the 1001 Club); 1994, Raymond Bonner, 'At the Hand of Man - The White Man's Game', p. 66-71; November 1994, Executive Intelligence Review, Special Report: 'The coming fall of the House of Windsor' (acquired several 1980s membership lists, according to Steinberg of EIR); 2002, Philip Dröge, 'Beroep: Meesterspion', p. 216; May 2003, Capital Research Center, Foundation watch; 1978, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008); 1987, 1001 Club, confidential membership list (provided by Kevin Dowling in September 2008) (six other members of his family were members of the 1001 back in 1987)

December 1998, Issue 25, Kevin Dowling for Noseweek (South Africa), 'The World Wildlife Fund: An unnatural history - Part 6': "Prior to the Second World War, Anton Rupert had been the “firebrand editor” of the pro-Nazi student newspaper – it would become an Ossewa Brandwag [anti-British] mouthpiece during the war – Wapenskou. He and two like-minded young men in the Bond, Nico Diederichs and Piet Meyer, started a small business doing a modest turnover in that most volk-ish commodity, pipe tobacco. Then, in 1943, his fortune was made when Distillers in UK agreed to sell him their South African subsidiary, Distillers SA, a liquor distributor. He paid for it with money borrowed from Broederbond-controlled funds. This development prompted South African historian Dan O'Meara to observe that Rupert was quicker than others in the Reddingsdaad movement to “shed the vestiges of petty bourgeois consciousness”. And that, despite his solid Bond base, and the heavy financial support Rembrandt continued to give to the NP, Rupert had himself almost immediately begun to move rapidly beyond the Afrikaner nationalist pale. As curious for the time is the fact that Distillers was controlled by the family of Sir Stewart Menzies, head of M16. This was followed by yet another remarkable development at War's end. The British Control Commission chose to provide Rupert, amongst all the eager contenders in war-ravaged Britain and its empire, with the latest cigarette-making machinery that had been confiscated from the man who had controlled Germany's cigarette production before and during the war, Nazi war criminal Philip Reemtsma. (Reemtsma was a great art collector and was the single-largest donor to Deputy Reichs-Chancellor Herman Goering's personal “art fund” – possibly in gratitude for Goering's having pardoned the major tax liabilities he had incurred before 1933.) This gesture by the British war reparations authority put Rupert in the way of making a second, even bigger fortune as head of the Rembrandt-Reemtsma and, ultimately, Rothmans Corporation. Rupert came to assume many of the functions of a second Jan Christian Smuts, serving as the Anglophile voice of reason within a surly and fractious Afrikaner community. But he remained a comprador, rather than a politician, and avers today that he has never been closer to any former South African prime minister than he is to President Mandela. Field Marshall Montgomery's former chief of staff, De Guingand had come to South Africa after a spell as Director of Military Intelligence in London, and, in due course, would join Rupert in WWF. "

www.distell.co.za, history: "Distillers Corporation, the brainchild of South African business giant, Dr Anton Rupert, was registered as a corporation in 1945. Distillers expanded energetically and very quickly set up marketing relationships and partnerships in the wine and spirits industry."

South African billionaire. Set up the small Rembrandt company in South Africa in 1947. The company had an agreement with Rothmans (tobacco and alcohol) in Britain. January 23, 2006, The Guardian, 'Anton Rupert': "By 1947 his company, which he named Rembrandt, began manufacturing cigarettes. Rupert is credited with pioneering many innovations including king-size filter cigarettes, foil-wrapped packs and menthol filters. He created the internationally successful Peter Stuyvesant brand. ... In 1953, Rupert purchased control of Rothmans of Pall Mall for £750,000. At the time, Rupert had only £50,000, but he scrambled around to secure loans from South African banks [among them Sanlam]. Years later, when asked if he ever bought a Lotto ticket, he said, "No, I have taken enough big risks in my life." ... He was a member of the secret Afrikaner society, the Broederbond, in the 1940s, but eventually he dismissed it as an "absurdity", and allowed his membership to lapse." In the first five years the business expanded throughout South Africa - then it went international. Apperently very quietly, Rupert took over Rothmans in Great Britain in 1953, and became its chairman. In November 1958 the Rembrandt Group took over the shares of the Carreras Tobacco Co., after which Rupert became its chairman. At that point the Rothschilds had become involved. February 25, 1959, The Times, 'Carreras Limited': "On the occasion of the fifty-fifth annual general meeting of Carreras Limited ... Mr. A. E. Rupert addressed shareholders as follows: ... on November 4 last, Messrs. Rothschild & Sons, on behalf of Rembrandt, made an offer to the holders of all the ordinary voting shares of Carreras Limited." December 15, 1959, The Times, 'Carreras, Limited ...': "A. E. Rupert, the chairman, addressed shareholders as follows:-- ... I am particularly pleased to inform you that Mr. Edmund de Rothschild has signified his willingness to serve on the board of your Company [Carreras Tobacco]..." August 3, 1972, The Times, 'Carreras Limited: An announcement to the shareholders': "It is proposed that its name [after this merger of Carreras with Rothmans, controlled by Rupert's Rembrandt Group] should be changed to Rothmans International Limited. ... The following [17 men] have agreed to become members of the board: ... H.R.H. Burchard, Prince of Prussia (German), Director of Brinkmann ... Dr. Friedrich Kristinus [1001] (German), President of Brinkmann; Jacob C. van Marken (Dutch), Chairman of Turmac, Chairman of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange ... The Hon. David C. S. Montagu (British [1001]), Chairman of Samuel Montagu & Co. Limited; Alexander Orlow [1001] (Dutch), President of Turmac; Sir Derek Pritchard [1001] (British), Chairman of Carreras; Edmund L. de Rothschild [1001] (British), Chairman of N. M. Rothschild & Sons Limited. ... In relation to this merger, Carreras has been advised by Samuel Montagu & Co. Limited, N. M. Rothschild & Sons Limited and Cooper Brothers & Co."

