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9/11: The World Trade Center Collapses
Part 1: Scientific Evidence and 200+ Mainstream Testimonies Virtually Prove Buildings Brought Down With Thermate and Explosives

Joël v.d. Reijden | December 10, 2012 | ISGP Video Archive | Part 2: Who did it?

20 minute introduction video/presentation.

"Explosion.... huge explosion... loud blast... secondary explosions... secondary device... flashes... bombs... shockwave... detonators... controlled demolition... the thickest steel, bent like a pretzel...
Twin_Towers_WTC
The Twin Towers before 9/11.
 
molten steel ... lava ... [underground] fires of hell... more than 2,800 degrees F [1540°C]..."
- As you will see, typical terms used by witnesses to describe their experiences during the attack and the clean up of the World Trade Center site. (example video clips one and two)

"I spent the rest of the afternoon at the mayor's command center. The reporters were trying to figure out what happened. We were thinking that bombs had brought the buildings down. The mayor [Giuliani] talked to us and said he had no evidence of bombs."
- 2002, Cathy Trost and Alicia C. Shepard, foreword by Tom Brokaw, Running Toward Danger - Stories Behind the Breaking News of 9/11, p. 203.

"We were watching the building as it was on fire - the bottom floors of the building were on fire. And we heard this sound that sounded like a clap of thunder. We turned around and we were shocked to see that the building was, what looked like a
shockwave ripping through the building and the windows all busting out. It was horrifying. And then, you know, about a second later the bottom floor caved out and the building followed after that.
- New York University medical student with the name Daryl, interviewed on 1010 WINS NYC News Radio immediately after the collapse of WTC 7 (example video clips one, two, three and four).

Note: Thermate is a variation of classical thermite to which sulfur and potentially other components have been added. The exact differences are discussed in this article.

Contents

  Introduction
  Typical disinformation
  Several good (potential) leads to check out deeper
  Numbers: who described seeing and hearing what exactly
   
  Primary testimony
  WTC 1-2: Reports of explosions after impact and during collapses
  WTC 1-2: Reports of explosions after the collapses
  WTC 7: Foreknowledge of the building coming down
  WTC 7: Evidence of demolition
  WTC 7: Evidence for explosives planted before 9/11
  WTC 1-2-7: Flaws in the investigation of the physical evidence
  WTC 1-2-7: Post-collapse: reports of molten metal
   
  Secondary testimony
  WTC 1-2: Reports of additional explosions during or just after the impacts
  WTC 1-2: Basement-related testimony (watch out for Rodriguez)
  WTC 1-2-7: Exploding van reports
   
  Audio/video evidence for explosives
  Visual and scientific evidence for the use of thermite/thermate
  9/11 timeline including evidence for explosions and thermate
  Summary of part 1: controlled demolition: yes or no?
  Important websites
   
  Part 2: Who did it?

"I don't get it. Why did it take two whole days to tell the world it was an exercise? Frankly, it is incomprehensible. ... Let's start with the fact that they told us it was sugar in the bags [instead of RDX]. Does this mean that neither the FSB specialists nor the interior ministry know what sugar looks like? ... Let's just imagine that real explosives were planted and it was a real attempt at provocation in order to increase tension in the Caucasus and so on and so forth. Do we have any guarantee that we would have been given an accurate reply that we, the public, would find convincing to what had happened? I suspect, unfortunately, that we wouldn't."
- Evgeni Savostianov, former Moscow FSB/KGB chief, on the March 2000 NTV program about the Moscow apartment bombings of September 1999. Putin and the FSB, who basically revived the Cold War, were completely implicated in the bombings. Present on the program were Ryazan building residents, various witnesses, experts and the FSB leadership to counter the claims of conspiracy.

"In the primitive simplicity of [the mind of the masses] they more readily fall victims to the big lie than the small lie, since they themselves often tell small lies in little matters but would be ashamed to resort to large-scale falsehoods. ... The grossly impudent lie always leaves traces behind it, even after it has been nailed down, a fact which is known to all expert liars in this world and to all who conspire together in the art of lying."
- 1926, Adolf Hitler, 'Mein Kampf', p. 472. Words of a dictator, who actually received initial support from much of the same establishment(s) that can be tied to 9/11. The underlined section can be interpreted in two different ways.

Introduction

The subject of 9/11 has always been of special interest to me. Besides the fact that the event was incredibly dramatic and the beginning of a new era in world politics, I had originally planned to fly to New York the day before the attack. Not that I would have been up so early in the morning, but the 107th floor World Trade Center observation deck was definitely near the top of my to-do list. I sometimes wonder what I would have seen
and heard for myself if I hadn't been too cheap to spent the money. And also, if it were possible to go back into time, what locations in the World Trade Center I would love to check in the days and hours before the attack.

Actually separate from that, it's safe to say that without 9/11 having taken place this site would have never been created. Membership lists of the Pilgrims
  9/11
The event that led to the creation of ISGP.
Society, the 1001 Club and Le Cercle would still be unavailable. The Dutroux X-Dossiers would have never been exposed to the extent that they have. The ATLAS Dossier would have never been translated and made public. And no in depth studies would have been done on the American Security Council, the AFIO, the OSS Society, or various other groups.

Having followed the event live on CNN from just after the first impact, the thing that struck me the most was speculation of bombs having caused the collapses. After the first tower went down, I assumed that the other would soon follow suit - but not because the first collapse made any sense to me. I distinctly remember pushing aside the idea that bombs had to be located at various floors inside the building, simply because terrorists would have never been able to carry out such an operation. My thoughts were exactly like one of the witnesses cited below, who, upon witnessing the first tower going down, yelled in disbelief: "That was a fucking bomb that did that. There's no goddamn way that could have happened." I wasn't thinking along conspiracy lines at all in those days, but was clearly censoring myself in order for things to keep making sense.

Like everyone else, I just waited for the media to come up with the answers. I remember looking at different television stations the rest of the day, waiting for confirmation or a retraction that explosives were used to bring down the towers. But interestingly enough the
WTC1_WTC2_impact_floors
WTC impact floors and flight trajectories of planes.
 
topic was never brought up again, at least not as far as I noticed. Going through the (Dutch) newspapers the next morning it was the same story: not one mention of even the potential use of explosives. Not having the slightest clue about world affairs, I dropped the issue and went on with my business.

Things changed two-and-a-half years later, after becoming aware that sometimes prevailing ideas in society may not be all that accurate. This awareness led me to do a few simple Google searches on topics that I had always been interested in, but really thought no evidence existed for. One of the subjects I picked were
reports of explosives at the World Trade Center - and there it was: my rabbit hole. Things have never been the same since.

The amazing thing is that I had absolutely no clue whatsoever that anybody anywhere was asking similar questions about that event. I studied all aspects of 9/11 for 1,500 hours over the next 1,5 years, almost immediately beginning with organizing all the information in timelines and various summaries. The information quite literally shook my life to the very core. Each night I went to bed convinced that there had been a conspiracy; and each day I woke up again thinking it was all crazy - that there had to be a normal explanation for everything I had come across the previous day. It took months of daily studying to somewhat shake this feeling. Although, to a degree I still have those feelings, even after years and years of seeing all the facts come together and pointing towards a conspiracy.

I actually had the idea of one day working with others to do interviews and get to the bottom of the event. Well, it didn't pan out that way. Little did I know that the entire conspiracy community appears to be one giant counter-intelligence operation. It wasn't until really becoming an expert on the subject that I began to notice the manipulation. Flight 77, the plane that plunged into the Pentagon, is the most obvious example of this. Trusting the work of other researchers, I pushed aside my own intuition and copied information that indeed something fishy may have happened at the Pentagon. But when finally getting around to checking the facts in detail, it soon became clear that pictures and witness testimonies had been taken out of context in quite an extreme manner.

As a result I wrote an article that put the facts straight once and for all. It was distributed by various sites: thousands got to read it, and replies were overwhelmingly very positive. However, do you think it was possible to change the minds of "gurus" like Dr. James Fetzer and Eric Hufschmid, whom I briefly conversed with in private? No, of course not. For years Fetzer has been messing up research into the Kennedy assassination, pointing his readers in all directions except the correct ones. He's hardly alone in that effort. Reading years later that the extremely antisemitic Hufschmid is a relative of neocon media mogul Rupert Murdoch - a friend of Frank Lowy, the co-owner of the World Trade Center - hardly comes as a surprise either. In fact, immediately after my article was distributed I became quite irritated with a new wave of no-757-at-Pentagon theories being spread by virtually every "respectable" author and major conspiracy website. Being used to it these days, back then this realization was quite a shock.

Realizing that nothing more was to be gained from studying 9/11, I distanced myself from it. Instead, I began to map out networks of "non-government" groups which appeared to have great influence on governments internationally. After a while it was possible to pick out some of the more important and unknown ones, including the Pilgrims Society, the 1001 Club and Le Cercle, bringing out a lot of new informaton about these groups. But the ultimate goal of this site has always been to figure out who was behind 9/11.

Back in the day some of the seemingly legitimate researchers I interacted with actually could not understand why I was always so skeptical about explosives and thermite having been used to bring down the World Trade Center buildings. The reason is simple: extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. I don't think this was available in the 2004-2005
period when Youtube wasn't around yet and videos were relatively scarce and of low quality. It's quite amazing really just the amount of high quality material, some it new, that has been uploaded to Youtube since 2010. If one knows how to steer through all the nonsense, it makes it infinitely easier to confirm a lot of information that was previously just impossible to find.

As the reader will find out in this article, evidence for explosives and thermate at the World Trade Center is nothing short of overwhelming, a case additionally strengthened by a lack of willingness from the media
 
Daily_Mail
August 6, 2005, Daily Mail, asking a good question. Not posted to Daily Mail website.
and NIST researchers to answer very important and very rational questions. The purpose of this article is to provide readers with so much testimony and evidence pointing towards controlled demolition, that it becomes irrational to believe otherwise. That's not to say I'm 100 percent convinced of controlled demolition; a rational person is never 100 percent convinced of anything unless given overwhelming evidence and is supported in his opinion by many others around him. That's just the way psychology works. However, the evidence up to this point personally leads me to conclude that I should be at least 95 percent convinced that explosives and thermite were used that day. My mind may have trouble handling that conclusion, even after all these years, but it is the only rational conclusion that fits all the facts. Everything else is denial.

If someone is able to prove me wrong, I will be just as happy and immediately report it at the top of this page. Giving certainty to readers by providing reliable documentation has always been a key philosophy of ISGP. Giving (more or less) certainty on the topic of 9/11 has been a real challenge though. The only reason I have now actually decided to write about it again is because there's just too much manipulation for the average person to deal with. I have never been able to discuss events like Kennedy or 9/11, simply because it takes at least 500 to 1,000 hours for the average person just to get a sense of what is true and what is not. Hopefully this article will help change that.

Jet_fighters_planes_QRA
Jet fighters on Quick Reaction Alert were roughly 45 minutes too late in New York City and Washington, D.C. Especially with Andrews Air Base sitting next to Washington, D.C. it is absolutely incredible that Flight 77 was
able to fly all the back to the nation's capital unhindered.

Basic information on the attacks

8:14 AM Flight 11 fails to respond
F-15 and F-16 jets on Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) should be scrambled within 15 minutes from Otis Air National Guard base, Langley Air Force Base and Andrews Air Force Base. Based on this information, these planes should be over New York City well within 30 minutes. Andrews AFB is only 11 miles from Washington, D.C., suggesting fighters could be over the capital within 20 minutes.
8:42 AM Flight 175 signs of trouble Crosses the path of the pursued Flight 11.
8:44 AM Jets should have reached New York City well before this point.
Jet fighters aren't there yet and still won't be on 9:03 AM when the second plane hits the South Tower. They're also not in time to protect the Pentagon, 84 minutes after the first signs of trouble. No serious investigation of these failures has been done.
8:46 AM Flight 11 hits the North Tower 32 minutes after hijacking. Impact at floors 94-98.
8:51 AM Flight 77 signs of trouble Plane will eventually hit the Pentagon.
9:03 AM Flight 175 hits the South Tower 22 minutes after hijacking. Impact at floors 78-84.
9:28 AM Flight 93 is hijacked Plane will eventually crash in Pennsylvania.
9:38 AM Flight 77 hits the Pentagon 47 minutes after hijacking. Still no fighters around to have intercepted it.
9:59 AM South Tower collapse 56 minutes after impact.
10:03 AM Crash of Flight 93
35 minutes after hijacking. Possibly shot down.
10:28 AM North Tower collapse 102 minutes after impact.
10:50 AM Pentagon collapse Due to fire.
5:20 PM WTC 7 collapse Strong evidence for demolition.

Typical disinformation

Without spending too much time on it, the reader should always keep this section in the back of his mind when researching 9/11. 9/11 can be divided in three major investigations: 1) the potential use of explosives and thermate at the World Trade Center; 2) something else than Flight 77 hitting the Pentagon; and 3) who the Florida hijackers were (solely the domain of Daniel Hopsicker). For many years the primary arguments to legitimize the Pentagon investigation have been the following two:

  • The damage to the Pentagon is too little for a plane the size of Flight 77.
  • Witnesses have seen a missile or a small plane.

Both arguments are nonsense and easy to dispel, as has been done by the author years ago. The damage to the Pentagon corresponds exactly to that of a Boeing 757 while all witness statements that are supposed to prove something else than a 757 hit the Pentagon have been taken out of context.

Maybe you now want to ask why the FBI did not release a better quality video of the event? Maybe, just maybe to keep fueling conspiracy theories. The minute a clear video of the Pentagon attack appears, all focus will shift to other, much more promising elements of the attack. Remember, I have come across my fair share of disinformation over the years, as has been discussed in various articles on this site. It's a real phenomenon.

As for the World Trade Center discussion, it's impossible for me to say how sincere a person as Dr. Steven Jones is. Jones claims to have evidence that nanothermate was used at the World Trade Center site. I do not have access to the World Trade Center dust, as Jones had, nor do I have the equipment to analyze it myself. On top of that, I can never guarantee that dust given to me by a third party wasn't tampered with. However, as the reader will see, even without an analysis of the World Trade Center dust, there is a ton of evidence available that this type of incendiary was used. And for the record, I do suspect that Jones is sincere in his conclusions.

Considerably less legitimate aspects of the World Trade Center "investigation", yet hugely prominent, include the following:

  • Descriptions of plane impacts "confused" with those of the collapses. I have been very careful in this article to not confuse the two. All references to explosions in this article were made in reference to the collapses or moments in time other than the plane impacts
  • A bomb in the lobby of WTC 1 or 2. The damage was done by an elevator that came crashing down, followed by a wave of burning jet fuel.
  • A bomb in the basement. What is certain is that a 20-ton freight elevator with burning jet fuel crashed down to the basement, causing widespread damage and a number of burn victims. There are only two testimonies that describe damage of an extent that could potentially indicate explosives, but this is anything but certain. Who knows how much overpressure the falling elevator and burning jet fuel may have caused. The two legitimate testimonies are from Mike Pecoraro and Phillip Morelli. A much more prominent one is from the hugely popular William Rodriguez - but I'll guarantee you right here right now that he has invented his (later) story. His account live on 9/11 clearly describes the falling elevator with burning fuel. Later on he changed his account to hearing a bomb prior to the impact of the first plane and how everyone was "pushed up" by it - completely contradicting every other witness from that day. It's one hundred percent guaranteed disinformation - and the reason why he has been promoted literally everywhere. The fact that he was an associate of James Randi should make people think.
  • Nuclear weapons or other exotic weapons used in the destruction of the towers. They are as old as the way to Oklahoma.
  • Seismic spikes that indicate massive underground explosions. We have to thank Christopher Bollyn for that, who took claims from a number of scientists out of context. These spikes were used as "evidence" for the detonation of mini-nukes and could potentially be linked to the Israeli moving vans - fine with Bollyn and his highly racist American Free Press. The fact is that anyone who looks at the seismic data can see that there's a build up of several seconds towards the peak, which coincides with rubble starting to hit the ground. The scientists in question also later stated that Bollyn had taken their statements out of context.
  • Fake phone calls. At least when it comes to calls made from Flight 11 and Flight 175, there's little reason to doubt that they took place. Betty Ong from Flight 11 explained events over the course of several minutes and her account can be heard on Youtube these days. According to her, the hijackers stabbed two persons, sprayed what appeared to be tear gas or pepper spray in the front portion of the plane, and locked themselves into the cockpit with the pilot. Similar claims came from Flight 175, where the hijackers were said to have used knives and what appeared to be pepper spray. In this case both pilots were killed before the plane crashed.
  • Watch out for fake witness testimonies made years after 9/11, which in the event of any new investigation (à la HSCA) will undermine efforts to get to the bottom of the case. These will need to be debunked, causing additional confusion and leading to most people quickly giving up. I've come across various examples of this.
  • Pods underneath Flight 11 and Flight 175 are bogus.
  • That other planes than Flight 11 and Flight 175 hit the buildings are obviously bogus too.

Several good (potential) leads to check out deeper

  • Background investigations of the dozens of leading 9/11 skeptics who promote no-757-at-Pentagon theories.
  • Figuring out how it is possible that the news media do not allow honest investigations and discussions on the topic of 9/11.
  • The use of explosives and thermate at the World Trade Center. We should have had many times the testimony that we have today. We also need more and better footage of the collapses when it comes to audio. The same goes even more for World Trade Center 7.
  • Reports of foreknowledge: influential persons not being present at their office and the exact whereabouts of some of the persons whose roles have been questioned.
  • The slow response of the air force on 9/11, especially pertaining to Flight 77, which was allowed to fly all the way back to Washington, D.C. and circle around the Pentagon before crashing into it. We should have expert testimony on all the defenses in Washington, D.C. of that period. We have next to nothing on that.
  • The peculiar lives of the hijackers in Venice, Florida. Daniel Hopsicker uncovered more than a few interesting facts about them. However, the rest of the media has shown zero interest in Atta and his entourage.
  • The connections of the CIA with the ISI and Saudi intelligence, the two intelligence agencies who kept in contact with Osama bin Laden after the fall of the Soviet Union. Much more about that in part two of this article.

Numbers: who described seeing and hearing what exactly

At the end of this document we will be taking a quick look at the audio and visual evidence for explosives having been used. Back in 2005 one of things I set out to do was find a
video clip of the collapse and hear for myself if it began with an explosion. It took a long time to find a proper video, but after watching and listening to it I almost fell from my chair. There actually appears to have been a very loud explosion right when the towers began to come down. You can find a screenshot of such a video on the right, together with a brief audio clip. A more detailed discussion and several additional videos will be discussed later on in this article.

Unfortunately it has become obvious that microphones used by the media are primarily geared towards doing interviews, thereby often muffling the sound of background explosions to a considerable degree. This is unfortunate and makes witnesses all the more important.
 

One of the best videos to hear the collapse sound (headphones!). A rumble, followed by a thunderous boom - and only then a complete collapse of the tower. Even the reporter himself calls it a "huge explosion". I'm not an expert, but have been around high explosives and that's a very, very familiar sound.
Luckily there are many such witnesses who actually describe one or more explosions preceding the collapses. On top of that, dozens of surviving firefighters were absolutely convinced that numerous bombs were going off at the World Trade Center site that morning. In a later stage these same firemen clearly expressed bewilderment about the extreme heat below the World Trade Center rubble, with below-surface temperatures of 1,500 to 2,000°F (800 to 1,100°C) not being controversial at all. One fire chief at Ground Zero even told a reporter: "At one point I think they were about 2,800 degrees" (1,540 degrees Celsius), temperatures that had actually been measured by employees of Bechtel. [1] These temperatures are just above the melting point of steel. Seeing the evidence of steel beams literally having been fused together by the heat in some locations, there's absolutely no doubt that temperatures were this high immediately post-collapse. Temperatures like these also mean that the numerous accounts of "molten steel" were accurate and not accidentally being confused with aluminum or some other metal.

Many firemen seem to have stopped just short of saying that something fishy had happened, more than likely because it's not considered good manners or a career enhancer to oppose
thermite
Upper left: fused steel and concrete block. Upper right and lower left: typical pictures showing the extreme heat underneath the WTC pile of rubble. Lower right: a September 16 overflight of a NASA plane showing hot spots up to 800 degrees Fahrenheit (426 degrees Celsius) at the WTC towers and - not visible here - also at WTC 7. However, these were simply surface temperatures, or close to it, as another overflight on September 23 showed the pile had cooled down, in complete contrast to the accounts of firemen working there, who were still pulling out red hot steel beams over a month after the attack.
 
the opinions of immediate superiors, the authorities or the media. And certainly in the early stages of a tragic event like 9/11 the focus is not on figuring out what happened, but on helping the victims. By the time anyone gets around to making specific claims, the media is not paying attention anymore.