Dominated South African corporate life from the 1950s on. Chairman of the Technical Investment Corporation. Chairman of the South African tobacco giant Rothmans International tobacco company (taken over by British American Tobacco, which is a member of the Multinational Chairman's Group). Owned about 28% of British American Tobacco around the time of his death. Eventually he had migrated to less controversial luxury goods. A friend to European royalty, global leaders and business tycoons. For a while a member of the Afrikaner Broederbond, a secret, exclusively male and white Protestant organization in South Africa dedicated to the advancement of white Afrikaner interests. Together with later co-1001 Club members Harry Oppenheimer and Sir Francis de Guingand (former Military Intelligence chief heading Rupert's main company) a primary founder of the extremely influential South Africa Foundation in 1959. Together with Harry Oppenheimer he probably was the most important non-government man in South Africa for about half a decade. Played a role in establishing the WWF in 1961, together with persons like Julian Huxley, Prince Bernhard and Prince Philip. Trustee of the WWF international and president of WWF South Africa. Founder and chairman of the Peace Parks Foundation and chairman of the Club 21. January 21, 2006, The Telegraph, 'Anton Rupert': "Rupert's own aversion from his country's apartheid policies was expressed quietly but forcefully. He did not get on well with Dr Hendrik Verwoerd, regarded as the founder of apartheid, which Rupert considered a misguided vision of South Africa's future. In the 1980s he publicly urged the government of PW Botha to "get rid of the dead, stinking albatross of apartheid". He maintained steady behind-the-scenes pressure on successive white South African governments to look for an alternative policy that would involve partnership with the black majority." 2001, Terry Bell and Dumisa Buhle Ntsebeza, 'Unfinished business: South Africa, apartheid, and truth': "The South Africa Foundation brought together the doyens of English and Afrikaner business, Harry Oppenheimer and Anton Rupert. What it sought from the government was some official window-dressing, as it conveyed to the world the best possible 'non-political' image of the apartheid system from which its members profited. But the Dutch-born prime minister, Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd, a devout member of the Afrikaner Broederbond (Brotherhood) secret society, paid little head to outside advice, having established his own coterie of advisors." Together with 1001 Club member Harry Oppenheimer (close to a number of South African CIA programs), Rupert set up and ran the Urban Foundation since 1976, which had been founded after the bloody Soweta rebellion (and turned out to be bad for business).1992, Transformation 18, 'The Urban Foundation: Transformation possibilities': "The Urban Foundation was established in mid-December 1976 as a Section 21 (not for gain) company. It is widely accepted that the uprisings in Soweto earlier that year (June 16) and the country-wide tumult that followed had shaken the captains of industry who were fast losing confidence in Pretoria's ability to deal with deteriorating conditions in the townships (Leadership, 1987). With Anglo-American's Harry Oppenheimer as chairperson, and the doyen of Afrikaans business, Anton Rupert, as deputy, the U.F. began operating early in 1977. By 1978 regional offices and boards had been established in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban and Port Elizabeth. Its initial finances came almost exclusively from the local business community, the biggest piece coming from Anglo-American itself. Reliance on essentially local sources has continued largely because the UF was politically blocked in attempts to raise funds abroad. In 1991 some R 28,3 million ofa total of R 35 million in donations received by the UF came from local sources, a freer fund-raising environment notwithstanding (Urban Foundation, 1991). While the goals of the Urban Foundation were rather fuzzy, initial emphasis fell on raising the socio-economic circumstances of the black population across a wide spectrum of areas (housing, health, education, welfare, community development and so on). ... Many of the UF's proposals have been perceived as being 'plain mean' and as relieving the state of its responsibility to provide for the poor. Thus the UF's penchant for introducing market relations and bringing the private sector into development has been received with skepticism in many quarters." Back in the late 1980's seven of his relatives were members of the 1001 Club. Rumored to have been an investor in the secretive KAS Enterprises, the SAS front company involved with Operation Lock. In 1997 Anton Rupert and Baron Edmond de Rothschild families formed the winery Rupert & Rothschild Vignerons, located in South Africa. The R & R Vignerons website: "The Rupert & Rothschild partnership was formed in 1997 by the late Dr. Anton Rupert of South Africa and the late Baron Edmond de Rothschild of France. Their visison and guiding principles were carried forward by their sons, the late Anthonij Rupert and Baron Benjamin de Rothschild. Today the Rupert family and Baron Benjamin de Rothschild share this prestigious partnership in wine production." Member of The Brenthurst Group, an informal association of South Africa's top industialists and financiers, called together by Anglo American's Harry Oppenheimer at Mandela's request to provide a sounding board for his thinking on economic and fiscal matters. Members include Rembrandt supremo Anton Rupert, Liberty Life’s Donny Gordon, Sanlam's Marinus Daling, Standard Bank's Conrad Strauss, Old Mutual's Mike Levett, Anglo American's Julian Ogilvie Thomson, Anglovaal’s Clive Menell and Barlows' Warren Clewlow. Between them they control three quarters of the shares on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. All are also members of the South African Foundation. Recently revived under its new director general Neil van Heerden, it represents South Africa's 53 leading companies. Died in 2006.