Looking at the faces of some of the firemen when they are talking about explosions or the intense heat, one has to wonder what they are thinking in private. Hopefully there will come a day that the witnesses simply put up a few Youtube clips with their own unfiltered opinions. However, we do have a lot already. Even the New York Times captured many highly interesting statements, which were never put in articles, but are nonetheless available in PDF form on their website through Google.

The numbers below are completely based on the testimonies and visual descriptions that have been posted in full further down in this article. I have been very careful not to select quotes from people
referring to the plane impacts. There are quite a few Youtube clips around in which witnesses talk about hearing explosions. But then, upon careful analysis, it turns out to be a reference to one of the plane impacts. So, not to worry about that - these have been filtered out. I also went back to the original source in almost every case and tried to provide as much context as possible, limiting the possibility that things have been invented or taken out of context. If the source has the affix "(Youtube)" it simply means that I personally have seen this video clip. In time I'll try to relocate a lot of these clips again and upload them to the Youtube channel created for this page.

Personally I hope that someone will locate all the Youtube clips mentioned here, as well as all the fully-sourced quotes, and puts them together in one long video. Right now everything is still very much scattered around and mixed in with nonsense and trivial stuff.

So, without further ado, here is the summary of witness statements contained in this article:

WTC 1/2    
Number of total witnesses/reports listed here on the collapses:
  149
Number of witnesses who said they heard one or more loud explosions:
  119
Number of witnesses who specifically referred to bombs or explosive devices (primarily that initiated the collapses):
  49
Number of witnesses who were indicating that the WTC towers were brought down by sequential explosions and/or a controlled demolition:
  21
Number of witnesses who reported seeing lower level flashes inside the building just before one of the collapses:
  4
     
Number of witnesses found who reported that the North Tower was tilting over or showing other signs of imminent collapse (possibly rescue workers who tried to keep themselves and others safe after the first sudden collapse):   4
Number of witnesses found who reported that the collapses looked normal, without any signs of explosions or bombs:   1
     
Relatively clear audio/video evidence for explosives:   6
WTC 1/2/7 post-collapse    
Number of witnesses who spoke about molten steel and extreme heat below the WTC rubble in the weeks and months after 9/11:   34
FEMA report on heavy local sulfidation attacks on steel components:   Confirmed
     
WTC 7    
Witnesses who remembered talk that WTC 7 needed to be demolished (includes Larry Silverstein's comment "pull it"):   4
  2
Audio evidence for an initial explosion initiating collapse:   1
Expert testimony claiming it was controlled demolition:   1
Extreme heat specifically reported underneath WTC 7 rubble:   2


As one can see, the evidence for controlled demolition of the Twin Towers based on
Danny_Jowenko
Danny Jowenko, owner of Jowenko Explosive Demolition, clearly showing his lack of 9/11 "Truth" background. Jowenko made no bones about it that he was "absolute sure" that WTC 7 was demolished with explosives - which is basically the only thing that makes sense. Going over the floor plan he said it would be quite easy to do the same day if necessary and that it may have been the preferred choice by building owner Larry Silverstein (as well as the Blackstone Group) as the costs to replace the steel beams would be enormous (mandatory when the steel has been exposed to any kind of fire). However, Jowenko was not told of the testimonies of Jennings and Hess that an explosion had already occurred in the building early that morning. I conversed with him back in 2004 on Silverstein's "pull it" comment, before anyone had heard of him, but apparently he had not made the link to WTC 7. Early in 2011 I asked him to take a look at these witness testimonies and videos in regard to WTC 1 and 2. He didn't reply this time, which is not too strange considering the circus that grew around him. I was planning on visiting him in person after putting out this article - after all, he lives close-by. Unfortunately he died in a single-car no-witness traffic accident in July 2011. Barry Jennings had died earlier under unusual circumstances. Can't be sure, of course, but if I were a demolition expert or witness to events at WTC 7, I would become very careful about speaking out in public.
 
witness testimony alone is not at all meager. In contrast, it is relatively strong. WTC 7 requires a different approach. What is really bizarre is that almost no witness reports have come out about this event, but the few that have definitely indicate controlled demolition. Demolition expert Danny Jowenko, who had no clue about WTC 7 having come down the same day as the Twin Towers, explained that there's absolutely no question that the building was brought down with explosives. He even indicated that it was quite easy to do once given a floor plan of the building. He was not told, however, about the accounts of Barry Jennings and Michael Hess that a massive explosion had already taken place in the lobby of the building early in the morning. But more than his usual "there's not much I can say about that" we wouldn't have had from him anyway.

Organizing the witness testimonies in a table like the above one is not an exact science. Sometimes it's possible to interpret statements in various ways. In some cases I've counted bystanders who were nodding along with the person speaking, or only made very brief statements in support of the primary witness. In other cases I found a statement important enough to list below, but didn't put it in the table. An example: Christopher Bollyn of American Free Press may have added a fourth witness to the flashes, but without a name of this witness I do not think the account is reliable enough to be counted. Actually, if I'm very strict (which most of the time I have been) there are only two witnesses to the flashes, but one of them also spoke about his partner's similar observations. Personally I assumed the man
speaking the truth and counted his partner as a separate witness. You may not agree, so therefore, again: it's not an exact science - but nevertheless a good reflection of witness reports from that day.

  Primary testimony
  WTC 1-2: Reports of explosions after impact and during collapses
  WTC 1-2: Reports of explosions after the collapses
  WTC 7: Foreknowledge of the building coming down
  WTC 7: Evidence of demolition
  WTC 7: Evidence for explosives planted before 9/11
  WTC 1-2-7: Flaws in the investigation of the physical evidence
  WTC 1-2-7: Post-collapse: reports of molten metal
   
  Secondary testimony
  WTC 1-2: Reports of additional explosions during or just after the impacts
  WTC 1-2: Basement-related testimony (watch out for Rodriguez)
  WTC 1-2-7: Exploding van reports

WTC 1-2: Reports of explosions after impact and during collapses

  1. September 11, 2001, NBC News Transcripts, 'Attack on America, 11:00 AM': "Chief Albert Turi told me that he was here just literally 10 or 15 minutes after the events that took place this morning. That is, the first crash. ... The chief of safe--the Chief of Safety of the Fire Department of New York City told me that at--shortly after 9:00 he had roughly 10 alarms, roughly 200 men, in the building trying to effect rescues of some of those civilians who were in there. And that, basically, he received word of a possibility of a secondary device--that is another bomb going off. He tried to get his men out as quickly as he could, but he said that there was another explosion which took place. And then, an hour after the first hit here, the first crash that took place, he said there was another explosion that took place in one of the towers here. So, obviously he--according to his theory, he thinks that there were actually devices that were planted in the building. One of the secondary devices, he thinks, that took place after the initial impact, was, he thinks, may have been on the plane that crashed into one of the towers. The second device, he thinks, he speculates, was probably planted in the building. So, that's what we have been told by Albert Turi who is the chief of safety for the New York City Fire Department. He told me that just moments ago. Now we are continuing to hear explosions. We are continuing to hear explosions here downtown. And what we've been told by some of the fire officials is that there are some gas lines that occasionally are exploding down there..." (Turi retired in 2002, along with many other supervisors and ordinary fireman in a "mass exodus".) August 7, 2002, New York Times, 'City's Fire Dept. Facing an Exodus of its Supervisors': "Scores of New York City's Fire Department supervisors, including some of its most senior surviving commanders, have retired since Sept. 11, and hundreds more have notified their union that they expect to leave in the next year. At the same time, the department's front-line firefighters are retiring at more than double the usual rate, according to fire officials. ... Also retiring is Albert Turi Jr., who was the department's chief of safety... And of late, the rate of departure has accelerated even more, with some 40 firefighters retiring every week on average. A year ago, 40 firefighters might have retired in a typical month.
    October 23, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110142 (pdf on the site), interview with FDNY deputy assistant chief Albert Turi: "The next thing I heard was Pete say what the fuck is this? And as my eyes traveled up the building, and I was looking at the south tower, somewhere about halfway up, my initial reaction was there was a secondary explosion, and the entire floor area, a ring right around the building blew out. I later realized that the building had started to collapse already and this was the air being compressed and that is the floor that let go."
  2. Tyrone Johnson, one of three firemen catching a brake on 9/11, interviewed by a film crew and bystanders (Youtube) (FOIA release in December 2010, after a lawsuit): "[Fireman 1, a black man:] Yes it was. Definitely a secondary explosion. We were inside waiting to go upstairs and on our way upstairs the whole fuckin' place blew. It just collapsed on everybody inside the lobby. I don't know about the first one [tower coming down from a secondary explosion]. But the second one, it was terrible. And there was a third one after that one too. ... It was like three explosions after that [after the plane crash]. We came in after the fire was going on already. We were in the staging area inside the building, waiting to go upstairs. ... It can't be more worse than this. You're in the building, trying to help people, and it's exploding on you inside the building."
  3. Jimmy Grillo, one of three firemen catching a brake on 9/11, interviewed by a film crew and bystanders (Youtube) (FOIA release in December 2010, after a lawsuit): "People don't understand. There may be more [bombs]. Anyone of these fucking buildings can blow up. This ain't done yet. ... We were in the lobby gathering to go up to start doing a search on the upper floors. As we were getting our gear on and making our way to the stairway, there was a heavy duty explosion and everybody just started running for the door. Everybody was trapped. Eventually when the dust lifted, I saw some light and started screaming for everybody to go out towards the light managed to get Tyrone out and a couple other guys..."
  4. Firefighter talking to Jimmy Grillo, who wants to start helping his trapped buddies again (Youtube) (FOIA release in December 2010): "Jimmy, don't go too close, Jimmy. They're still blowing up, Jimmy."
  5. Fireman filmed in the WTC complex (Youtube): "There's a bomb in the building. Start clearing out."
  6. New York Fire Department official on the radio (Youtube): "I got an eyewitness who said there was an explosion on floors 7 and 8, 7, 8."
  7. New York Fire Department Official on the radio (Youtube): "And we've got another explosion on the tower, 10-13, 10-13."
  8. Fireman on the radio (Youtube): "Tower 2, I've just had a major explosion and what appears to be a complete collapse surrounding the entire area."
  9. Dusty fireman interviewed on 9/11 (Youtube): "We never even really got that close to the building. An explosion blew and knocked everybody over."
  10. September 12, 2001, People.com, 'United in Courage': "Louie Cacchioli, 51, is a firefighter assigned to Engine 47 in Harlem: We were the first ones in the second tower after the plane struck. I was taking firefighters up in the elevator to the 24th floor to get in position to evacuate workers. On the last trip up a bomb went off. We think there was bombs set in the building. I had just asked another firefighter to stay with me, which was a good thing because we were trapped inside the elevator and he had the tools to get out."
  11. Engine 7 fireman in the documentary '911 – the filmmakers': "The lobby was about six stories high and the lobby looked as though a bomb had exploded there. It's a ... all the glass was taken out, there were 10 foot by 10 foot, a marble panels that were once walls that were loose from the wall of the Trade Center." Could possibly be from the elevator falling down.
  12. Evalle Sweezer, office worker (Youtube): "The lobby was totally gone. ... A woman with her face blown off [lay here] ... As we were coming out, past the lobby, there was no lobby. So I believe the bomb hit the lobby first. And a couple of seconds later the first plane hit." Not counted. The lobby may have been damaged that bad by the falling elevator.
  13. Engine 7 fireman in the documentary '911 – the filmmakers': "I went around by the freight elevator and I could see it was just blown. 30th floor. We hear another ... explosion. And at that time we heard a huge explosion."
  14. A group of Engine 7 firemen in the documentary '911 – the filmmakers': Fireman one: "We made it at least two blocks and we started running. Floor by floor it started popping out." Fireman two: (makes sound and hand gestures to show how the floors popped out) "It is if they had detonators..." Fireman one: "Yeah! detonators..." Fireman two: "It is if they had planned to take down the building…boom…boom …boom…boom." Fireman one: "Yeah...detonators...all the way down, I watching it and running."
  15. Man in a New York Fire Department uniform states (Youtube): "... [we got?] so many people out, but then there were secondary explosions, and then the subsequent collapses." (talks very fast and the first part is somewhat hard to hear)
  16. 2002, Dennis Smith, 'Report from Ground Zero: The Story of the Rescue Efforts at the World Trade Center', p. 18 (report of fireman Dennis Tardio): "I hear an explosion and I look up. It is as if the building is being imploded, from the top floor down, one after another, boom, boom, boom."
  17. 2002, Susan Hagen and Mary Carouba, 'Women at Ground Zero: Stories of Courage and Compassion', pp. 65-66, 68 (account of army veteran and police officer Sue Keane): "[It] sounded like bombs going off. That's when the explosions happened. ... I knew something was going to happen. ... It started to get dark, then all of a sudden there was this massive explosion. ... [There was] another explosion [around the time the North Tower came down]. That sent me and the two firefighters down the stairs. ... I can't tell you how many times I got banged around. Each one of those explosions picked me up and threw me. ... There was another explosion, and I got thrown with two firefighters out onto the street.""
  18. 2002, Cathy Trost and Alicia C. Shepard, foreword by Tom Brokaw, 'Running Toward Danger - Stories Behind the Breaking News of 9/11', p. 87: "John Bussey | Foreign Editor, The Wall Street Journal: ... I heard this metallic roar, looked up and saw what I thought was a very peculiar sight of individual floors, one after the other exploding outward. I thought to myself, "My God, they're going to bring the building down." And they, whoever they are, had set charges. In fact, the building was imploding down. I saw the explosions, and I thought, "This is not a good place to be, because we're too close to the building, and it's too easy for the building to topple over." So I went under the desk in the office where I sought shelter." (Bussey gives no indication at a later point that he has came to a different conclusion)
  19. 2002, Chris Bull and Sam Erman, 'At Ground Zero: 25 Stories From Young Reporters Who Were There', p. 184: Beth Fertig, WNYC radio reporter and contributor to NPR: "The Building came down so orderly, floor by floor, that I presumed it was a controlled demolition. I hoped that it was. Maybe they all got the people out and now they're bringing the building down to prevent mass casualties."
  20. 2002, Cathy Trost and Alicia C. Shepard, foreword by Tom Brokaw, 'Running Toward Danger - Stories Behind the Breaking News of 9/11', p. 203: "Beth Fertig | Reporter, WNYC Radio: I found out where the mayor was. He had gone to a secret location in midtown. ... I spent the rest of the afternoon at the mayor's command center. The reporters were trying to figure out what happened. We were thinking that bombs had brought the buildings down. The mayor talked to us and said he had no evidence of bombs."
  21. September 17, 2001, Christian Science Monitor, 'A Changed World', page 2 of 9: "Tom Elliott was at work in his office at the Aon Corp., an insurance brokerage firm, on the 103rd floor of the World Trade Center's other, south tower. ... Elliott and two others headed down the building stairwell, a narrow beige corridor with a yellow stripe painted down the middle of concrete steps. They ran into a few other people as they descended, but there still hadn't been any announcements, and the absence of other escapees was making them feel as if they had prematurely panicked. Then, as they reached the 70th floor, they heard an announcement: The building was secure. No one needed to evacuate. One woman in the small group said to Elliott, "Do you want to believe them? Let's go!" They had descended three more floors when United Airlines Flight 175 slammed into their own south tower like an arrow from a giant crossbow [78th-84th floor]. It was 9:03 a.m. ... Although its spectacularly televised impact was above Elliott, at first he and those around him thought an explosion had come from below. An incredible noise - he calls it an "exploding sound" - shook the building, and a tornado of hot air and smoke and ceiling tiles and bits of drywall came flying up the stairwell. "In front of me, the wall split from the bottom up," he says. ... In a flash of panic, people began fleeing higher into the building. Then a few men began working on the crowd, calming people down, saying that downstairs was the only way out. As they descended, a few other survivors stumbled into the corridor. A construction painter, his white T-shirt covered in blood, was helped downstairs by others. But the stairwell was still far from jammed with evacuees. Elliott assumed his was one of the final groups descending. They saw only two firemen going up. They told them there had been an explosion near the 60th floor."
  22. 2002, Dean E. Murphy, 'September 11: An Oral History', pp. 9-15 (Teresa Veliz): "Teresa Veliz was a manager for a software development firm. She was on the 47th floor of the North Tower when American 11 struck. Veliz was able to reach the ground level at about the same time that the South Tower collapsed. Flung to the ground in total darkness, Veliz and a colleague followed another person who happened to have a flashlight. As she narrated later: "The flashlight led us into Borders bookstore, up an escalator, and out to Church Street. The explosions were going off everywhere. I was convinced that there were bombs planted all over the place and someone was sitting at a control panel pushing detonator buttons. I was afraid to go down Church Street towards Broadway, but I had to do it. I ended up on Vesey Street. There was another explosion. And another. I didn’t know which way to run."
  23. Firefighter John Schroeder (Youtube): Apparently interviewed by the Loose Change crew. Said he was saved by Willy Rodriquez. Thinks bombs were in the building, just as his colleagues. Comes across as overly dramatic. Together with Rodriquez and Loose Change links... not going to cite.
  24. May 26, 2002, New York Times, '102 Minutes: Last Words at the Trade Center': "Liz, this was a terrorist attack. I can hear explosions below me."
    (The above quote is attributed to Edmund McNally and supposedly was given in this New York Times article listed as source. However, McNally and his wife Liz appear in this article, but there's absolutely no reference to explosions. So this portion has either been removed by the New York Times or it has been a mistake by the 9/11 Truth Movement. However, Scott Forbes of Fiduciary Trust said he knew this couple and the woman's claims about explosions.)
  25. Fox Channel 5 News, live on 9/11. Smoke is emerging from the base of the South Tower (which has collapsed, unknown to the reporters): "[Narrator 1:] We just heard that there was another explosion in the basement on one of the lower levels of the World Trade Center. [Narrator 2:] It would seem from that picture there that you are right, Dave. ... It certainly looks like an awful lot of smoke. ... Now there seems to be coming a lot of smoke from the lower portion of the World Trade Center. And we had a report indicating that there was an explosion on the lower floors now."
  26. Mat Meagher, reporter live on 9/11 (Youtube): "A big explosion has just occurred. Everyone is running from the financial district now. Smoke is filling the entire area. Let's go! Stop shooting! Go!"
  27. NBC Live coverage when the South Tower collapses - which the reporter can't see (Youtube): "We are not exactly sure what happened, but there was an explosion on the far side of one of the buildings from where we are standing. The reverberation! And another explosion on the right hand side!"
  28. Fox News, WCBS, Live during the first collapse (Youtube): "Suddenly, while talking to an officer, who was questioning me about my press credentials, we heard a very loud blast-explosion. We looked up and the building literally began to collapse before us. ... People in the entire perimeter, including myself, literally began to run for our lives. ... Not clear now is why this explosion took place. Was it because of the planes' dual attack this morning, or was there some other attack of which there has been talk of on the street."
  29. CBS 2, Live broadcast on 9/11 (Youtube): "CNN is now reporting that there was a third explosion at the World Trade Center. Probably an explosion from the ground that caused World Trade Center 1 [she meant 2] to collapse on top of itself. Again, there was a third explosion. It is unclear what caused it. Whether it was a bomb, or whether the first [she means second] plane that crashed into the tower had been booby-trapped with a bomb that was timed to explode later after the crash had occurred."
  30. Narrator on CNBC live on 9/11 (Youtube): "This was clearly... The way the structure was collapsing... This was the result of something that was planned. It's not accidental that the first tower just happened to collapse and that the second tower just happened to collapse in just the same way. How they accomplished this, we don't know."
  31. September 11, 2001, ABC News live coverage (Youtube): "[Reporter Don Dahler:] The second building that was hit by the plane has just completely collapsed. The entire building has just collapsed, as if a demolition team set it off, when you see the old demolitions of these old buildings, it folded down on itself, and it is not there any more. ... [Anchor Peter Jennings:] The southern Tower ... just collapsing on itself. ... We have no idea what caused this. Anybody who has ever watched a building being demolished on purpose knows that if you are going to do it on purpose you have to get at the under-infrastructure of a building and bring it down." ... "[Don Dahler:] Peter, eh, what appeared to happen from my vantage point, the top part of the building was totally involved in fire. There appeared to be no effort possible to put that fire out. It looked like the top part of that building was so weakened by the fire that the weight of it collapsed the rest of the building. That's what appeared to happen. I did not see anything happening at the base of the building. It all appeared to start at the top and then just collapsed the building by the sheer weight of the top. There was no explosion at the base part of it. But I did see that the top part of it started to collapse. The walls started to bulge out."
  32. CNN anchor about the collapses that took place some time earlier: "It almost looks like one of those planned implosions, but of course there was nothing planned and it was not an implosion as you see."
  33. September 11, 2001, Press Association, 'Other blasts may have toppled towers': "Simon Reeve, author of The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef: Osama Bin Laden and The Future of Terrorism, said: "It is the worst terrorist attack in living history with an astonishing level of planning involved and co-ordination. "It will have involved months and probably years of planning. The terrorists could have been living in America for some time. "I cannot see how the World Trade Centre could have collapsed just on impact from the aircraft. "I suspect that there must have been ground level explosions in the buildings possibly involving enormous amounts of explosives or another type of device." Mr Reeve speculated that the terrorist attacks were the work of Osama Bin Laden and his supporters. He said: "There is no doubt that America will look for the culprits and use force against them. If it is the work of Osama Bin Laden it is very likely that America will use overwhelming force against Afghanistan and Laden's supporters.""
  34. September 11, 2001, Albuquerque Journal, 'Explosives Planted In Towers, N.M. Tech Expert Says': "Televised images of the attacks on the World Trade Center suggest that explosives devices caused the collapse of both towers, a New Mexico Tech explosion expert said Tuesday. The collapse of the buildings appears "too methodical" to be a chance result of airplanes colliding with the structures, said Van Romero, vice president for research at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. "My opinion is, based on the videotapes, that after the airplanes hit the World Trade Center there were some explosive devices inside the buildings that caused the towers to collapse," Romero said. Romero is a former director of the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center at Tech, which studies explosive materials and the effects of explosions on buildings, aircraft and other structures."
  35. Immediately after the South Tower collapse, person videotaping the WTC from several miles away or a person standing next to him (Youtube): "I'm not going any closer. They had it wired for explosives obviously. Obviously there was a truck in there with explosives."
  36. Ron Saladino, a WTC7 employee who moved out of the building soon after the first impact, interviewed live on CNN on 9/11 (Youtube): "I turned and looked around and the southern World Trade Center began to just buckle. About 50 consecutive bangs and it fell down like a waterfall." (The reporter ignored this statement)
  37. Woman interviewed by the Reuters (aired by the BBC) live on 9/11 (Youtube): "Not much is being said about the people on the ground, but that was one hell of an explosion when the building collapsed. It appeared to collapse..."
  38. Witness live on the MSNBC News on 9/11 (Youtube): "I heard an explosion. At that point I got knocked out. I don't remember anything. Then I got up. And I remember walking out. And it was just total darkness in the corridors. I was in a dentist's office, because there were dentist's chairs and tools. I looked out the windows 'cause the windows had exploded and the street below caved in. The whole street caved in. You could see below the street. And at that point there were like fireballs coming up. And I said, "alright, I'm not gonna make it." I went back into the room I was in, shut the doors, put towels on the bottom of each door."
  39. 2002, Cathy Trost and Alicia C. Shepard, foreword by Tom Brokaw, 'Running Toward Danger - Stories Behind the Breaking News of 9/11', p. 239: "Carol Marin | Contributor, CBS news editor: ... I remember seeing this giant ball of fire come out of the earth as I heard this roar..." (She was very close to the North Tower when it collapsed. Hearing her full testimony it is not clear if the "fireball" was the dust cloud hitting the ground and growing from there or if it was a true fireball coming up from the ground. In various statements she did say that she heard the tower "blow" or "explode".)
  40. Anne Thompson for NBC, live on 9/11 (Youtube): "As soon as I got outside I heard a second explosion and another rumble. ... The chandeliers shook. Again black smoke filled the air. Within five minutes we were covered again with more soot and more dust. And then a fire marshal came and said we had to leave, because if there was a third explosion this building might not last."
  41. Unknown witness who was going down the stairwell of WTC 1 when WTC 2 collapsed (video not available anymore): "...and all of a sudden this huge cloud of dark gray smoke comes shooting up the stairway ... and it was hot - very, very hot."
  42. Brad Waite, cameraman interviewed on 9/11, FOIA (Youtube): "First we heard the explosions. Started shooting in the Twin Towers. We could see tons of debris coming down. And then it sounded like another explosion to the right of that which I believe was the front, which was once the Marriott, just totally gone.
  43. A black woman, covered in soot, interviewed by ABC (Youtube): "We saw a shadow which looked like a plane. Next thing we know it's boom, boom and the floors started shaking. And then we saw debris fall down. And the next thing we know we had to get out of the building. We stuck on the stairs for a while. We finally got down to the lobby [from 82th floor of WTC1]. And then there was this big explosion. I don't know what it was. Just a cloud like what you just saw. ... That's what we went through before we came out of the building. Then when we get out of the building then another smoke cloud came."
  44. Witness 1 from a Youtube video (a considerable time after 9/11, so maybe not the most reliable): "The thing that got me suspicious was when I saw the replay of everything the next week and the weeks after, they took the explosions out. That's when I knew something was up. And the detonations that took both buildings down were exactly identical. First it started off with about - I'm just guessing - six or seven seconds of this very low frequency rumble. Then the detonations started. And they went boom! Boom! Boom! A little less than a second apart. ... It was the exact, exact same series of detonations [with the second collapse] ... I could tell you that the air pressure changed. It was like being in a submarine 300 feet below the surface." Not counted.
  45. Witness 2 from a Youtube video (a considerable time after 9/11): "As the first tower came down there were a series of explosions. It was like boom! Boom! You could hear the echos of the explosions echoing off the different buildings."
  46. Witness interviewed live on 9/11 (Youtube): "Then somebody said that they saw an airliner go into one of the towers. Then, I don't know, an hour later than that, we had that big explosion from much, much lower [appears mystified]. I still don't know what on earth caused that."
  47. Reporter for CNN live on 9/11: "We've heard reports of secondary explosions after the aircraft impacted, whether or not there was something else at the base of the towers, that in fact were the coup de grace to bring them to the ground."
  48. Witness to CNN live on 9/11 (Youtube): "It just went baboom, just like a bomb went off. ... We were finally getting to the bottom, we were coming out ... and another explosion. It sent everyone flying."
  49. Witness on a hospital bed in a clip that reads 'America Responds', filmed on 9/11 (Youtube): "And all of a sudden it sounded like gunfire -- you know, bang bang bang bang bang -- then all of a sudden three big explosions."
  50. Witness on an unknown TV show (Youtube): "I was about five blocks away when I heard explosions -- three thuds -- and turned around to see the building we just got out of tend to tip over and fold in on itself."
  51. 9/11 cop on ABC (Youtube): "There were numerous secondary explosions taking place in that building [Twin Towers]. There were continuous explosions."
  52. September 11, 2001, New York Times, 'Thousands Feared Dead as World Trade Center Is Toppled', p. 3 of 4: "Closer to the World Trade Center, Ross Milanytch described seeing "small explosions on each floor."" Also see next article.
  53. September 12, 2001, New York Times, ''U.S. Attacked': "Police officers warned people in the vicinity to move north, that the buildings could fall, but most people found that unthinkable. They stayed put or gravitated closer. Abruptly, there was an ear-splitting noise. The south tower shook, seemed to list in one direction and them began to come down, imploding upon itself. It looked like a demolition,” said Andy Pollock. It started exploding,” said Ross Milanytch, 57, who works at nearby Chase Manhattan Bank. “It was about the 70th floor. And each second another floor exploded out for about eight floors, before the cloud obscured it all." ... People started walking briskly north until the premonition became real — another horrifying eruption, as one floor after another seemed to detonate. ... Ross Milanytch: 'The dust was about an inch and a half thick on the ground.'" (http://www.asne.org/index.cfm?ID=3423)
  54. September 11, 2001, BBC, 'Eyewitnesses tell of horror': "There was smoke everywhere. I heard the bomb and saw both buildings crumble like biscuits," Ms Keller said."
  55. November 17, 2005, Christopher Bollyn of American Free Press (granted, not the most reliable source; then again, flashes have been reported by a few other witnesses and undoubtedly is a very sensitive subject), 'Scientist Supports 9-11 Demolition Theory': "This is consistent with an eyewitness account given to me shortly after 9-11. The eyewitness was standing on Church Street looking at the South Tower when he observed "a number of brief light sources being emitted from inside the building between floors 10 and 15." The emissions of light were accompanied by "a crackling sound," and occurred immediately before the tower collapsed, the witness said."
  56. Neil deGrasse Tyson on the website of the Planetary Society, of which he was vice-president (put up an email dated September 12, 2001): "I hear a second explosion in WTC2, then a loud, low-frequency rumble that precipitates the unthinkable -- a collapse of all the floors above the point of explosion. ... I hear another explosion followed by a now all-too familiar rumble that signaled the collapse of WTC1. ... I saw the iconic antenna on this building descend straight down in an implosion twinning the first." (used to be located at: www.planetary.org/html/society/advisors/sept11account.html)
  57. An account of an anonymous (and very religious) person that appeared on the internet: "So they escorted us thru the exit of World Trade 2 and I had just reached the revolving door of the building that I heard a loud explosion and the whole building collapsed."
  58. December 6, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110253 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter Richard Banaciski: "We were there I don't know, maybe 10, 15 minutes and then I just remember there was just an explosion. It seemed like on television they blow up these buildings. It seemed like it was going all the way around like a belt, all these explosions."
  59. Unknown firefighter, soon after the South Tower collapse, pushing people away from the North Tower (NIST FOIA: Release 10, WTCI-329-I-#5, Youtube): "We are walking back, because the building is about to blow up. Moving back. Flames. Debris coming down."
  60. January 17, 2002, New York Times, file no. 9110501 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter Thomas Turilli: "[The collapse] almost actually that day sounded like bombs going off, like boom, boom, boom, like seven or eight, and then just a huge wind gust... I looked to my left and actually I noticed the tower was down. I didn't even know that it was when we were in there. It just seemed like a huge explosion. "
  61. October 10, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110035 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter Daniel Rivera: "It was a frigging noise. At first I thought it was -- do you ever see professional demolition where they set the charges on certain floors and then you hear “pop, pop, pop, pop, pop”? That’s exactly what -- because I thought it was that. When I heard that frigging noise, that’s when I saw the building coming down."
  62. Firefighter Angel Rivera (Youtube audio): "When we hit the 19th floor something horrendous happened. It was like a bomb went off. We thought we were dead. The whole building shook. The door to the hallway into the hotel blew off like somebody threw it all over the place. We were thrown on the floor. The building was still shaking and we're still hearing explosions going on everywhere. So we decided, "let's get out of here"."
  63. December 10, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110290 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter Kenneth Rogers: "Meanwhile we were standing there with about five companies and we were just waiting for our assignment and then there was an explosion in the south tower, which, according to this map, this exposure just blew out the flames. A lot of guys left at that point. I kept watching. Floor after floor after floor. One floor under another after another and when it hit about the fifth floor, I figured it was a bomb, because it looked like a synchronized deliberate kind of thing. I was there in '93."
  64. January 10, 2002, New York Times, file no. 9110439 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter Stephen Viola: "... that's when the south tower collapsed, and it sounded like a bunch of explosions. You heard like loud booms, but I guess it was all just stuff coming down, and then we got covered with rubble and dust, and I thought we'd actually fallen through the floor..."
  65. November 7, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110192 (pdf on the site), interview with EMS captain Karin Deshore: "Whatever this explosion [the collapse] was simply sucked all the oxygen out of the air. ... Somewhere around the middle of the world trade center, there was this orange and red flash coming out. Initially it was just one flash. Then this flash just kept popping all the way around the building and that building had started to explode. The popping sound, and with each popping sound it was initially an orange and then a red flash came out of the building and then it would just go all around the building on both sides as far as I could see. These popping sounds and the explosions were getting bigger, going both up and down and then all around the building. I went inside and I told everybody that the other building or there was an explosion occurring up there and I said I think we have another major explosion."
  66. December 10, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110285 (pdf on the site), interview with Engine 47 lieutenant William Wall: "At that time, we heard an explosion. We looked up and the building was coming down right on top of us, so we ran up West Street. ... Oh, when we came out of the building and we were walking across West Street when we first got out of the building, we're walking across the street and all you heard was like bombs going off above your head. You couldn't see it. It was just cloudy. And we found out later it was the military jets. That was an eerie sound. You couldn't see it and all you heard was like a "boom" and it just kept going. We couldn't see 50 feet above our head because of the dust. So we didn't know if it was bombs going off or whatever, but we didn't want to stay there. "
  67. October 3, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110008 (pdf on the site), interview with NYFD assistant commissioner Stephen Gregory: "I know I was with an officer from Ladder 146, a Lieutenant Evangelista, who ultimately called me up a couple of days later just to find out how I was. We both for whatever reason -- again, I don't know how valid this is with everything that was going on at that particular point in time, but for some reason I thought that when I looked in the direction of the Trade Center before it came down, before No. 2 came down, that I saw low-level flashes. In my conversation with Lieutenant Evangelista, never mentioning this to him, he questioned me and asked me if I saw low-level flashes in front of the building, and I agreed with him because I thought... I saw a flash flash flash and then it looked like the building came down. ... No [the flashes were not near the fire], the lower level of the building. You know like when they demolish a building, how when they blow up a building, when it falls down? That's what I thought I saw. And I didn't broach the topic to him, but he asked me. He said I don't know if I'm crazy, but I just wanted to ask you because you were standing right next to me. He said did you see anything by the building? And I said what do you mean by see anything? He said did you see any flashes? I said, yes, well, I thought it was just me. He said no, I saw them, too... it's just strange that two people sort of say the same thing and neither one of us talked to each other about it. ... I know about the explosion on the upper floors. This was like eye level. I didn't have to go like this. Because I was looking this way. I'm not going to say it was on the first floor or the second floor, but somewhere in that area I saw to me what appeared to be flashes. I don't know how far down this was already. I mean, we had heard the noise but, you know, I don't know."
  68. January 22, 2002, New York Times, file no. 9110505 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter Craig Carlsen: "I guess about three minutes later you just heard explosions coming from building two, the south tower. It seemed like it took forever, but there were about ten explosions. At the time I didn't realize what it was. We realized later after talking and finding out that it was the floors collapsing to where the plane had hit. ... You did hear the explosions [when the North Tower came down]. ... The second one coming down, you knew the explosions. Now you're very familiar with it."
  69. November 9, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110205 (pdf on the site), interview with FDNY captain Michael Donovan: "Anyway, with that I was listening, and there was an incredibly loud rumbling. I never got to look up. People started running for the entrances to the parking garages. They started running for the entrances. I started running without ever looking up. The roar became tremendous. I fell on the way to the parking garages. Debris was starting to fall all around me. I got up, I got into the parking garages, was knocked down by the percussion. I thought there had been an explosion or a bomb that they had blown up there. The Vista International Hotel was my first impression, that they had blown it up. I never got to see the World Trade Center coming down."
  70. October 9, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110017 (pdf on the site), interview with FDNY lieutenant Gregg Hansson: "Then a large explosion took place. In my estimation that was the tower coming down, but at that time I did not know what that was. I thought some type of bomb had gone off. I was, I believe, ahead of the rest of the firefighters and officers there. I made it to the corner, and I took about four running steps this way when you could feel the rush of the wind coming at you."
  71. December 26, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110386 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter Timothy Julian: "We came out from 90 West, made a left, headed east, and right when we got to the corner of Washington and Albany, that's when I heard the building collapse. First I thought it was an explosion. I thought maybe there was bomb on the plane, but delayed type of thing, you know secondary device. ... You know, and I just heard like an explosion and then cracking type of noise, and then it sounded like a freight train, rumbling and picking up speed, and I remember I looked up, and I saw it coming down."
  72. December 3, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110216 (pdf on the site), interview with FDNY safety command chief Art Lakiotes: "Tower one now comes down. Same thing but this time some of us take off straight down West Street, because we realized later on, subconsciously we wanted to be near buildings. We all thought it was secondary explosives or more planes or whatever."
  73. December 12, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110319 (pdf on the site), interview with Ladder 22 firefighter John Malley: "We were walking into darkness. As we walked through those revolving doors [of the South Tower], that's when we felt the rumble. I felt the rumbling, and then I felt the force coming at me. I was like, what the hell is that? In my mind it was a bomb going off. The pressure got so great, I stepped back behind the columns separating the revolving doors. Then the force just blew past me. It blew past me it seemed for a long time. In my mind I was saying what the hell is this and when is it going to stop? Then it finally stopped, that pressure which I thought was a concussion of an explosion. It turns out it was the down pressure wind of the floors collapsing on top of each other. At that point everything went black, and then the collapse came. It just rained on top of us. Everything came. It rained debris forever."
  74. October 16 , 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110098 (pdf on the site), interview with FDNY assistant commissioner James Drury: "We were in the process of getting some rigs moved when I turned, as I heard a tremendous roar, explosion, and saw that the first of the two towers was starting to come down. ... When the dust started to settle, I headed back down towards the World Trade Center and I guess I came close to arriving at the corner of Vesey and West again where we started to hear the second roar. That was the north tower now coming down. I should say that people in the street and myself included thought that the roar was so loud that the explosive - bombs were going off inside the building. Obviously we were later proved wrong. ... The sight of the jumpers was horrible and the turning around and seeing that first tower come down was unbelievable. The sound it made. As I said I thought the terrorists planted explosives somewhere in the building. That's how loud it was, crackling explosive, a wall."
  75. October 1, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110001 (pdf on the site), interview with FDNY deputy commissioner for administration Thomas Fitzpatrick: "Then the building started to come down. My initial reaction was that this was exactly the way it looks when they show you those implosions on TV. I would have to say for three or four seconds anyway, maybe longer. I was just watching."