January 19, 2006, Agence France Presse -- English, 'South African tycoon Anton Rupert dies at 89': "[Anton Rupert] was one of the founder members of the World Wildlife Fund along with the late Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands who was his close friend."

January 8, 1991, The Independent, 'Prince paid thousands into wildlife sting': "Mr de Haes joined WWF as personal assistant to Prince Bernhard while the prince was International President. For the first three years, Mr de Haes's salary was paid by his former employer, the South African businessman Anton Rupert, a trustee of WWF International and president of the South African Nature Foundation."

September 5, 1990, The Guardian, 'Wednesday People: Tough-talking campaigner in the wildlife fund hot seat / Charles de Haes': "WWF supporters said that giving the impression of poor financial accountability could have damaged contributions the area where even Mr de Haes' critics grant him prowess. 'When he was first put in charge of raising 1001 moneyed supporters who would each put up at least Dollars 10,000, he did it almost single-handed,' a critic conceded. When Mr de Haes took over, annual income was less than Pounds 2 million; it is now over Pounds 100 million. De Haes worked for the Rothmans cigarette group of South African industrialist Anton Rupert, a backer and trustee of the WWF, before taking the top staff job at the fund, initially on secondment from Rothmans. Some colleagues say Mr de Haes may still feel more at home in the world of money than in the world of idealism."

There have been suspicions and accusations that both Anton Rupert and Harry Oppenheimer were involved in the 1966 assassination of Hendrik Verwoerd, the racist, jew-hating, anti-British prime minsiter from Dutch origin. The maybe more hardline international private intelligence group Le Cercle, to which Anton Rupert has been invited, also has close ties to those who are accused of covering up the assassination.

The Story:

Henrik Verwoerd, a Dutchman, was prime minister of South Africa from 1958 until in assassination in 1966. He was the most fanatic apartheid supporting prime minister of South Africa and didn't tolerate any black personnel. Verwoerd did not like Jews either, called Israel an "apartheid state", and during World War II he had been anti-British and pro-German. In 1961 he managed to turn South Africa in a republic and stepped out of the British Commonwealth (this would last until 1994). The Oppenheimers, Ruperts and the more "moderate" wing of the National Party all had been denouncing Verwoerd since his appointment in 1958. In 1960 he survived his first assassination attempt: a shooter with the name David Pratt (who would soon commit suicide) didn't manage to fatally injure him. A second and successful assassination attempt happened on September 6, 1966 by Dimitri Tsafendas. In response John Vorster was appointed by the National Party to become his successor as prime minister, which he remained until 1978. His friend Hendrik van den Bergh, the intelligence chief, was already working under Verwoerd. Although Tsafendas could have acted alone, it is clear that Verwoerd at that point had become a serious opponent to both Rupert and Oppenheimer at the South Africa Foundation and also to members of Le Cercle, to which Anton Rupert has been invited. A few different sources on this assassination can be found below.

January 22, 2006, Africa News, 'South Africa; The Benevolent Tycoon Anton Rupert...': "He ran his overseas companies on the basis of 50-50 partnerships with locals, and only Dr Hendrik Verwoerd stopped him doing this at home. Rupert didn't like Verwoerd and they clashed several times in face-to-face meetings. When Rupert said he wanted to run his Paarl factory on a 50-50 partnership and bring coloured people onto his board, Verwoerd threatened to close him down. Rupert became a member of the Broederbond in the ' 40s but later called it an "absurdity" and allowed his membership to lapse. He did not support one-man, one-vote, pleading instead for co-existence rather than segregation."

2001, Hilton Hamann, Days of the Generals', pp. 5-6: "On many occasions in the future, General van den Bergh would declare to the media that Tsafendas had been 'more thoroughly interrogated than any other suspected criminal'. Yet on the very day of the murder Vorster issued a press statement that appeared in The Star, saying that, as Minister of Justice, he could categorically state that Tsafendas operated alone and that there were definitely no accomplices. Conspiracy theorist believe that this makes Van den Bergh's supposed interrogation improbable. How could Vorster have known so much ab