  76. January 9, 2002, New York Times, file no. 9110434 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter Kevin Gorman: "As he was standing there, [the police officer] said, "Aviation just reported that the north tower is leaning." I said, "Which way is it leaning?" He said,"This way." So we started to turn around walking. John Malley, who was right behind me, I turned around for him, because he was doing something, either putting his coat on or something, and as I was looking at him I heard the explosion, looked up, and saw like three floors explode, saw the antenna coming down, and turned around and ran north. ... Within 30 seconds [of hearing that the tower was leaning did I hear the explosions]."
  77. October 12, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110065 (pdf on the site), interview with FDNY lieutenant Thomas Fitzpatrick: "I looked up, and the building exploded, the building that we were very close to, which was one tower. The whole top came off like a volcano. ... So now both towers have been hit by a plane. The north tower was burning. So the explosion, what I realized later, had to be the start of the collapse. It was the way the building appeared to blowout from both sides. I'm looking at the face of it, and all we see is the two sides of the building just blowing out and coming apart like this, as I said, like the top of a volcano."
  78. October 25, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110166 (pdf on the site), interview with battalion chief Brian Dixon: "I was watching the fire, watching the people jump and hearing a noise and looking up and seeing -- it actually looked -- the lowest floor of fire in the south tower actually looked like someone had planted explosives around it because the whole bottom I could see -- I could see two sides of it and the other side -- it just looked like that floor blew out. I looked up and you could actually see everything blew out on the one floor. I thought, geez, this looks like an explosion up there, it blew out. Then I guess in some sense of time we looked at it and realized, no, actually it just collapsed. That's what blew out the windows, not that there was an explosion there but that windows blew out. The realization hit that it's going to fall down, the top's coming off. I was still thinking -- there was never a thought that this whole thing is coming down. I thought that that blew out and stuff is starting to fly down. The top is going to topple off there."
  79. December 5, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110238 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter Keith Murphy: "We came through what was a revolving door and it brings you into the North Tower. ... There was tremendous damage in the lobby. There was already things that were fallen or cracked, a lot of structural wall damage and ceiling damage that you could see. There was also about four or five inches of water on the floor. ... At the end of this elevator lobby there was, it looked to me like something had exploded. I don't remember how I heard it or who said it, but someone said I think an elevator - when the plane hit it severed the elevator cable and it came down and crashed. I don't know hundred percent if that's what happened, but it looked to me like that could have been true. It looked like something had fallen down, hit and exploded out. I mean the whole area around it was maybe 25, 30 feet of really severe damage. ... We are standing there and the first thing that happened, which I still think is strange to me, the lights went out. Completely pitch black. Since we are in that core little area of the building, there is no natural light. No nothing, I didn't see a thing. Right before the lights went out, I had heard a distant boom, boom, boom, sounded like three explosions. I don't know what it was at the time. I would have said they sounded like bombs, but it was boom, boom, boom and then the lights all go out. I would say about 3, 4 seconds, all of a sudden this tremendous roar. It sounded like being in a tunnel with the train coming at you. All of a sudden I could feel the floor started to shake and sway. We were being thrown like literally off our feet, side to side, getting banged around and then a tremendous wind started to happen. It probably lasted maybe 15 seconds - 10 to 15 seconds. It seemed like hurricane force wind. It would blow you off your feet."
  80. December 11, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110288 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter William Reynolds: "I said, 'Chief, they're evacuating the other building [WTC 1], right?' He said, 'No.' ... I said, 'Why not? They blew up the other one.' I thought they blew it up with a bomb. I said, 'If they blew up the one, you know they're gonna blow up the other one.'"
  81. October 9, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110020 (pdf on the site), interview with Ladder 18 firefighter Kevin Murray: "When the tower started -- there was a big explosion that I heard and someone screamed that it was coming down and I looked away and I saw all the windows domino -- you know, dominoeing up and then come down."
  82. October 10, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110030 (pdf on the site), interview with EMS lieutenant Patrick Scaringello: "I started to treat patients on my own when I heard the explosion from up above. I looked up, I saw smoke and flame and then I saw the top tower tilt, start to twist and lean. ... I was assisting in pulling more people out from debris, when I heard the second tower explode."
  83. October 3, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110003 (pdf on the site), interview with EMS division chief Mark Steffens: "[When driving on West Street and one of the towers was collapsing] That's when we heard this massive explosion and I saw this thing rolling towards us. It looked like a fireball and then thick, thick black smoke."
  84. November 7, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110193 (pdf on the site), interview with EMS operations captain Janice Olszewski: "I didn't know if it was an explosion. I didn't know it was a collapse at that point. I thought it was an explosion or a secondary device, a bomb, the jet -- plane exploding, whatever."
  85. October 17, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110101 (pdf on the site), interview with EMS paramedic Neil Sweeting: "You heard a big boom, it was quiet for about ten seconds. Then you could hear another one. Now I realize it was the floors starting to stack on top of each other as they were falling. It was spaced apart in the beginning, but then it got to just a tremendous roar and a rumble that I will never forget."
  86. October 30, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110172 (pdf on the site), interview with EMS captain Jay Swithers: "I took a quick glance at the building and while I didn't see it falling, I saw a large section of it blasting out, which led me to believe it was just an explosion. I thought it was a secondary device, but I knew that we had to go."
  87. October 25, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110156 (pdf on the site), interview with EMT David Timothy: "The next thing I knew, you started hearing more explosions. I guess this is when the second tower started coming down."
  88. November 7, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110198 (pdf on the site), interview with battalion chief John Sudnik: "The best I can remember, we were just operating there, trying to help out and do the best we could. Then we heard a loud explosion or what sounded like a loud explosion and looked up and I saw tower two start coming down. Crazy."
  89. North Tower collapse witness Paul Lemos interviewed live on 9/11 (Youtube): "All of a sudden I looked up and twenty stories below ... the fire I saw, from the corner, boom! Boom! Boom! Booboobooboom! [uses his hands to show how the floors were popping out] Just like 20 straight hits. It just went down. And then I saw the whole building just [go] down. And as the bombs were going people just started running. I sat there and just watched. A few of them exploded and at that point I just started running for my life. [interviewer: "Because the top tipped over..."] No no no! It went straight down. Now, they told me afterwards it wasn't explosions. I was talking to one of the architects that they pulled in, because he was talking to me about it. He said, "What did you see?" I said I saw the fire and when I looked up ... and I could see the corner and it just started going pop! Boom! Boom!"
  90. (Skeptic) Gravy on forums.randi.org. about the statements of Paul Isaac Jr., FDNY Auxiliary Fire Lieutenant (NY911truth.org for a long time floated false quotations attributed to him): "So the true statement was that I heard explosions - not bombs - as I couldn't tell what the sounds were, as I was blocks away and can not confirm what the noise was. As I was approaching City Hall, the North Tower began the collapse. I heard what sounded like thunder just prior to the collapse, then the popping as the tower fell. I had my radio scanner and there were reports of explosions within the complex over the PD and PAPD frequencies. As I made my way closer, I could pick up on the FD Handie Talkie frequencies and it sounded like hell. No one knew what was going to happen next, but when the second tower began its fall there were what sounded like loud popping coming from the tower as well as a sucking sound like reverse air pressure."
  91. September 11, BBC, 'Eyewitnesses tell of horror': "AP reporter Dunstan Prial said he heard a sucking sound just before the first building collapsed."
  92. September 12, 2001, Los Angeles Times, 'America Attacked': "There were reports of an explosion right before the tower fell, then a strange sucking sound, and finally the sound of floors collapsing. Then came a huge surge of air, followed by a vast cloud of dirt, smoke, dust, paper and debris. Windows shattered. People screamed and dived for cover...Not long afterward, at 10:30 a.m., the second tower of the World Trade Center collapsed. The top of the building exploded with smoke and dust. There were no flames, just an explosion of debris, and then more vast clouds swept down to the streets. People were knocked to the ground on their faces as they ran from the building."
  93. January 23, 2002, New York Times, file no. 9110486 (pdf on the site), interview with EMT James McKinley: "So we get back over to 222 Broadway [about 200 yards from the WTC complex] and we get inside and I'm telling everybody: 'Listen, ... we're going to get out of here because tower 1 is going to come down [too]. ... As we're walking to the back of the building ... We start walking back there and then I heard a ground level explosion and I'm like holy shit, and then you heard that twisting metal wreckage again."
  94. November 1, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110184 (pdf on the site), interview with EMT Gregg Brady: "We were standing underneath and Captain Stone was speaking again. We heard -- I heard 3 loud explosions. I look up and the north tower is coming down now, 1 World Trade Center. ... At that time, when I heard the 3 loud explosions, I started running west on Vesey Street towards the water."
  95. October 25, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110162 (pdf on the site), interview with paramedic Kevin Darnowski: "At that time I started walking back up towards Vesey Street. I heard three explosions, and then we heard like groaning and grinding, and tower two [the South Tower] started to come down."
  96. November 1, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110183 (pdf on the site), interview with EMT Orlando Martinez: "There was an explosion and after we started running..."
  97. November 28, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110213 (pdf on the site), interview with EMT Linda McCarthy: "I thought the plane was exploding, or another plane hit. I had no idea it was coming down..."
  98. October 21, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110072 (pdf on the site), interview with EMT James McKinley: "After that I heard this huge explosion, I thought it was a boiler exploding or something. Next thing you know this huge cloud of smoke is coming at us, so we’re running. ... They said that the Air Force shot one down in Pennsylvania. But they later found out that they had a struggle [crash happened at 10:06]. At this point, something happened. I think we heard some explosions or something [North Tower collapse was on 10:28], so the dispatcher starts telling us to go up to 23rd street and Chelsea Piers. My partner’s like maybe it’s gas or something, not just explosive gas. Not like Con Edison gas but like sarin gas or something like that."
  99. November 9, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110202 (pdf on the site), interview with EMT Julio Marrero: "I was screaming from the top of my lungs, and I must have been about ten feet away from her and she couldn't even hear me, because the building was so loud, the explosion, that she couldn't even hear me."
  100. October 10, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110037 (pdf on the site), interview with EMT Juan Rios: "I didn't know if it was an explosion. I didn't know it was a collapse at that point. I thought it was an explosion or a secondary device, a bomb, the jet -- plane exploding, whatever."
  101. October 16, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110093 (pdf on the site), interview with EMT Michael Ober: "Then we heard a rumble, some twisting metal, we looked up in the air, and to be totally honest, at first, I don't know exactly -- but it looked to me just like an explosion. It didn't look like the building was coming down, it looked like just one floor had blown completely outside of it. I was sitting there looking at it. I just never thought they would ever come down, so I didn't think they were coming down."
  102. January 23, 2002, New York Times, file no. 9110486 (pdf on the site), interview with EMT Jason Charles: "I grabbed her and the Lieutenant picked her up by the legs and we start walking over slowly to the curb, and then I heard an explosion from up, from up above ... then I turned around and looked up and that's when I saw the tower coming down. ... [With the North Tower:] We start walking back there and then I heard a ground level explosion and I'm like holy shit, and then you heard that twisting metal wreckage again."
  103. December 30, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110412 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter James Curran: "A guy started screaming to run. When I got underneath the north bridge I looked back and you heard it, I heard like every floor went chu-chu-chu. Looked back and from the pressure everything was getting blown out of the floors before it actually collapsed. "
  104. January 2, 2002, New York Times, file no. 9110488 (pdf on the site), interview with Engine 202 firefighter Timothy Burke: "Then the building popped, lower than the fire, which I learned was I guess, the aviation fuel fell into the pit, and whatever floor it fell on heated up really bad and that's why it popped at that floor. That's the rumor I heard. But it seemed like I was going: 'Oh, my god, there is a secondary device because the way the building popped.' I thought it was an explosion."
  105. October 12, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110064 (pdf on the site), interview with Battalion chief Dominick DeRubbio: "This one here [the South Tower]. It was weird how it started to come down. It looked like it was a timed explosion, but I guess it was just the floors starting to pancake one on top of the other."
  106. December 6, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110251 (pdf on the site), interview with firefighter Edward Cachia: "As my officer and I were looking at the south tower, it just gave. It actually gave at a lower floor, not the floor where the plane hit, because we originally had thought there was like an internal detonation explosives because it went in succession, boom, boom, boom, boom, and then the tower came down."
  107. December 4, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110224 (pdf on the site), interview with Ladder 11 firefighter Frank Campagna: "That's when [the North Tower] went. I looked back. You see three explosions and then the whole thing coming down. I turned my head and everybody was scattering."
  108. October 31, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110179 (pdf on the site), interview with New York Fire Department chief Frank Cruthers: "And while I was still in that immediate area, the south tower, 2 World Trade Center, there was what appeared to be at first an explosion. It appeared at the very top, simultaneously from all four sides, materials shot out horizontally. And then there seemed to be a momentary delay before you could see the beginning of the collapse."
  109. October 9, 2001, New York Times, file no. 9110019 (pdf on the site), interview with Engine 28 firefighter Brian Becker: "[When] we were in the stairway heading up, the other plane probably hit the other tower. I would say -- but we weren't aware of that. We had very poor handy-talkie communications. We didn't hear much of anything. There must have been Maydays galore out in the street. We didn't hear any of them. I didn't. The chief didn't apparently either. ... I 'd say we were in the 30th or 31st, 32nd floor, or something like that ... when there was a very loud roaring sound and a very loud explosion, and the -- it felt like there was an explosion above us, and I had a momentary concern that our building was collapsing . ... We didn't know, but apparently that was the other building falling. ... [after this event, no one was going up anymore and a total evacuation of firefighter personnel began] ... So I think that the building was really kind of starting to melt. We were -- like, the melt down was beginning. The collapse hadn't begun, but it was not a fire any more up there. It was like -- it was like that -- like smoke explosion on a tremendous scale going on up there."
  110. July 20, 2005, Greg Szymanski interview with firefighter Louie Cacchioli (unreliable conspiracy source, although there's not that much reason to question this interview as Cacchioli talked about his experiences immediately after 9/11, reported by People.com (see no. 10): "As he made his way up [the North Tower] along with men from Engine Co. 21, 22 and Ladder Co. 13, the doors opened on the 24th floor, a scene again that hardly made sense to the seasoned fireman, claiming the heavy dust and haze of smoke he encountered was unusual considering the location of the strike. “Tommy Hedsal was with me and everybody else also gets out of the elevator when it stops on the 24th floor,” said Cacchioli, “There was a huge amount of smoke. Tommy and I had to go back down the elevator for tools and no sooner did the elevators close behind us, we heard this huge explosion that sounded like a bomb. It was such a loud noise, it knocked off the lights and stalled the elevator. “Luckily, we weren’t caught between floors and were able to pry open the doors. People were going crazy, yelling and screaming. And all the time, I am crawling low and making my way in the dark with a flashlight to the staircase and thinking Tommy is right behind me. “I somehow got into the stairwell and there were more people there. When I began to try and direct down, another huge explosion like the first one hits. This one hits about two minutes later, although it’s hard to tell, but I’m thinking, ‘Oh. My God, these bastards put bombs in here like they did in 1993!’ “But still it never crossed my mind the building was going to collapse. I really only had two things on my mind and that was getting people out and saving lives. That’s what I was trained for and that’s what I was going to do. “I remember at that point in the stairwell between the 23rd and 24th floor, I threw myself down on the steps because of the smoke. It was pitch black, I had my mask on and I was crawling down the steps until I found the door on the 23rd floor.” When Cacchioli entered the 23rd floor, he found a “little man” holding a handkerchief in front of his face and hiding under the standpipes on the wall, used for pumping water on the floor in case of fire. Leading the man by the arm, he then ran into a group down the hall of about 35 to 40 people, finding his way down the 23rd floor stairwell and beginning their descent to safety. “Then as soon as we get in the stairwell, I hear another huge explosion like the other two. Then I heard bang, bang, bang - huge bangs – and surmised later it was the floors pan caking on top of one another. “I knew we had to get out of there fast and on the 12th floor a man even jumped on my back because he thought he couldn’t make it any farther. Everybody was shocked and dazed and it was a miracle all of us got this far.” When the group led by Cacchioli finally made it to the lobby level, he was unable to open the door at first, the concussion of the explosions or perhaps the south tower falling, jamming the lobby door. Finally jarring it loose, the group entered the lobby finding total devastation with windows blown out and marble falling form the walls, but strangely no people. At that point, it was either left or right to an exit, Cacchioli, the man he originally found by the standpipes and another lady going right while the others went left, a move which by the grace of God saved his life. “It seemed like every move I made that morning was the right move,” said Cacchioli. “I should have been killed at least five times. The people that went left didn’t make it out, but we came out alive on West Street.” After making sure the two civilians were attended to, Cacchioli went to his fire truck finding Lance, the driver, who was attending to the truck and waiting for the crew to return. Looking up at the north tower directly above, Cacchioli recalls not having the slightest idea when he exited that the south tower had already collapsed. He also remembers wondering about the fate of his crew members, the driver telling him two were missing and two others injured and already taken to the hospital. “Next thing, we look up and see the tower collapsing. We saw it starting to come down fast, Lance running towards the water to safety and I headed down West Side Highway.” ... Cacchioli was called to testify privately, but walked out on several members of the committee before they finished, feeling like he was being interrogated and cross-examined rather than simply allowed to tell the truth about what occurred in the north tower on 9/11. “My story was never mentioned in the final report and I felt like I was being put on trial in a court room,” said Cacchioli. “I finally walked out. They were trying to twist my words and make the story fit only what they wanted to hear. All I wanted to do was tell the truth and when they wouldn’t let me do that, I walked out. “It was a disgrace to everyone, the victims and the family members who lost loved ones. I don’t agree with the 9/11 Commission. The whole experience was terrible.” ... Asked if he ever was pressured to keep quiet about his 9/11 experience, he added: “Nobody has bothered me. I don’t think I should be bothered. I know what happened that day and I know the whole truth hasn’t come out yet. I have my own conscience, my own mind and no one, I mean no one, is going to force Lou Cacchioli to say something that didn’t happen and wasn’t the truth.”"
  111. Witness live on CNN just after the second collapse: "The entire top of the building just blew up..."
  112. Photographer Bolivar Arellano, interviewed live (Youtube) (translated from Spanish): "I was actually trying to get some cover and saw both buildings in flames, when I heard a "run, run, run!" ... and a big explosion ... then [with the second collapse] there was a second explosion... Sort of inside the building ... the force of the explosion threw me out about 20 feet ... I ended up against a wall and that's how I hurt my knee pretty bad." Also: 2002, Cathy Trost and Alicia C. Shepard, foreword by Tom Brokaw, Running Toward Danger - Stories Behind the Breaking News of 9/11, p. 128: "We heard the same sound as before, and everybody ran into the Financial Center. The explosion came down quickly and elevated us. I was elevated four feet into the air. I said to myself, “ Bolivar, you screwed up. You survived the first one, but the second one is going to kill you.” I crashed into the wall and then to the ground. I passed out for a few minutes."
  113. Photographer Bolivar Arellano, interviewed live (Youtube) (translated from Spanish): "I was actually trying to get some cover and saw both buildings in flames, when I heard a "run, run, run!" ... and a big explosion ... then [with the second collapse] there was a second explosion... Sort of inside the building ... the force of the explosion threw me out about 20 feet ... I ended up against a wall and that's how I hurt my knee pretty bad."
  114. Live report on CBS-2 from a reporter on a chopper (Youtube): "We just witnessed some kind of secondary, follow-up explosion on the World Trade Center number 2, the one that is on the south that is difficult to make out through the debris and the smoke. But it does appear that a portion, the top portion of the building, has collapsed down to the streets below."
  115. Live report on CBS-2 from Marcia Kramer (Youtube): "Right now police will have to determine whether that explosion was caused from the initial impact of the plane or whether it was something exploded on the ground. Generally speaking for a building to collapse in on itself like that it would seem to indicate - obviously this is early speculation - but it seemed to indicate that there could have been an explosion, a bomb planted on the ground that would make the building collapse within itself."
  116. CNN live report at around 10:15 (CNN transcript on website): "Though, we have a report now of a fourth explosion at the Trade Center."
  117. Reporter Aaron Brown, live on CNN, as the first tower collapses (transcript on CNN website): "There has just been a huge explosion. We can see a cascade of sparks and fire and now it looks almost like a mushroom cloud explosion and I'll tell you that I can't see that second tower."
  118. September 11, 2001, TCM Breaking News, 'Third explosion at World Trade Centre': "A huge explosion has occurred at the second of the two twin towers hit by planes in New York. The tower is now covered in smoke [it has collapsed]."
  119. FOX 5 News anchor live at 10 AM as the first tower collapses: "There is an explosion at the base of the building ... white smoke from the bottom ... something has happened at the base of the building."
  120. An emotional witness on FOX television (video that is possibly not available anymore): "We just heard a very loud blast... explosion."
  121. Live report of a reporter named Patty on CNN (Youtube): "When the first tower collapsed there was a massive explosion. ... That's when I heard an explosion. That's when the second tower came down. "
  122. Emotional reporter or witness on FOX television (video that is possibly not available anymore): "It's not clear now is why this explosion took place..."
  123. ABC-7 news reporter live underneath the World Trade Center at the time of the collapse (Youtube): "This is as close as we can get to the base of the World Trade Center. You can see the firemen assembled here, the police officers, FBI agents. You can see the two towers... [a rumble comes up, immediately followed by a huge boom] ... a huge explosion now, raining debris on all of us! We'd better get out of the way!!!"
  124. ABC-7 interview with an unknown firefighter (Youtube): "Then when we came outside the tower just blew, the tower blew, and I found a mask on the floor as I was crawling."
  125. Aid worker giving his account live on Fox News to Bill O'Reilly (Youtube): "We were there trying to assist the medical personnel getting in. ... While we are standing there we are underneath the overpass, thinking we were safe, thinking if anything came off the building [we'd be protected]. At that point we heard a large boom. I looked up and just saw the building coming at us."
  126. Fox reporter Rick Leventhal interviews a policeman who clearly had to run for his life (Youtube): "[Reporter:] Do...do you know if it was an explosion or a building collapse? [Policeman:] To me it sounded like, to me it sounded like an explosion, but it was a huge explosion."
  127. Fox reporter Rick Leventhal interviews a hispanic witness who just survived the WTC2 collapse (Youtube): "I think it was a bomb- two of them. ... When I tried to save people, that moment we heard a big explosion coming down. Everything went black."
  128. Live witness report on CBS (Youtube): "It was an explosion. It was way up where the fire was. And the whole building at that point bellied out in flames and everybody ran."
  129. Anonymous eyewitness to the collapse of the north tower, but who was too far away to hear the actual sound (Youtube): "That was a fucking bomb that did that. There's no goddamn way that could have happened."
  130. Japanese store worker in a home video live on 9/11 (Youtube): "How can just believe the two buildings now is gone. Yeah! No, I didn't see [collapse]. ... Just one second. Just smoking. Exactly! [it looks like a controlled demolition] ... How they hit... this, the bomb is strong, huh? The bomb, huh? Very, very strong. How can destroy this big building, huh? This bomb very strong."
  131. Person who shot the above home video (Youtube): "Yeah, it looked like when you see in the movies when they demolish a building. That's how it went down. [still doesn't seem to accept the idea that this is what he witnessed]"
  132. Witness Jeremy Fox on WB11 live, apparent FOIA release (Youtube): "What happened, I saw the second building blow and just crumble down and I saw the core of the building just slowly crushed to the ground - fall to the ground. ... When it went off, the second building, you saw an explosion and then a humongous cloud of smoke go up and you saw the building start to fall down and then you saw the core of the building just start to disintegrate into itself. [reporter asks: "Did it look like an implosion? ... Obviously we're speculating here, possibly a bomb?] ... I can't [tell for sure (?)] ... It just looked like an explosion below to where it was burning and then it just came down."
  133. Fox reporter Rick Leventhal walks on the street, just after one of the collapses (Youtube): "Pandemonium here a short time ago, when the building did collapse, or whatever it was that happened, there was a huge explosion. ... The FBI is here as you can see, they have roped the area off, they were taking photographs, securing this area, just prior to that huge explosion that we all heard... and felt."
  134. September 2, 2004, Alex Jones is interviewing a witness of 9/11, Andrea Ptsores during the huge demonstrations as the republican convention in New York City: "Actually, I was working in the World Trade Center complex the day of September 11th. I was in the building the night before, I am a member of a professional association on the 44th floor of 1 World Trade. Some of the key points are that there were explosives up through 6 World Trade that I heard before either tower came down." Unreliable. Not a live report and not used. No reports of explosions coming from 6 World Trade.
  135. Mr. Beller's Neighborhood (mrbellersneighborhood.com), a survivor from the 81th floor of WTC 2 reported: "I was almost out. I got down to the lobby, right near the Border's book store. And then there was this explosion. I don't know, I just got thrown to the ground and all this stuff fell on top of me."
  136. September 12, 2001, Guardian, ''Everyone was screaming, crying, running. It's like a war zone'': "In New York, police and fire officials were carrying out the first wave of evacuations when the first of the World Trade Centre towers collapsed. Some eyewitnesses reported hearing another explosion just before the structure crumbled. Police said that it looked almost like a "planned implosion" designed to catch bystanders watching from the street."
  137. September 11, 2001, AFX Asia, 'World Trade Centre in flames after 2 planes crash into twin towers': "Two planes deliberately crashed into the twin towers of New York's World Trade Center, causing multiple explosions that left at least six people dead and 1,000 injured, media reported."
  138. September 11, 2001, Pakistan Newswire, 'US rocked by a series of attacks': "Two hijacked passenger planes plunge into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, the subsequent explosions and fires causing the buildings to collapse."
  139. September 11, 2001, ABC News, 'America Under Attack, 6:00 PM': "Unidentified Woman #1: Mr. Mayor, based on the fact that the bombs--where the buildings collapsed on each other, do you have any reason to believe that there were bombs either on the planes or bombs that were in the buildings, on the ground that would cause them to collapse the way they did? Mayor GIULIANI: Commissioner, you want to? Unidentified Commissioner: No, there's nothing to indicate that at this time."
  140. September 11, 2001, Tuesday, Jerry Schwartz (AP), BC cycle, 'World Trade Center collapses in terrorist attack': "Within the hour, an aircraft crashed on a helicopter landing pad near the Pentagon, a car bomb exploded outside the State Department, and the West Wing of the White House was evacuated amid threats of terrorism. And another explosion rocked New York about an hour after the crash."
  141. September 11, 2001, CBS Marketwatch, 'On the scene: 'It's the end of the world'': "Reached by cell phone near the scene of the attacks, David Eng, an auditor at FleetBoston Financial (FBF), said he was buying a cup of coffee at the corner of the world famous landmark when he heard a loud explosion and looked up to see a fireball engulf the top floors of one of the towers. "The plane had taken out the top fifth of the first tower, but people were standing around looking at it. It wasn't until the second attack on the other tower that people started to run towards the water." While details were still sketchy on what brought down the towers, Eng said he heard a third explosion. "There could have been a car bomb at the base of the towers," he said."
  142. 1010 WINS Radio presenter, live on 9/11 (Google Video): "... and then just a while ago a third explosion which actually brought down the South Tower. 1010 WINS reporter Juliet Papa is down around City Hall."
  143. September 11, 2001, CBS News Transcripts, 'Investigations continue into alleged bombings at New York's World Trade Center and the Pentagon in Washington, DC': "We understand now there has been a secondary explosion on tower two. With that, we will leave you and turn it over to Dan Rather. [Dan Rather, anchor:] Now here's what we know. Just before 9 Eastern time this morning, a plane crashed into one of the twin towers of the World Trade Center along the Hudson River here in New York. A few minutes later, a second plane crashed into the other tower. Both skyscrapers are on fire."
  144. September 11, 2001, CNN, 'America Under Attack: Terrorists Attacks in Both Washington D.C. and New York': "And what this second explosion was, it took place about -- part of the south -- that would be the south tower has apparently collapsed."
  145. September 11, 2001, Agence France Presse, 'An timeline of series of attacks on US soil (as of 1600 GMT)': "One of the World Trade Center's two towers collapses following an explosion in a huge cloud of smoke and dust."
  146. September 11, 2001, Agence France Presse, 'Panic grips New York as World Trade Center collapses': "Less than an hour after the plane crashed, the tower collapsed into a heap of dust and rubble. Minutes later, its twin, struck first by what federal authorities believe was a hijacked American Airlines flight out of Boston, also exploded, with tonnes of concrete and glass crashing to the ground."
  147. September 11, 2001, Press Association, 'Britons tell of Trade Center attack': "Stephen Evans, BBC North America Business and Economics Correspondent, was on the ground floor of one of the World Trade Centre Towers at the time of the attacks. "There was a huge bang, it felt to me like somebody dropped a skip full of rubbish, a great container full of rubbish from a great height in the yard which separates the two huge towers which are the World Trade Centre," he told BBC News 24. "The building physically shook. It's one of those where you think, well something's happened on a building site. "That's the way it is. But seconds later, there were two or three similar huge explosions and the building literally shook.""
  148. September 11, 2001, Japan Economic Newswire, '6TH LD: 2 planes slammed WTC in N.Y., Pentagon also hit': "One tower later collapsed following an explosion. ... The south tower collapsed at around 10 a.m. following an explosion, the third to hit the landmark building."
  149. Radio interview with Scott Forbes, senior database administrator at Fiduciary Trust, with his office on the 97th floor of the South Tower (Youtube): "About three weeks prior to 9/11 our company, along with many others in the towers, were given notice that there was going to be a power down in the top 50 per cent of the floors in the southern tower. This was unprecedented. As you can imagine, with all of the financial institutions in the building, to have a complete loss of power meant a complete loss of systems. And for an organization like my company it was truly extraordinary. ... The power down was on the Saturday and Sunday prior to 9/11. ... We were given three weeks notice. It was a relatively short time notice period to make all the preparations needed. And unprecedented. We had never experienced a power down in the towers, as far as I'm aware. I have worked in the towers from 1998. My colleagues who had been in the building well beyond that could not remember an occasion such as this, apart from the bomb incident in the early nineties. ... One of the main reasons why became suspicious was that I got in touch with the Port Authority and I got in touch with the 9/11 Commission to register this piece of information, so that it would be acknowledged, if only to be thrown away - and I had no acknowledgement. They did not come back to me. I repeatedly called and wrote letters to them. It is as if this information is of no interest to anyone, but to me it seems to be part of the puzzle and should be registered. ... I was not in the office on 9/11, because of working that weekend. I had the day off on Tuesday. So I was in my apartment that overlooked the Trade Center. ... And as soon as I saw the South Tower go down, I was highly suspicious. It just didn't look correct. It looked like a controlled demolition." December 24, 2005, Killtown, interview with Scott Forbes: "You have to understand how unprecedented the power down was. To shutdown all of our financial systems, all inter-related and with connections and feeds to may outside vendors and suppliers was a major piece of work. Additionally, the power outage meant that many of the 'ordinary' building features were not operating, such as security locks on doors, cameras, lighting, etc. ... I can't give you the absolute numbers, but I know it was the 'top half ' of WTC 2, so I'd say from floor 50 or so. ... Not to my knowledge [was there a simultaneous power outage in the North Tower]. ... As far as I recall it was for re-cabling, though I don't remember the wording on official documents or the detail, as I wasn't in the Management Loop. ... The building was retro, some of the features were so old, like the central heating and a/c systems, which were really really bad and inefficient. ... Off on Saturday afternoon - around 12 noon I think - and back on at about 2 pm on the Sunday (my timings on this are hazy). ... Well there were several guys in overalls, carrying building gear, toolboxes, etc inside the building. Remember there were no security locks on doors or security cameras, so access was free unless a door was locked by a manual key. Seeing so many 'strangers' who didn't work at the WTC was unusual. ... Not directly that I spoke to [people who reported hearing explosions in the WTC], but I am aware of one member of staff who was lost whose wife reported that he told her on the phone that explosions were going off. ... No, apart from broken glass from the plane impacts and crashing elevators. Several elevators cables were broken/slashed so they crashed to the ground. ... Sure, some did and have [agreed with my conspiracy-point-of-view], but many remain skeptical and frankly many do not want to revisit that time, as it was very painful."

WTC 1-2: Reports of explosions after the collapses

  1. September 11, 2001, CBS News Transcripts, 'Planes crash into World Trade Center and Pentagon': "[Dan] Rather: ... And then at 10:28 AM Eastern time, the second tower of the World Trade Center collapsed. Then there was a fourth explosion; a fourth counted big explosion rocked the collapsed remains of the World Trade Center. That was at about 10:38 AM Eastern time. ... Now dateline London: Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden warned three weeks ago that he and his followers would carry out "an unprecedented attack"--that was his quote--on US interests for its support of Israel."
  2. September 11, 2001, Associated Press Worldstream, ''New York is crying' With US-Terrorist Attacks': "Mike Smith, a fire marshal from Queens, [was] recovering at the fountain outside a state courthouse, shortly after the second tower collapsed. Workers from the Trade Center offices wandered lower Manhattan in a daze. Looking down West Broadway, brown and black smoke billowed. Ash, two inches ( five centimeters) deep, covered the streets. Police and firefighters gasped for air as they emerged from the sealed-off area. At least three explosions were heard, perhaps from gas lines." September 11, 2001, AP Press State and Local Wire, 'Pandemonium, horror outside Trade Center as people jump, towers collapse': "At least three explosions, perhaps from gas lines, could be heard after the buildings collapsed."
  3. CBS footage live on 9/11 after the collapse of the Twin Towers (Youtube):
    "[Huge boom in background] [A bystander says:] "There's another one." [The narrator:] Hours after the attack many smaller explosions rumbled through downtown."
  4. Cameraman on 9/11 in the neighborhood of WTC 7 amidst firemen (Youtube): "[Police officer on phone:] Yeah, here's one of the guys. He can tell I'm okay, alright? Hold on." "[Fireman takes over phone:] Hey, you wanna call your mother, or something?" [Huge deafening explosion nearby. Everyone gets startled.] "[Someone:] What the hell are...? [Lots of people speaking at the same time]."

WTC 7: Foreknowledge of the building coming down

  1. Youtube clip of unknown documentary (featured in '911: The Explosive Reality'): "[Official in suit on the scene talking to rescue workers:] Stand back. Stay as close as you can where you are not in the way. [Narrator:] But for hours they stood cut off from the rubble, feeling both fierce and helpless as they were not allowed into the rescue area. In the midst of a frustrating afternoon, evidence of why they had not been sent in. Number 7 World Trade Center collapsed. [shows frustrated rescue workers]"
  2. MSNBC, 'Attack on America', live (featured in '911: The Explosive Reality'): "Not to put those rescue workers in danger themselves. … We were told by a couple of people who were in there, before rescue workers [were pulled back], that there are bodies, a number of bodies lying around in the debris and on the street there. Obviously part of the job is to bring them out. We are also told by Port Authority officials that the building over there, which is building Number 7, which you can see, that there is some concern on the part of Port Authority officials about the stability of that building at this point."
  3. CNN on 9/11 (featured in '911: The Explosive Reality'): "The fire fighters thought it might collapse [Building 7]. ... rescue workers pushed people away from the scene."
  4. Latin American-sounding soldier briefly interviewed on ABC (featured in '911: The Explosive Reality'): "Building is going to collapse. Nothing informations. [pushes away camera] "
  5. Bill Blakemore to Peter Jennings at ABC live after collapse of WTC 7 (featured in '911: The Explosive Reality'): "Peter, it was an astonishing thing [the collapse of WTC 7] ... Things have become so bizarre down here that the hundreds of firemen standing around looked at it, felt a bit shocked, but then just said: "Well, we're gonna have even more work to do." Associate producer Lucy Carrigen has been over near that building just a little bit earlier and a policeman had told her that they feared the building was going to come down, that they were evacuating people from around it." [Jennings then starts hinting at controlled demolition].
  6. CNN live, around 4:14 p.m., Aaron Brown, standing in front of the New York skyline with WTC 7 still erect (Youtube): "We are getting information now that one of the buildings, building 7, in the World Trade Center complex is on fire and has either collapsed, or is collapsing." Building 7 only collapsed at 5:21 p.m.
  7. BBC World live report, with reporter Jane Standley, reporting live at 4:57 p.m. (collapse at 5:20 p.m.) from New York with Building 7 behind her (Youtube): "[News anchor:] Now more on the latest building collapse in New York. You might have heard a few moments ago us talking about the Salomon Brothers building [WTC 7] collapsing, and indeed it has. Apparently that's only a few hundred yards away from where the World Trade Center towers were. And it seems this was not the result of a new attack;it was because the building had been weakened during this morning's attack. We'll probably find more about that from our correspondent Jane Standley. Jane, what more can you tell us about the Salomon building and its collapse? [Jane Standley:] Well, only really what you already know. Details are very very sketchy. ... As you can see behind me, the trade center appears to be still burning [everybody can see that WTC 7 is still standing erect as she moves her head]. ... [screen starts to distort] ... [News anchor:] Well, unfortunately, I think we’ve lost the line with Jane Standley in Manhattan. Perhaps we can rejoin her and follow that up later." BBC World live report, with reporter Jane Standley standing front of screening showing live video of the World Trade Center (it is, however, evening already): "[Host Bill Turnbull:] After the collapse of the Solomon building, Jane, are the other buildings in that area stable? [before she can answer the sound cuts out]" Richard Porter, head of BBC World News, to Dylan Avery of 'Loose Change' (Youtube): "I think you will have to put it into context of what was an incredibly chaotic day for everybody involved in trying to cover the story. The investigations we have carried out suggest very strongly that, er, we were working on the basis of an incorrect news agency report. We have this statement from Reuters, it came some time after our original enquiries, but what it says is: "On september the 11th, 2001, Reuters incorrectly reported that one of the buildings of the New York World Trade Center, 7 WTC, had collapsed before it actually did. The report was picked up from a local news story and was withdrawn as soon as it emerged that the building had not fallen." Jane Standley interviewed by the BBC (Youtube): "I was thrown not a question, but a statement of fact. I don't know where that came from. I mean, it is very very difficult being in that position: no communication, no access to information and that just comes out of left field. It was very upsetting about a year ago, because of the level of persecution and the virulence in which I was spoken about. And its just very unfortunate that this whole conspiracy, kind of I think a rather ridiculous situation, has grown out of what is really a small and honest mistake." So it seems the origin is Reuters.
  8. Reporter Ashleigh Banfield live for MSNBC, near WTC 7, just before the collapse (Youtube): "That building right there, the brown building, the tall one, is number 7 World Trade Center. I've heard several reports from several different officers that that is the building that is gonna go down next. In fact, one officer told me, they are just waiting for that to come down at this point, that there is no way that it is going to be recovered and they can stabilize it."
  9. NYFD Lieutenant David Restutio (phonetic) on the telephone live to MSNBC, one minute after WTC 7 came down (Youtube): "We had heard reports that the building was unstable and that eventually it needed to come down on its own, or it would be taken down. I would imagine it came down on its own. "
  10. CBS-2 live, immediately after observing the collapse of WTC 7 (Youtube): "This is something they've been watching all day. In fact, Paul [?] just told us many hours ago that that building looked to be in danger of falling, as did the Twin Towers."
  11. September 13, 2001, Arlington Cemetery, 'Getting the photo of a lifetime' (About Tom Franklin, a photographer who was wandering around WTC 7 when it came down): "Firemen evacuated the area as they prepared for the collapse of Building Seven."
  12. Chief of Department NYFD Daniel Nigro (his superior died on 9/11), September 23, 2007: "Regarding WTC 7: The long-awaited US Government NIST ... report on the collapse of WTC 7 is due to be published at the end of this year (although it has been delayed already a few times [ adding fuel to the conspiracy theorists fires!]). That report should explain the cause and mechanics of the collapse in great detail. ... I made the decision (without consulting the owner [Larry Silverstein], the mayor [Rudolph Giuliani] or anyone else - as ranking fire officer, that decision was my responsibility) to clear a collapse zone surrounding the building and to stop all activity within that zone. Approximately three hours after that order was given, WTC 7 collapsed. Conspiracy theories abound and I believe firmly that all of them are without merit."
  13. September 9, 2005, press statement of Mr. Dara McQuillan, a spokesman for Silverstein Properties: "In the afternoon of September 11, Mr. Silverstein spoke to the Fire Department Commander on site at Seven World Trade Center. The Commander told Mr. Silverstein that there were several firefighters in the building working to contain the fires. Mr. Silverstein expressed his view that the most important thing was to protect the safety of those firefighters, including, if necessary, to have them withdraw from the building. Later in the day, the Fire Commander ordered his firefighters out of the building and at 5:20 p.m. the building collapsed."
  14. April 22, 2010, Jeffrey Scott Shapiro, FoxNews.com, 'Shame On Jesse Ventura!' (if true it appears to mean that primarily thermate was used, which could be true, because extreme heat and steel sulfidation was also found at the site of WTC 7. However, medical student Daryl said he heard one initial explosion (followed by a major shockwave) and one initial explosion has also been recorded on video): "Although I arrived at Ground Zero shortly after the Twin Towers fell, I was in the danger zone created by Building 7 from the moment it collapsed in the afternoon, an event that is one of the key cornerstones of the 9/11 conspiracy theory. Governor Ventura and many 9/11 “Truthers” allege that government explosives caused the afternoon collapse of Building 7. This is false. I know this because I remember watching all 47 stories of Building 7 suddenly and silently crumble before my eyes. Shortly before the building collapsed, several NYPD officers and Con-Edison workers told me that Larry Silverstein, the property developer of One World Financial Center was on the phone with his insurance carrier to see if they would authorize the controlled demolition of the building – since its foundation was already unstable and expected to fall. A controlled demolition would have minimized the damage caused by the building’s imminent collapse and potentially save lives. Many law enforcement personnel, firefighters and other journalists were aware of this possible option. There was no secret. There was no conspiracy. While I was talking with a fellow reporter and several NYPD officers, Building 7 suddenly collapsed, and before it hit the ground, not a single sound emanated from the tower area. There were no explosives; I would have heard them. In fact, I remember that in those few seconds, as the building sank to the ground that I was stunned by how quiet it was."

WTC 7: Evidence of demolition

  1. The penthouse on top of the roof, in the center of the building to be exact, is the first part to collapse after a loud boom. Seconds later, the outside of the building collapses over the inside, creating a perfect demolition.
  2. November 29, 2001, New York Times, 'A Nation Challenged': "Experts said no building like it [WTC 7], a modern, steel-reinforced high-rise, had ever collapsed because of an uncontrolled fire, and engineers have been trying to figure out exactly what happened and whether they should be worried about other buildings like it around the country."
  3. CNN footage: cameraman on 9/11 in the neighborhood of WTC 7 amidst firefighters (Youtube): [A giant explosion is heard] [Person 1:] You hear that? [Person 2:] Keep your eye on that building. It will be coming down soon." ... [new shot, but at same street and at almost the exact same location] [Person 3:] That building is about to blow up. Moving back. ... [again skips a few seconds of footage] ... We are walking back, because that building is about to blow up. [roaring sound is already heard in the background]. Flame. Debris coming down."
  4. Reporter Ashleigh Banfield live for MSNBC, near WTC 7, just before and during the collapse (Youtube): "[Host:] Monica, I have to go to Ashleigh Banfield, we might have had something [happening] on the ground. Ashley? [Banfield:]... Ah, well, at first Brian, we thought we'd heard another explosion, but I think its just a truck heading down to the south. But I just wanted to let you know that we are starting to see people moving north. In fact, you were just told by police that you should move out of your apartment, Fabiana ... [individual cracks can be heard in background half-way through this sentence since, say 0:00, followed by a more consecutive rumble around 0:06 when the reporter takes notice. Smoke is already increasing at 0:02/0:03, indicating the building is on its way down.] Look behind us, please pan this way. Be careful of your baby. This is it. [background at 0:11/0:12: "That's the building coming down"] Oh my God! Oh my God! Oh my God! No, listen , we'll be alright. We're gonna have to move. We're gonna have to move. That cloud is coming this way."
  5. 1010 WINS NYC News Radio on 9/11 (Youtube): "[Reporter:] I'm here with an NYU medical student. He was down there [at the collapse of WTC 7]. He was trying to help people. His name is Daryl. [Daryl:] "Yeah, so I was standing there. You know, we were watching the building as it was on fire - the bottom floors of the building were on fire. And we heard this sound that sounded like a clap of thunder. We turned around and we were shocked to see that the building was, what looked like a shockwave ripping through the building and the windows all busting out. It was horrifying. And then, you know, about a second later the bottom floor caved out and the building followed after that."
  6. Craig Bartmer, first responder, former New York Police Department (Youtube) (report not live made on 9/11, so tricky. Then again, Bartmer has become very sick due to his work at Ground Zero): "Walked around [WTC7]. Saw a hole. Not a hole big enough to knock a building down though. Yeah, there was definitely fire in the building. ... I didn't hear any indication that it was gonna come down. And all of a sudden the radios exploded and everybody started screaming: "Get away! Get away! Get away from it!" And I was like a deer in the headlights and I look up. I think I remember pretty clearly two guys that I knew who were on the transit radio. I don't know if those tapes are out there. I can try and look for 'em and show you. Then you know exactly what I'm talking about. It was that moment and I looked up. It was nothing that I would have ever imagined seeing in my life. The thing started peeling in on itself. There was an umbrella of crap 7 feet over my head that I just stared at. Somebody grabbed my shoulder and I started running and the shit is hitting the ground behind me. And the whole time you're hearing thum, thum, thum, thum. And think I know an explosion when I hear it. [laughs] I was real close to WTC 7 ... And I don't know, that didn't sound like a building just falling down when I was running away from it. There's a lot of eyewitness testimony down there hearing explosions. I didn't see any reason for that building to fall down the way it did and a lot of guys should be saying the same thing."
  7. Larry Silverstein, leaseholder building 7, in the September 2002 PBS documentary America Rebuilds (Youtube): "I remember getting a call from the fire department commander, told me they weren't sure if they were able to contain the fire. I said, "You know, we've had such terrible loss of life. Maybe the smartest thing to do is to pull it." And they made that decision to pull and then we watched the building collapse." Years later, Silverstein indicated the term meant "pull out" (of firefighters) instead of "pull down" (of the building). It's hard to decide what makes less sense: Silverstein's explanation or him having made the initial comment at all.
  8. Sunday, September 10, 2006, Zembla (VARA, Dutch television), Danny Jowenko interview about 9/11 (Youtube) (died in a car crash in 2011): "[Is shown a video of the WTC 7 collapse] Do you see the top go first? No, it goes from the bottom. Right? They just blew the columns; it has been demolished with explosives. ... This is controlled demolition. I'm absolute sure, it has been demolished with explosives. This was done at someone's direction. A team of experts has done this. ... The same day [as WTC 1 and 2?] The same day? Are you sure? Are you sure it was the 11th? That can't be true. Really? Then they worked really fast. ... This a professional job, no doubt. These boys know what they are doing. ... They did have the advantage that there was already so much destruction in the environment that they didn't need to be that precise. ... I am talking about the placement of packet charges instead of all that blow torch work and linear shaped charges. Just rigorously because it was already a mess. Just charges against the beams and just really fast. ... Oh, those aren't even that many columns. That explains a lot. You can demolish this quickly. You could even do this with blow torches and cutting charges. ... A cutting charge against it with a piece of duct tape is no-time, a minute per charge, not even - half a minute. ... That's not much work [connecting everything]. Everybody knows his job. ... You must have experienced men, but if you would have maybe 30 or 40 persons [it's possible within 7 hours]. ... Several with a blow torch, the rest attaches [the explosives], other people attach the det cords with the boosters. ... and another persons puts on the electrical systems. ... They didn't put out the fire [before putting in the explosives]? Yeah, that weird, I agree, I have no explanation for that. ... If it has become heated [during a fire] you will have to replace those columns. Do you know what it will cost to replace those columns at the bottom and to rebuild everything else? Then you'll say: be gone with it. Right? ... That could have been a reason for that Mr. Silverstone or Silverstein, or whatever he is called, the owner of the building, to have said: "Look, this is just gonna cost a lot of money and what do I get back? Still the same old building." And at that moment I think Giuliano (sic) would have given off a permit to demolish: "If you can get rid of it, as soon as possible." ... This has been done by people. No, no [there's no discussion]. It's also done on orders. Mr. [Silverstein] has said so himself. You can hear him say it: "Pull it down. Be gone with it." [The smoke puffs at WTC 7:] Yeah, it could be. You don't know if those are charges. ... it could be materials breaking.... So, no I don't believe those are charges. That's also not necessary. ... If this is a consequence of the coming down of the WTC towers, that would highly surprise me. I just cannot imagine that. ... Take that building of Timothy McVeigh. That was half gone. And it still had to be demolished with explosives [that's how unlikely a collapse through fire is]. ... There will be more deaths in the coming years [due to asbestos]. " Is of the opinion that the smoke puffs at WTC 1 and 2 were the results of downward pressure. Not much time spent on that.

WTC 7: Evidence for explosives planted before 9/11

  1. Michael D. Hess phone interview by UPN 9 News on September 11, around noon (Youtube): "I was up in the Emergency Management Center on the 23th floor and when all the power went out in the building another gentleman [Barry Jennings] and I walked down to the 8th floor and there was an explosion and we've been trapped on the 8th floor with thick smoke all around us for about an hour-and-a-half. But the New York Fire Department, as terrific as they are, came in and got us out. " Hess has been filmed on 9/11 as he is screaming for help from the position he and Jennings were trapped in. Businessweek biography of Michael D. Hess: "Yale... Harvard... Mr. Hess served as the Corporation Counsel of City of New York under Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani [until December 2001]. As the chief lawyer for the City, he supervised a Law Department of over 1,500 staff, including 700 attorneys. The Law Department is among the largest public law offices in the nation. ... Mr. Michael D. Hess is a Partner and Senior Managing Director at Giuliani Partners LLC. Mr. Hess is also the founder of Giuliani Partners LLC [in January 2002].
  2. September 11, 2001, BC Cycle (Helen O'Neill, AP correspondent), ''I just saw the top of Trade Two come down.'' (Barry Jennings story): "After the initial blast [impact], Housing Authority worker Barry Jennings, 46, reported to a command center on the 23rd floor of 7 World Trade Center. He was with Michael Hess, the city's corporation counsel, when they felt and heard another explosion. First calling for help, they scrambled downstairs to the lobby, or what was left of it. "I looked around, the lobby was gone. It looked like hell," Jennings said." September 11, 2001, AP Press State and Local Wire, 'Pandemonium, horror outside Trade Center as people jump, towers collapse': "At least three explosions, perhaps from gas lines, could be heard after the buildings collapsed. After the initial blast, Housing Authority worker Barry Jennings, 46, reported to a command center on the 23rd floor of 7 World Trade Center. He was with Michael Hess, the city's corporation counsel. They were the only ones there. They felt and heard another explosion, probably the collapse of one building. He broke a window and screamed for help. Then they went down a stairwell. "I told Hess, 'We've got to try to get out of here."' They got to the lobby, or what was left of it. "I thought I was dead. The whole building shook. ... I looked around, the lobby was gone. It looked like hell. It was like a bad movie." Though covered in soot, Jennings was not physically injured. He said Hess escaped safely as well." Barry Jennings original story when he was interviewed on 9/11 by an ABC reporter (Youtube): "We made it to the eight floor [of WTC 7, well before the Twin Towers came down. Walking down from the 24th]. Big explosion. Blew us back into the eight floor. And I turned to Hess and said: "This is it. We're dead. We're not gonna make it out of here." I took a fire extinguisher and busted a window out. This gentleman here heard my cry for help." Barry Jennings (Deputy Director of Emergency Services Department, NY City Housing Authority) (Youtube): "My name is Barry Jennings. I'm 52 years old. I worked for 33 years at one location. ... As I told you guys before, it was very funny. I was on my way to work and traffic was excellent. I received a call that a small Cessna had hit the World Trade Center. I was asked to go and man the Office of Emergency Management at World Trade Center 7 at the 23rd floor. As I arrived there, there was police all in the lobby. They showed me the way to the elevator. I got up to the 23rd floor. Me and Mr. Hess [Senior Managing Director of Giuliani Partners], whom I didn't know was Mr. Hess at the time, we got to the 23rd floor. We couldn't get in. We had to get back down. Then security and police took us to the freight elevators. They took us back up and we did get back in. Upon arriving into the OEM/EOC, we noticed that everybody was gone. I saw coffee that was on a desk. The smoke was still coming off the coffee. I saw half eaten sandwiches. And only me and Mr. Hess were up there. After I called several individuals, one individual told me to leave and leave right away. Mr. Hess came running back in. He said, "We are the only ones up here. We need to get out of here." He found a stairwell. So we subsequently went to the stairwell, and we are going down the stairs. When we reached the 6th - 8th floor, the landing we were standing on gave way. There was an explosion and the landing gave way. I was left there hanging. I had to walk back up to the 8th floor. After getting up to the eight floor, everything was dark. It was dark and very, very hot. I asked Mr. Hess to test the phones. I took a fire extinguisher and broke out the windows. The firefighters came to the window, because I was gonna come out on the fire hose. I didn't wanna stay there any longer. I mean, it was too hot. ... They came to the window. They started yelling: "Do not do that. It won't hold you." And then they ran away. See, I didn't know what was going on. That's when the first tower fell. ... Then I saw them come back. Now I saw them come back with more concern on their faces. Then they ran away again. The second tower fell. As they turned and ran the second time, the guys turned and said, "don't worry, we'll be back for you." And they did come back. This time they came back with ten firefighters. And they kept asking me, "Where are you? We don't know where you are." I said, " I'm on the north side of the building." ... All this time I'm hearing all kinds of explosions. All this time I'm hearing explosions. When they finally got to us, and they took us down, to what what they called the lobby ... He said, "This was the lobby". And I said, "You've got to be kidding me." It was total ruins. Now, keep in mind, when I came in there, the lobby had nice escalators, it was a huge lobby. And for me to see what I saw was unbelievable. And the firefighter that took us down kept saying, "do not look down." And I kept saying, "Why?" "Do not look down." We were stepping over people. And you know you can feel when you are stepping over people. They took us out through a hole. I don't who made this hole in this wall. ... Well, I'm just confused about one thing and one thing only. Why World Trade Center 7 went down in the first place. I'm very confused about that. I know what I heard. I heard explosions. The explanation I got was, "It was the fuel oil tank". I'm an old boiler guy. If it was a fuel oil tank, it would have been one side of the building. When I got to that lobby, the lobby was totally destroyed. It looked like King Kong had come though it and stepped on it. And it was so destroyed I didn't know where I was. And it was so destroyed they had to take me out through a hole in the wall. A make-shift hole that I think the Fire Department made to get me out. Me and Mr. Hess out. ... I got into the building a little before nine - a little after nine. I didn't get out of there until, like, one. ... The explanations that were given to me were totally unacceptable. Totally unacceptable. ... And it wasn't until some years later that I testified in front of them [to a group part of the 9/11 Commission]. And to tell you, it was very scary. They look like very important people. They were questioning me about certain things. I don't know if they liked the answers I gave. ... They asked me the same questions that you guys are asking me. And at that point they said, "Okay, thank you." They sent me on my way [and never heard of them again]. I couldn't stop watching it [on TV]. And that's when I found out building 7 had come down. And I was so surprised. And I'm saying to myself, why did that building come down? And I knew why it came down. Because of the explosions. And it was not no fuel oil tanks." September 16, 2008, Infowars, 'Key Witness to WTC 7 Explosions Dead at 53': "Updated Sept. 17 4:05 PM CST: NYC Housing Authority spokesman Howard Marder has now officially confirmed that Barry Jennings indeed passed away approximately a month ago after several days in the hospital, matching confirmations from several other employees at the Housing Authority. Marder commented that Jennings was a great man, well liked by everyone at the Housing Authority, and that he would be missed. No other details were available. ... It is very unusual that a prominent — and controversial– 9/11 witness would die only days before the release of NIST's report on WTC7 and shortly after a firestorm erupted over his testimony that he heard explosions inside the building prior to collapse of either tower and that there were dead bodies in the building’s blown-out lobby. The BBC aired The Third Tower in July in attempt to debunk Barry Jennings’ account– which is both contradictory and damaging to the official 9/11 story– by making issue over whether or not he said he "saw" dead bodies in the lobby."

WTC-1-2-7: Flaws in the investigation of the physical evidence

  1. November 13, 2010, Geraldo at Large (live) on Fox News, '9/11 Group Asks NYC City Council to Investigate WTC Building 7 Collapse' (This interview was a response to a New York City ad campaign, shown on TV about 350 times, 'Buildingwhat.org'. Geraldo keeps steering, talking himself, and interrupting in the few minutes the interview lasts) (Youtube): "[Tony Szamboti, Mechanical Engineer:] Scientifically, it's impossible for fire to have done what we see." "[Geraldo:] And these 1,300 architects and engineers and some of the other relatives and families who agree with you [that the collapse of WTC 7 was by controlled demolition] ...". "[Bob McIlvaine:] I believe it was an inside job, okay. Please, but the thing is we don't have enough time to get into the reasons of that. ... I've talked to so many firemen, so many EMS workers, policemen, who talk about the explosions. And I know you don't wanna go into my son's death, but I feel that my son died from an explosion. I went to all the 9/11 Commission hearings. I've been researching this for nine years. I want truth. I've been lied to. It's beyond reasonable doubt that the 9/11 Commission did not tell the story. "[Geraldo:] "I am certainly much more open minded about it then I was."
  2. Kevin Ryan in the documentary '9/11 Birth of Treason' (Youtube): "I was previously a division manager for Environmental Health Laboratories, a division of Underwriter Laboratories [UL]. ... I have a degree in Chemistry from Indiana University. I have a certification for Quality Engineering, which is very closely related to standards in the National Institute for Standards and Technologies. I was Laboratory Manager at UL for years, so I know about testing samples for national standards. ... I first sent a formal question to our Chief Executive Officer at Underwriter Laboratories in late 2003. And laid out these concerns to him. I said, "You told us that we had tested the steel and certified the steel. This steel has been destroyed now. There are alternative explanations as to what has happened." He responded a month later. He did confirm that UL had tested the steel used in the World Trade Center buildings. I have quite a number of statements in writing. Clearly this Chief Executive Officer, who was a Harvard-trained lawyer, by the way, not an engineer, had fully accepted the official story and been given information himself about testing done 40 years ago by our company to certify the steel of the World Trade Center. ... He asked me to be patient and wait for the official report of the NIST, because UL was working closely together with them to try and figure out what happened and eventually there would be an explanation. I did wait for another year. The report came out and it contained a great deal of contradictory information. They had done physical tests, both at UL and NIST, which showed that the steel could not have softened and that the floors could not have collapsed. And yet the report was coming out suggesting that these things actually did happen. ... The final story has been summarized kind of in seven steps. And if you walk through those and clearly summarize them and look at known facts about the buildings, look at the report itself to see if it is self-consistent, just look at the story to see if it is realistic, and in all three cases you can see that it is not. It is actually false in everyone of those seven steps. And this is just the collapse initiation sequence. They don't actually describe the actual dynamics of the buildings falling. They just say, "global collapse ensued". In that way they can ignore a whole lot of evidence that points to an alternative hypothesis, like explosions, from witnesses hearing explosions, or demolition squibs coming off of the buildings. The speed of the collapse is a very important piece of evidence. They can ignore all of that by just saying "global collapse ensued". Period. The biggest problems with that story are the fire proofing being lost ... Tests that were done by NIST, very weak, numble tests, prove that actually the fire proofing could not have been lost in the buildings. There was no energy for it - no mechanism for it to occur. And probably the biggest problem is the idea that the external columns would bow inward, which is primary to the official story. There's actually no physical testing to support that. There's no intuitive reasoning behind it. The only support is from a highly manipulated computer model, in which the temperatures were exaggerated, the fire times were exaggerated, all the fire proofing was stripped off. And the floors were disconnected. ... The floors are disconnected. There's no force to pull the columns in. How did it happen? We are talking about a phantom force now in a highly manipulated computer model. And that's what we are basing our future on. ... There were also still comments being made about jet fuel melting steel, by experts supporting the official story. So I wrote to the NIST and I asked them to please clarify the ideas that were being stated in the media and in the report. And I was fired for writing the letter. I was fired for nothing else, but writing this letter. I hadn't violated any policies and I had been promoted just earlier that year to a top-management position in my division."
  3. January 2002, Fire Engineering Magazine, Bill Manning in Editor's Opinion, '$elling Out the Investigation': "Did they throw away the locked doors from the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire? Did they throw away the gas can used at the Happyland Social Club Fire? Did they cast aside the pressure-regulating valves at the Meridian Plaza Fire? Of course not. But essentially, that's what they're doing at the World Trade Center. For more than three months, structural steel from the World Trade Center has been and continues to be cut up and sold for scrap. Crucial evidence that could answer many questions about high-rise building design practices and performance under fire conditions is on the slow boat to China, perhaps never to be seen again in America until you buy your next car. Such destruction of evidence shows the astounding ignorance of government officials to the value of a thorough, scientific investigation of the largest fire-induced collapse in world history. I have combed through our national standard for fire investigation, NFPA 921, but nowhere in it does one find an exemption allowing the destruction of evidence for buildings over 10 stories tall. Hoping beyond hope, I have called experts to ask if the towers were the only high-rise buildings in America of lightweight, center-core construction. No such luck. I made other calls asking if these were the only buildings in America with light-density, sprayed-on fireproofing. Again, no luck-they were two of thousands that fit the description. Comprehensive disaster investigations mean increased safety. They mean positive change. NASA knows it. The NTSB knows it. Does FEMA know it? No. Fire Engineering has good reason to believe that the "official investigation" blessed by FEMA and run by the American Society of Civil Engineers is a half-baked farce that may already have been commandeered by political forces whose primary interests, to put it mildly, lie far afield of full disclosure. Except for the marginal benefit obtained from a three-day, visual walk-through of evidence sites conducted by ASCE investigation committee members- described by one close source as a "tourist trip"-no one's checking the evidence for anything. ... However, respected members of the fire protection engineering community are beginning to raise red flags, and a resonating theory has emerged: The structural damage from the planes and the explosive ignition of jet fuel in themselves were not enough to bring down the towers. Rather, theory has it, the subsequent contents fires attacking the questionably fireproofed lightweight trusses and load-bearing columns directly caused the collapses in an alarmingly short time. Of course, in light of there being no real evidence thus far produced, this could remain just unexplored theory. ... Some citizens are taking to the streets to protest the investigation sellout. Sally Regenhard, for one, wants to know why and how the building fell as it did upon her unfortunate son Christian, an FDNY probationary firefighter. And so do we. Clearly, there are burning questions that need answers. ... The destruction and removal of evidence must stop immediately."
  4. 2002, FEMA, 'Building Performance Study', Jonathan Barnett, Ronald R. Biederman and R. D. Sisson, Jr., 'Appendix C: Limited Metallurgical Examination': "Two structural steel members with unusual erosion patterns were observed in the WTC debris field. The first appeared to be from WTC 7 and the second from either WTC 1 or WTC 2. Samples were taken from these beams and labeled Sample 1 and Sample 2, respectively. A metallurgic examination was conducted ... Summary for Sample 1: 1) The thinning of the steel occurred by a high-temperature corrosion due to a combination of oxidation and sulfidation. 2) Heating of the steel into a hot corrosive environment approaching 1,000 °C (1,800 °F) results in the formation of a eutectic mixture of iron, oxygen, and sulfur that liquefied the steel. 3) The sulfidation attack of steel grain boundaries accelerated the corrosion and erosion of the steel. ... Summary for Sample 2: 1) The thinning of the steel occurred by high temperature corrosion due to a combination of oxidation and sulfidation. 2) The sulfidation attack of steel grain boundaries accelerated the corrosion and erosion of the steel. 3) The high concentration of sulfides in the grain boundaries of the corroded regions of the steel occurred due to copper diffusing from the HSLA steel combining with iron and sulfur, making both discrete and continuous sulfides in the steel grain boundaries. ... The severe corrosion and subsequent erosion of Samples 1 and 2 are a very unusual event. No clear explanation for the source of the sulfur has been identified. The rate of corrosion is also unknown. It is possible that this is the result of long-term heating in the ground following the collapse of the buildings. It is also possible that the phenomenon started prior to collapse and accelerated the weakening of the steel structure. A detailed study into the mechanisms of this phenomenon is needed to determine what risk, if any, is presented to existing steel structures exposed to severe and long-burning fires."
  5. Possibly a new pet theory of the future: September 21, 2011, Agence Presse France, 'Were Twin Towers felled by chemical blasts?' (quite possibly an amazing piece of disinformation that will one day be brought forward when the evidence for explosions becomes too widely known): "A mix of sprinkling system water and melted aluminium from aircraft hulls likely triggered the explosions that felled New York's Twin Towers on September 11, 2001, a materials expert has told a technology conference. "If my theory is correct, tonnes of aluminium ran down through the towers, where the smelt came into contact with a few hundred litres of water," Christian Simensen, a scientist at SINTEF, an independent technology research institute based in Norway, said in a statement released Wednesday. "From other disasters and experiments carried out by the aluminium industry, we know that reactions of this sort lead to violent explosions." The official report blames the collapse on the over-heating and failure of the structural steel beams at the core of the buildings, an explanation Simensen rejects. Given the quantities of the molten metal involved, the blasts would have been powerful enough to blow out an entire section of each building, he said. This, in turn, would lead to the top section of each tower to fall down on the sections below. The sheer weight of the top floors would be enough to crush the lower part of the building like a house of card, he said. The aluminium-water scenario would also account for explosions from within the buildings just prior to their collapse that have fueled conspiracy theories suggesting that the structures had been booby-trapped. Simensen presented his theory at an international materials technology conference in San Diego, California, and has detailed his calculations in an article published in the trade journal Aluminium International Today. ... A meltdown period of 30 to 45 minutes would be consistent with the timing of the explosions and subsequent collapse of both buildings in relation to the moment of impact."
  6. Interesting contrast to the following section: 2007, Dr. John L. Gross, "responsible for the Structural Fire Response and Collapse aspects of the NIST World Trade Center Investigation." (www.nist.gov) during a Q&A at the University of Texas at Austin (Youtube): "First of all, let's go back to your basic premise that there was a pool of molten steel. I know of absolute no eyewitnesses who said so, nobody has produced it. I was on the site. I was on the steel yards. So I don't know that that's so. Steel melts around 2,600 degrees fahrenheit. I think it's probably pretty difficult to get those kind of temperatures in a fire."
  7. Another interesting contrast to the following section: February 7, 2004, Firehouse magazine, 'A Look Inside a Radical New Theory of the WTC Collapse': "Dr. Frank Gayle, Metals Expert: "Your gut reaction would be the jet fuel is what made the fire so very intense, a lot of people figured that's what melted the steel. Indeed it didn't, the steel did not melt. ... The investigators have found that the windows between the columns blew out, fueling the fire and bringing so much oxygen in that it weakened the structure underneath, which then collapsed. ... And while the planes' wings and engines weakened some areas, scientists don't think that was enough to make the towers fall. They're now focusing on the floor truss supports where white foam fireproofing may not have been as strong as builders believed. The reality is that more than two years later, investigators are still uncertain why the towers fell."

WTC 1-2-7: Post-collapse: reports of molten metal

  1. 2006, 'Collateral Damages' DVD (Youtube): "[Firefighter Philip Ruvolo:] You'd get down below and you would see molten steel. Molten steel! Running down the channel rails. Like you're in a foundry. [two firefighters in background: "Like lava. Like a volcano."] Like lava!"
  2. September 5, 2006, Spike TV special 'Metal of Honor', a firefighter explains (Youtube): "You saw some of the thickest steel I have ever seen bent like a pretzel. And you just couldn't imagine the force that that took. When the grabbers were pulling stuff out, big sections of iron that looked literally on fire on the other hand. They would hit the air and burst into flames, which was pretty spooky to see."
  3. September 5, 2006, Spike TV special 'Metal of Honor', another firefighter explains (Youtube): "You would create an air pocket by moving steel, fueling the fires underground. ... These underground fires were just like the fires of hell." Extra note: "The last fire was extinguished December 19, 2001".
  4. Fire chief at the WTC site (Youtube): "You see how this debris is still smoking? That's from the fires that are still burning. Eight weeks later we still got fires burning. Every now and then one of the pieces of equipment will dig in, they'll open up a small area, the oxygen will rush in and you'll get this plume of brown and black smoke coming up. That's because that fire just got more oxygen. That means these things are burning. At one point I think they were about 2,800 degrees [1,538 degrees celsius]."
  5. May 17, 2002, EHStoday.com, 'Safety Professionals Recount Time Spent at Ground Zero': "However, within hours of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the Safety, Health and Environmental (SH&E) professionals for the Bechtel Group found themselves at Ground Zero, working side-by-side with city, state and federal agencies as part of the massive emergency recovery effort. ... On the morning of Sept. 11, [Norman] Black was at a project office in midtown Manhattan, and [Jeffrey] Vincoli had just landed at Washington Dulles International Airport in Virginia when the second plane hit the World Trade Center (WTC). Within hours of the attack, Black was attending a chaotic meeting of state and city officials near Ground Zero that led to the formation of a Ground Zero SH&E team. At the request of officials, more Bechtel SH&E professionals led by Burkhammer headed to New York City to join the team. ... Thermal measurements taken by helicopter each day showed underground temperatures ranging from 400 degrees °F [200 degrees °C] to more than 2,800 degrees °F [1540 degrees °C] due to the ongoing underground fires. The heat melted the soles of workers' shoes and it became a safety concern for the search-and-rescue dogs. Many were not outfitted with protective booties. More than one dog suffered serious injuries and at least three died while working at Ground Zero. The underground fire was "extinguished" on Dec. 19."
  6. Fire chief from 27th Battalion, FDNY, filmed while working at the WTC site (Youtube): "Oh, it's unbelievable. And this is six weeks later. Almost six weeks later. And as we get closer to the center of this it gets hotter and hotter. It's probably 1,500 degrees [815 degrees celsius]. We've had some small windows into what we thought was the [??] some point and it looks like an oven. It's just roaring inside. Just a bright, bright reddish-orange color. See that stuff he's pulling. We're gonna hold off on the water. It's red hot.".
  7. 2002, Stanford University, Les Robertson, one of the chief structural engineers of the World Trade Center, giving a presentation (Youtube): "The project was on fire for months. Once we were down at the B1 level and one of the firefighters said: "I think you will be interested in this." And they pulled out a big block of concrete and there was like a little river of steel flowing."
  8. Good-looking female police officer talking to a reporter (Youtube): "Steel-toed boots is one of the biggest things. Steel-toed boots. Out on the rubble it is still, I believe, 1,100 degrees [593 degrees celsius]. The guys' boots just melt within a few hours."
  9. Voice of a construction worker on the History Channel (Youtube): "It was literally steaming. Your boots would melt in certain areas. That's how hot it was. Steel was coming out red in certain areas in the first couple of weeks at least."
  10. Reporter talking to a person at construction site (Youtube): "[Person 1:] This fused element of molten steel and concrete and all of these things all fused by the heat into one single element. [Other person:] And almost like a chunk of lava from Kallawaya or Iceland where there are very sharp, but breakable shards on the end here."
  11. 2002, Matt Siegel, 'Three Nights at Ground Zero' (Youtube): "They've begun using heavy equipment to haul away the wreckage of Building Number 7, regardless of the fact that it is still burning. At the canteen we hear some of the truck drivers complaining that some of these girders are so hot they cause the beds of the dump trucks to crack and split open."
  12. Clip about a bent steel beam of the WTC (Youtube): "[Narrator:] This eight-ton steel I-beam is six inches thick. It was selected to be preserved for future generations for the near perfect horseshoe-like bent, formed during the collapse. [Construction worker:] I found it hard to believe that it had actually bent because of the size of it and there are no cracks in the iron. It bent without almost a single crack in it. It takes thousands of degrees to bend steel like this. [Person 3 agrees:] Typically you have buckling and tearing on the tension side. There is no buckling at all."
  13. April 1, 2003, C-Span 2, Ken Holden, director New York Department of Design and Construction who is active at the World Trade Center site, tells the 9/11 Commission (Youtube): "... numerous fires were still burning and smoldering. Underground it was still so hot that molten metal dripped down the sides of a wall from building six."
  14. May 19, 2004, Rudolph Giuliani to the 9/11 Commission (Youtube): "There were fires of 2,000 degrees fahrenheit [1,093 degrees celsius] below the ground. "
  15. Major George Polarek, incident commander at Ground Zero, in the 2002 CBS TV special 'Hymns of Hope and Healing' (Youtube): "And all of a sudden he comes out of this tunnel, screaming: "Wait 'til you see what I found!" And he pulls in ministers and officials and there, this cross is fully extended, melted together with the intense heat. The two beams were never initially part of the same structure. Heat literally melted them together. And the piece of metal that was draped over was molten metal that had literally fallen over one of the arms."
  16. Sarah Atlas, of New Jersey's Task Force on Urban Search and Rescue, to Penn Arts & Science, summer 2002 issue: "Fires burned and molten metal flowed in the pile of ruins still settling beneath my feet."
  17. October 2001, volume VI, issue II, Structural Engineers Association of Utah, 'WTC a Structural Success', p. 3: "[Leslie Robertson, the structural engineer responsible for the design of the World Trade Center Towers, is quoted as saying:] As of 21 days after the attack, the fires were still burning and molten steel was still running." Interestingly, Robertson had "no recollection" of having made this statement when asked about it by debunkers site 911myths.com.
  18. May 1 and 8, 2006, issue #18 and 19, American Free Press, 'Professor Says ‘Cutter Charges’ Brought Down WTC Buildings': "The unexplained presence of molten metal at the World Trade Center (WTC) puzzled Jones and he contacted this writer to confirm the reports first published in American Free Press in 2002. These reports came from two men involved in the removal of the rubble: Peter Tully of Tully Construction of Flushing, N.Y., and Mark Loizeaux of Controlled Demolition, Inc. of Phoenix, Md. Tully told AFP that he had seen pools of "literally molten steel" in the rubble. Loizeaux confirmed this: "Yes, hot spots of molten steel in the basements," he said, "at the bottom of the elevator shafts of the main towers, down seven levels." The molten steel was found "three, four, and five weeks later, when the rubble was being removed," he said. He confirmed that molten steel was also found at WTC 7, which mysteriously collapsed in the late afternoon."
  19. 2002, History Channel, 'World Trade Center: Rise and Fall of an American Icon', "debris removal specialist" Richard Riggs (general manager Aman Environmental Construction, "a full service demolition, environmental remediation and construction contracting firm" one of the firms hired to clean up the WTC site (little info on it; also, Riggs looks like he doesn't believe much of his own explanation of office fires melting steel): "The fire is burning from the bottom because you have so many million squares of office space that are in those towers. What kind of combustibles are in a million square feet of office space? The paper, the furniture, the carpets. The fires got very intense down there and actually melted beams where it was molten steel being dug out."
  20. 2002, Times Herald-Record, 'The Chaplain's Tale Featuring the unabridged transcript and audio [of the words of Chaplain Herb Trimpe]: "I realized it was actually warmer on site. The fires burned, up to 2,000 degrees [1,093 degrees celsius], underground for quite a while before they actually got down to those areas and they cooled off. I talked to many contractors and they said they actually saw molten metal trapped, beams had just totally had been melted because of the heat. So this was the kind of heat that was going on when those airplanes hit the upper floors. It was just demolishing heat."
  21. Late fall 2001 magazine, John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 'Mobilizing Public Health: Turning Terror's Tide with Science': ""Fires are still actively burning and the smoke is very intense," reports Alison Geyh, PhD. "In some pockets now being uncovered, they are finding molten steel." Geyh, an assistant scientist with the School's Department of Environmental Health Sciences (EHS), heads the team of scientists sent by the School in response to a request by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences for a coordinated study of the disaster's potential health effects to those in the immediate environment. "
  22. September 2003, National Environmental Health Association, 'Messages in the Dust', p. 40: "Ron Burger, a public health advisor at the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ... arrived in New York to help September 11, but didn't arrive at the Ground Zero site until the night of September 12... A veteran of disasters from the Mississippi floods to Mt. St. Helens, Burger said it reminded him most of the volcano, if he forgot he was in downtown Manhattan. "Feeling the heat, seeing the molten steel, the layers upon layers of ash, like lava, it reminded me of Mt. St. Helens and the thousands who fled that disaster," he said."
  23. September 3, 2002, Structural Engineer, p. 6: ""They showed us many fascinating slides," he [Dr. Keith Eaton] continued, "ranging from molten metal which was still red hot weeks after the event.""
  24. May 29, 2002, Knight-Ridder Newspapers, 'Recovery worker reflects on months spent at Ground Zero': "Joe "Toolie" O'Toole, a Bronx firefighter ... Underground fires raged for months. O'Toole remembers in February seeing a crane lift a steel beam vertically from deep within the catacombs of Ground Zero. "It was dripping from the molten steel," he said."
  25. December 2011, Guy Lounsbury of the New York Air National Guard's 109th Air Wing, writes for the National Guard Magazine: "One fireman told us that there was still molten steel at the heart of the towers’ remains. Firemen sprayed water to cool the debris down but the heat remained intense enough at the surface to melt their boots."
  26. March 3, 2004, New York Post, 'Unflinching look among the ruins': "These candidly shaken macho guys recall scenes still haunting their nightmares two years after 9/11 - a 4-foot-high pile of bodies hurled from the towers, finding faces that were ripped from heads by the violence of the collapse, and heat so intense they encountered rivers of molten steel."
  27. April 1, 2002, Waste Age magazine, 'D-Day: NY Sanitation Workers' Challenge of a Lifetime' (information seemingly given by Kathy Dawkins, spokeswoman for the New York City Department of Sanitation: "But for about two and a half months after the attacks, in addition to its regular duties, NYDS played a major role in debris removal — everything from molten steel beams to human remains — running trucks back and forth between Ground Zero and Fresh Kills landfill, which was reopened to accommodate the debris."
  28. 2002, William Langewiesche, 'American Ground', back cover and p. 32: "Within days after September 11, 2001, William Langewiesche had secured unique, unrestricted, round-the-clock access to the World Trade Center site. ... In the early days, the streams of molten metal ... leaked from the hot cores and flowed down broken walls inside the foundation hole."
  29. 2007, U.S. News and World Report, 'Memories: They came to help at Ground Zero. What they experienced they can't forget' (seen on original site, but no more specific date is given than "2007"): "Lee Turner, a bewhiskered paramedic... Turner himself crawled through an opening and down crumpled stairwells to the subway, five levels below ground. He remembers seeing in the darkness a distant, pinkish glow–molten metal dripping from a beam–but found no signs of life."
  30. September 9, 2002, Government Computer News, 'Handheld app eased recovery tasks': "The working conditions were hellish, said Greg Fuchek, vice president of sales for LinksPoint Inc. of Norwalk, Conn. For six months after Sept. 11, the ground temperature varied between 600 degrees Fahrenheit [315 degrees celsius] and 1,500 degrees [815 degrees celsius], sometimes higher. 'In the first few weeks, sometimes when a worker would pull a steel beam from the wreckage, the end of the beam would be dripping molten steel,' Fuchek said."
  31. October 20, 2003 Volume 81, Number 42, Chemical and Engineering News magazine, 'Chemical analysis of a disaster': "The fires, which began at over 1,000 °C, gradually cooled, at least on the surface, during September and October 2001. USGS's AVIRIS also measured temperatures when it flew over ground zero on Sept. 16 and 23. On Sept. 16, it picked up more than three dozen hot spots of varying size and temperature, roughly between 500 and 700 °C. By Sept. 23, only two or three of the hot spots remained, and those were sharply reduced in intensity, Clark said. However, Clark doesn't know how deep into the pile AVIRIS could see. The infrared data certainly revealed surface temperatures, yet the smoldering piles below the surface may have remained at much higher temperatures. "In mid-October [a month after the attack], in the evening," said Thomas A. Cahill, a retired professor of physics and atmospheric science at the University of California, Davis, "when they would pull out a steel beam, the lower part would be glowing dull red, which indicates a temperature on the order of 500 to 600 °C. And we know that people were turning over pieces of concrete in December that would flash into fire--which requires about 300 °C. So the surface of the pile cooled rather rapidly, but the bulk of the pile stayed hot all the way to December.""

Reports of additional explosions during or just after the impacts

  1. Stephen Evans live interview on phone by the BBC about the first impact (Youtube): "People are running away very very quickly. There are more explosions further down the building ... I was at the base of the building when it happened. There was one huge bang and the building physically shook. Then two or three bangs and the building again shook and the people came screaming past me."
  2. August 7, 2002, The Scotsman, 'Twin Towers tape reveals full horror of jet attacks': "An [FBI] informant fitted with a wiretap device made the recording during an undercover investigation of tax fraud. ... The cassette, leaked yesterday to the New York Daily News. ... The pair were attending a breakfast meeting with a suspected tax fraudster in the Marriott World Trade Centre hotel. ... A muffled boom follows, then a second, much louder explosion. It continues for almost half a minute, gathering intensity. An alarm goes off, and people can be heard scattering. ... After several more chilling exchanges, a loud rumbling fills the air. It is now 8.58am, 12 minutes after American Airlines Flight 11 hit the first building. "People," says an official. "You’re going to have to move on." Mr McArdle makes his way down to the street, and the second plane crashes into the south tower at 9:03am."
  3. September 11, 2001, NBC News Transcripts, 'Planes crash into World Trade Center': "Ms. [Elliott] Walker: ... And we were in a position where we could see the Trade Center almost immediately between the other buildings, and an enormous fireball that must have been 300 feet across was visible immediately [as the plane hit], a secondary explosion, I think, and then plumes of smoke."
  4. September 2002 issue, Chief Engineer Magazine, 'We Will Not Forget': "Joe Shearin, the 36 year-old Assistant Chief Engineer at the World Trade Center, began his day by distributing work orders to his crew. ... On the 38th floor, Joe Shearin exited the elevator and began his walk down the hallway to meet with the tenant who had requested to see him. About 50 feet down the hallway, he heard a loud explosion and was lifted into the air. "I can't even tell you how far I traveled," he recalled. When he landed, people were already coming out of their offices into the hallway. "They were screaming, hollering," he said. "They were asking what they should do and where they should go". Joe directed them down the stairwells and out of the building. ... What Joe first believed was that an equipment room on the 43rd floor, which had an electrical substation, had blown up. He proceeded up the 5 floors to that level. Upon reaching the 43rd floor, "there were patches of ceiling that was just down on the floor, water pipes were broken, water was gushing like a brook or river that was just running down the corridor of the machine room". He began yelling to see if anyone was in the room and received no reply." Not unimportant to know, a sky lobby was located in floor 44, onto which one or more elevators could have crashed.

Basement-related testimony (watch out for Rodriguez)

  1. September 2002 issue, Chief Engineer Magazine, 'We Will Not Forget': [Stationary engineer] Mike Pecoraro had gotten up from bed at 4 a.m. ... Mike's assignment that day [in WTC1, the North Tower] would be to continue constructing a gantry that would be used to pull the heads from the 2,500 ton chillers, located in the 6th sub- basement level of the tower. ... Deep below the tower, Mike Pecoraro was suddenly interrupted in his grinding task by a shake on his shoulder from his co-worker. "Did you see that?" he was asked. Mike told him that he had seen nothing. "You didn't see the lights flicker?", his co-worker asked again. "No," Mike responded, but he knew immediately that if the lights had flickered, it could spell trouble. A power surge or interruption could play havoc with the building's equipment. ... Mike told his co-worker to call upstairs to their Assistant Chief Engineer and find out if everything was all right. His co-worker made the call and reported back to Mike that he was told that the Assistant Chief did not know what happened but that the whole building seemed to shake and there was a loud explosion. They had been told to stay where they were and "sit tight" until the Assistant Chief got back to them. By this time, however, the room they were working in began to fill with a white smoke. "We smelled kerosene," Mike recalled, "I was thinking maybe a car fire was upstairs", referring to the parking garage located below grade in the tower but above the deep space where they were working. The two decided to ascend the stairs to the C level, to a small machine shop where Vito Deleo and David Williams were supposed to be working. When the two arrived at the C level, they found the machine shop gone. "There was nothing there but rubble, "Mike said. "We're talking about a 50 ton hydraulic press ? gone!" The two began yelling for their co-workers, but there was no answer. They saw a perfect line of smoke streaming through the air. "You could stand here," he said, "and two inches over you couldn't breathe. We couldn't see through the smoke so we started screaming." But there was still no answer. The two made their way to the parking garage, but found that it, too, was gone. "There were no walls, there was rubble on the floor, and you can't see anything" he said. They decided to ascend two more levels to the building's lobby. As they ascended to the B Level, one floor above, they were astonished to see a steel and concrete fire door that weighed about 300 pounds, wrinkled up "like a piece of aluminum foil" and lying on the floor. "They got us again," Mike told his co-worker, referring to the terrorist attack at the center in 1993. Having been through that bombing, Mike recalled seeing similar things happen to the building's structure. He was convinced a bomb had gone off in the building. Mike walked through the open doorway and found two people lying on the floor. One was a female Carpenter and the other an Elevator Operator. They were both badly burned and injured. Realizing he had to get help, Mike ascended to the Lobby Level where he met Arti DelBianco, a member of his work crew. People were now coming down the same stairway from above the lobby and Arti and Mike had to stay where they were to direct people out of the stairway door and into the building's lobby. If they didn't, people descending could walk past the lobby door and unwittingly keep descending into the sublevels of the building."
  2. 2002, NY1 News, 'Honoring The Survivors', Construction worker Phillip Morelli video interview: "I go downstairs [underneath WTC, the North Tower], the foreman tells me to go remove the containers. As I am walking by the main freight corridor building, in the corridor, that's when I got blown. I mean, the impact of the explosion of whatever happened threw me to the floor and that's when everything started happening. It knocked me right to the floor, you didn't know what it was of course. You're assuming something just fell over in the loading dock, something very heavy, something very big. You don't know what happened and all of a sudden you just felt the floor moving and get up and the walls... and then ... now I'm hearing that the main freight car, the elevator fell down. I was right near the main freight car, so I'm assuming what that was. Then ... you know ... you heard that coming towards you. I was racing, I was going towards the bathroom ... all of a sudden ... I opened up the door ... I didn't know it was the bathroom and all of sudden a big impact happening again and all of the ceiling tiles were falling down, the light fixtures were falling down, swinging out of the ceiling. And I come running out the door and everything ... the walls were down and now I start running towards the parking lots ... I just assumed a car or something exploded on B1 or something big or heavy thing fell over ... when the floor is moving underneath you ... there was a lot of smoke down there, a lot of people screaming ... and were running up the ramps ... you gotta go clear across the whole from one to two world trade center ... and then, all of a sudden, it happened all over again; building 2 gets hit. And again, I don't know that, I just know that something else hit us to the floor. Right in the basement you felt it, walls were caving in, everything that was going on. I mean, I know people that got killed in the basement, I know people who got broken legs in there in the basement, people got surgery, because the walls hit them in the face."
  3. September 11, 2001, CNN interviews WTC janitor William Rodriguez: "I was in the basement, which is the support floor for the maintenance company, and we hear like a big rumble. Not like an impact, like a rumble, like moving furniture in a massive way. And all of sudden we hear another rumble, and a guy comes running, running into our office, and all of skin was off his body. All of the skin." This is all Rodriguez said on 9/11. In later years he became a very prominent skeptic of the 9/11 Commission and was regularly interviewed by the mainstream and alternative media, to which he claimed to have felt a low-level basement explosion immediately prior to the impact. Something is clearly wrong here. His association with James Randi, a reported pedophile [444] who sat on the board of the CIA-linked False Memory Syndrome Foundation[55], is just too suspect to ignore. Rodriguez's testimony should be ignored completely. September 11, 2002, New York Sun, 'A janitor's heroism 'opens a lot of doors'': "Mr. Randi, a debunker of psychics and faith healers, took Mr. Rodriguez on as an assistant in his campaign against charlatans. Mr. Rodriguez, with his cleaner's uniform and unlimited self-assurance, went back stage to gather intelligence on faith healers like W.V. Grant. "He has always managed to do the impossible," Mr. Randi wrote of his pupil. Mr. Rodriguez says he learned so much that "I could start my own church and perform my own miracles." ... The books had little to do with his day job: arriving at 8 a.m. and changing into his blue uniform in a basement locker-room, Mr. Rodriguez would ride the elevator to Windows on the World, on the 107th floor. His friends who worked there - most of them are now dead - gave him a free breakfast, and by 8:30, he would be on the stairs with a broom, a dustpan, and a rag. Sweeping one of the building's three stairwells took three hours. But Mr. Rodriguez got to work late the morning of September 11. He was still in the basement when the plane hit the tower."

WTC 1-2-7: Exploding van reports

  1. September 11, Rick Sanchez live for CNN (Youtube): "I spoke with some police officials moments ago, Chris, and they told me that they have reason to believe that one of the explosions at the World Trade Center may have been caused by a van that was parked inside the building that may have had some type of explosive device in it."
  2. Reporter Rick Sanchez on the phone with MSNBC, live on 9/11 (Youtube): "I'm in that area ... where West Broadway and Hudson come together, right at Chambers. That would put us a block and a half away from the site of where the explosion was. That area has just been evacuated because police have found what they describe as a suspicious device and they fear that it might be something that could lead to another explosion. Obviously there's a real sense of caution here on the part of police. I spoke with some police officials moments ago, Chris, and they told me they have reason to believe that one of the explosions at the World Trade Center aside from the ones that may have been caused by the impact of the plane with the building, may have been caused by a van that was parked in the building that may have had some type of explosive device in it, so their fear is that there may have been explosive devices planted either in the building, or in the adjacent area, and that's why they are being so cautious."
  3. September 11, 2001, reporter Jack Kelley live to USA Today (Youtube):"Apparently what appears to have happened was that at the same time the planes hit that the FBI most likely thinks that there was a car or truck packed with explosives underneath the building which also exploded at the same time and brought both of them down. ... That is the working theory at this point. That is still unconfirmed. That is what the FBI is going on at this point."
  4. Jeffrey Beatty, president of Total Security International live on CNN on 9/11 (taken from CNN website transcript): "They don't have the ability to check all those vehicles to make sure that they don't pose a threat. So we're yet to determine -- we've heard reports of secondary explosions after the aircraft impacted -- whether in fact there wasn't something else at the base of the tower in fact were the coup de gras to bring them to the ground."
  5. September 12, 2001, The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 'Five men detained as suspected conspirators; maps connect them to attack; similar van was in Liberty Park' (from Lexis Nexis, this report was not copied by other newspapers): "About eight hours after terrorists struck Manhattan's tallest skyscrapers, police in Bergen County detained five men who they said were found carrying maps linking them to the blasts. The five men, who were in a van stopped on Route 3 in East Rutherford around 4:30 p.m., were being questioned by police but had not been charged with any crime late Tuesday. The Bergen County Police bomb squad X-rayed packages found inside the van but did not find any explosives, authorities said. However, sources close to the investigation said they found other evidence linking the men to the bombing plot. "There are maps of the city in the car with certain places highlighted," the source said. "It looked like they're hooked in with this. It looked like they knew what was going to happen when they were at Liberty State Park. " Sources also said that bomb-sniffing dogs reacted as if they had detected explosives, although officers were unable to find anything. The FBI seized the van for further testing, authorities said. Sources said the van was stopped as it headed east on Route 3, between the Hackensack River bridge and the Sheraton hotel. As a precaution, police shut down Route 3 traffic in both directions after the stop and evacuated a small roadside motel near the Sheraton. Sources close to the investigation said the men said they were Israeli tourists, but police had not been able to confirm their identities. Authorities would not release their names. East Rutherford officers stopped the van after the FBI's Newark Field Office broadcast an alert asking surrounding police departments to look for a white Chevrolet van, police said. "We got an alert to be on the lookout for a white Chevrolet van with New Jersey registration and writing on the side," said Bergen County Police Chief John Schmidig. "Three individuals were seen celebrating in Liberty State Park after the impact. They said three people were jumping up and down. " The East Rutherford officers summoned the county police bomb squad, New Jersey state troopers, and FBI agents, who waited alongside the van as prosecutors from the U.S. Attorney's Office tried to obtain a warrant to search the van late Tuesday, Schmidig said. By 10 p.m., members of the bomb squad were picking through the van and X-raying packages found inside, Schmidig said. Sources said the FBI alert, known as a BOLO or "Be On Lookout," was sent out at 3:31 p.m. It read: "Vehicle possibly related to New York terrorist attack. White, 2000 Chevrolet van with New Jersey registration with 'Urban Moving Systems¬ sign on back seen at Liberty State Park, Jersey City, NJ, at the time of first impact of jetliner into World Trade Center. "Three individuals with van were seen celebrating after initial impact and subsequent explosion. FBI Newark Field Office requests that, if the van is located, hold for prints and detain individuals. " FBI spokeswoman Sandra Carroll declined to comment on the incident late Tuesday. State police Lt. Col. Barry W. Roberson confirmed the traffic stop at a late night news briefing at state police headquarters in Trenton. He would not elaborate, however. Business records show an Urban Moving Systems with offices on West 50th Street in Manhattan and on West 18th Street in Weehawken. Telephone messages left at the businesses Tuesday evening were not immediately returned. Business records show the owner as Dominik Suter of Fair Lawn. A woman answering the telephone at Suter's home acknowledged he owned the company but refused to comment further. She also declined to identify herself. It was not clear Tuesday whether the van stopped by police is related to Suter's company. A business traveler staying at the Homestead Studio Suites Hotel said she watched state troopers drive the suspects away in a procession of state police cars about 5 p.m. The woman, who asked not to be identified, said the people detained appeared to be white men, but she could not give more details."
    September 12 reports that a van "packed with explosives" had been stopped close to the George Washington Bridge were probably referring to the above story. More on the story:
    September 15, 2001, The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 'Five hijack suspects had links to J.J.': "East Rutherford police stopped an Urban Moving Systems van on Route 3 Tuesday and detained five men inside, at least some of them company employees. The occupants said they were all Israelis. They were being detained because they are in violation of immigration regulations, and all have expressed a desire to leave the country on their own, according to an Immigration and Naturalization Service spokesman. An employee of Urban Moving Systems, who would not give his name, said the majority of his co-workers are Israelis and were joking on the day of the attacks. "I was in tears," the man said. "These guys were joking and that bothered me. These guys were like, 'Now America knows what we go through.¬""
    December 13, 2001, New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety, Division of Consumer Affairs, 'State Granted Access to Moving Company's Storage Facility': "The State, at the same time, filed a lawsuit in Hudson County Superior Court against Urban Moving Systems and its owner Dominick Suter...According to the complaint, on or about September 14, 2001, Suter departed from the United States and left no one acting as an agent for Urban."

Audio/video evidence for explosives

Now that everyone has read all the witness testimonies (you did?), it's time to take a look at the audio/video evidence for a controlled demolition. As already said, in 2005 I spent a considerable amount of time to find a single video that somewhat clearly captured the collapse sound from the very first second, preferably also while the camera is pointed at the building. I found one video at the time and the sound actually blew me away. Today it's quite a well known clip.* It is the one in which a blond ABC-7 reporter says:

 
"This is as close as we can get to the base of the World Trade Center. You can see the firemen assembled here, the police officers, FBI agents. You can see the two towers... [a rumble comes up, immediately followed by a huge boom] ... a huge explosion now, raining debris on all of us! We'd better get out of the way!!!"

* At least one HD version I've seen online of this clip seems to have the sound of the explosion muffled. Check more than one version of the video when in doubt.

The reporter just barely survives the rainstorm of debris. But what is important here is to calculate as precisely as possible the moment that this loud boom took place. Unfortunately, the cameraman has not yet pointed his camera up to where the impact zone is when the initial ruble comes up, but the relevant floors are in sight by the time the boom is heard. At the moment the floors come in sight, not a whole lot appears to be happening yet. They are only slightly crumbling. The building has begun to tilt (not visible from this angle and only then in a frame by frame analysis), but none of the floors have been crushed yet at this point.

WTC2_early_boom

This observation is more than a little important, because sound moves quite a bit slower than light - there is always time delay. The tower is 415 meters high. A good estimate of the distance between the camera and the floors would be about 300 meters. On average sounds moves at 343 meters per second, so a quick calculation gives us a delay of approximately 0,87 seconds at this distance. What does that tell us? It tells us that the boom took place AT LEAST half a second BEFORE the floors blew out and began to pancake. Even a person who tries to be as conservative as possible cannot argue that the loud boom - which is very distinct from the continuous rumble - happened as the result of pancaking floors. Something else must have caused it.

As for the rumble that precedes the loud boom, that aspect will be discussed a bit later.

The loud boom is actually heard reverberating around the World Trade Center complex on another video, in which it sounds more like a clap of thunder. The picture below actually shows the process of how certain conclusions were reached.

WTC2_explosion_timing

Because of a prominent flash on the South Tower when a beam apparently snaps in two, it was possible to synchronize the video with another one in which the observer has a good view of what is happening at the relevant floors. Estimated distance from the relevant floors is about 400 meters, resulting in a sound delay of 1.17 seconds. Both videos were captured at 30 frames per second, so we need to go back 35 frames from when the boom is first heard in order to figure out the moment it originally took place. The images above again show that the building was still standing erect when this boom happened; there's was only some slight crumbling. So again, collapsing floors are not the cause of this loud boom.

You have just read well over a hundred accounts saying that the collapse began with a loud explosion - and here is the auditory evidence for it.

There's another relevant video. It appears to be part of a documentary and was uploaded in 2007 to Youtube under the name "South Tower collapse from East".

WTC_collapse_from_east

I cannot tell if the audio has been tampered with or if it even belongs to the camera in question. It is a real recording though, with people screaming as the tower comes down. The amazing thing of the sound is that it starts with a loud boom, followed by what appears to be a pretty clear sound of the first floor popping out. In any case, if the video and audio belong together and has not been tampered with in any way, it's possible to - yet again - draw the conclusion that the boom begins a split second before the top of the building gives way.

There's a fourth collapse video of the South Tower that reveals the loud boom. It's unfortunate that the video begins a fraction of a second too late and that a white fade in effect has been added; otherwise it would probably have been the best video to prove that the collapse was initiated by a loud explosion. Anyone can pause the video right at the moment when it cuts to the collapse segment. The boom sound is present immediately with frame one. At that point the floors are at the beginning stages of popping out. With a sound delay of about 0,80 seconds, its easy to conclude that the explosion sound is heard before the floors begin to blow out and pancake.

There also exists at least one video of the North Tower collapse which appears to have recorded a similar explosion as with the South Tower. It is the exact same story: an explosion is heard about half a second before the floors suddenly give way.

WTC2 early boom

Finally there is the Sorensen video, with the camera aimed at the south tower again. It's possible to hear and see the tower up to half an hour before the collapse. Nothing out of the ordinary is heard until seconds before the collapse. A brief "klunk" is heard (not in video segment here), followed by a louder "ka-klunk" that happens about one second before a very loud metallic-sounding "roooom!" "roooom!" sound comes up. Floors 77 and 78 begin to crumble immediately upon the start of this sound. A distinct loud boom is not heard from this angle, possibly because the rumbling sound is so overwhelming.

Sorensen video

So what is this apparently deafening sound? What is going on inside the tower that explains it? Maybe it was the shearing of metal columns due to the impending collapse, although I personally have trouble believing that. I would expect a collapse of this kind to be a somewhat more gradual process. Maybe a more likely explanation - considering all the evidence for a demolition - is that a multitude of smaller charges were going off, ripping metal columns apart. Most witnesses reported the loud explosion, but several also mentioned many smaller charges going off. In any case, the loud noise starts when the building is still standing tall, even if it is just a fraction of a second.

Visual and scientific evidence for the use of thermite/thermate

Thermite: theory and history

Thermite is a mixture of a metal powder and metal oxide. The oxide is normally red iron rust, but copper oxide and likely other forms have also been experimented with. The metal powder can be iron, aluminum, magnesium, copper, or even lead. It's very easy to make, but depending on the mixture, one needs gunpowder or magnesium to ignite it. Once ignited, thermite burns at temperatures of about 2,500°C/4,500°F. What the iron rust molecule actually does is provide the metal powder with enough oxygen to make the combustion as intense as it is. There's not enough oxygen in the surrounding air to initiate or sustain these type of intense chemical reactions. In similar sense, potassium nitrate is the oxidizer in gunpowder while ammonium nitrate did the job for McVeigh in Oklahoma. There are many other oxidizers.

Thermite was discovered in the late 19th century and used extensively in railroad welding. Experimentation with different mixtures began almost immediately. In many cases sulfur was added to the mix, officially rebranding the substance to "thermate". At least three different compositions, listed below, have been used by the military.

Therm-8 (TH1)  
Iron oxide 61.0%
Aluminum 22.8%
Barium nitrate 15.0%
Sulfur 0.90%
Castor oil 0.30%
 
Therm 8-2 (TH2)  
Iron oxide 55.2%
Aluminum 25.0%
Barium nitrate 19.5%
Sulfur 0.30%
   
 
Therm 64-c (TH3)  
Iron oxide 43.8%
Aluminum 24.9%
Barium nitrate 29.0%
Sulfur 2.0%
Binding agent 0.3%
 

Combined with a magnesium casing, TH3 and possibly the other variations were used in over 40 million AN-M50 incendiary bombs dropped during World War II over Japan and Germany. [2] Compared to the original thermite formula, this TH3 version of thermate was said to "increase [the] thermal effect ... and significantly reduce the ignition temperature". [3] Looking at the added substances, barium nitrate makes the mixture easier to ignite (using aluminum instead of iron powder also makes this process easier) while sulfur quickly degrades steel.

Even though little is known about it, research into thermite has not been sitting entirely still since World War II. In recent years, and possibly inspired by all the fuss surrounding 9/11, the U.S. Navy has become interested in developing "nanostructured super-thermites" [4]. Apparently this is the kind of thermite that was found in the World Trade Center dust. [5] Also, it was Kevin Ryan who years ago pointed to U.S. patent number 5,532,449, issued in 1996, regarding a thermite demolition device. The purpose of this device would be to "demolish a concrete structure at a high efficiency, while preventing a secondary problem due to noise, flying dust and chips, and the like." In this device the thermite is mixed with a gas to generate a "plasma torch". It is this torch that cuts through the steel. [6] However, there's no evidence that this device was ever produced, let alone used in the demolition of the World Trade Center. However, the patent was issued to Komatsu Ltd., a relatively interesting Japanese firm that will be given some attention in part 2 of this article.

Thermite on 9/11

There are various videos of the South Tower showing what appears to be molten metal falling from the corner that Flight 175 was moving towards upon impact. There has been speculation that this was either thermite or molten steel due to the presence of thermite. I never paid much attention to it, not knowing at the time that there were so many accounts of extreme heat and molten steel at the World Trade Center clean-up site. While synchronizing the two collapse videos discussed earlier, I was reminded once again of this phenomenon. In the minutes before the collapse this continuing stream of "something" is clearly visible. Now with the virtual certainty that thermite was used, I decided to do my own analysis of the stream.

Let's first be a little bit specific about the "minutes" comment. The first time a little bit of apparently molten metal is falling is three minutes and 34 seconds before collapse. Almost exactly a minute later another blob of glowing metal comes down. Little is seen again (from far away at least) until exactly 1,5 minute before the collapse. At this point the glowing material breaks through, causing regular showers of white and yellow hot metal. Looking at the streams up close, the following observations can be made:

  1. No flames are visible anywhere: not at the top and not when the liquid comes down.
  2. White smoke can often be seen coming from this liquid, while flames in other parts of the building generate thick black smoke - the kind of smoke burning jet fuel creates.
  3. Especially when the liquid comes down, the stream appears to be of a rather thick, lava-like consistency. It doesn't seem to behave like a watery substance as gasoline.
  4. The stream is rather sparkly when disturbed in any way.
  5. At the very center the liquid is quite white, indicating a temperature of about 1,200°C/2,200°F, whether it is aluminum or steel. The temperature drops off quickly. Most parts of the stream are bright yellow to orange, indicating average temperatures in the neighborhood of 1,000°C/1,850°F.

All these observations indicate we are dealing with molten metal. One would expect that it is possible that this is aluminum from the jetliner, which crashed towards the corner in question after impact. Unsurprisingly, this is actually what NIST concluded after being questioned about it by Dr. Steven Jones, the earlier-mentioned engineer who is skeptical about the collapses. NIST uploaded a similar conclusion to their online FAQ. The reply to Jones read:

 
"NIST concluded that the source of the molten material was aluminum alloys from the aircraft, since these are known to melt between 475 degrees Celsius (900 degrees Fahrenheit) and 640 degrees Celsius (1,200 degrees Fahrenheit)—depending on the particular alloy—well below the expected temperatures (about 1,000 degrees Celsius or 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit) in the vicinity of the fires." [7]

It's nice to see that everybody is on the same page whether or not we're looking at a liquid metal here: it's metal. About the temperature inside the building it's possible to have endless debates. NIST claims sustained temperatures of 1,000°C are an acceptable estimate. Looking at all the smoke and the very limited amount of fire at the exact location where the material comes down from, a lot of people are skeptical about that. Then there's the fact, known to every fireman and every thinking person, that the temperature of the actual fire seldom matches the temperature of the surrounding material. Certainly in the case of metal, heat is transported away from the flame in record time (just think about the purpose of CPU coolers). Unless a material is fully immersed in a fire for some time and therefore doesn't have the ability to transport its heat, it will reach similar temperatures as the flames.

Jones also pointed out the same thing that I myself had noticed: aluminum has a tendency towards turning quickly back into its gray metallic form. Certainly if aluminum is only heated to about 1,800°F/980°C, as would have been the absolute theoretical limit at the World Trade Center, I would expect to see a dull, unsparkly yellow color already turning grayish by the time it falls from the building. This is not what we see, however. We see bright white, yellow and orange colors, many sparks, and no indication that the material is turning grayish. Instead, it turns bright and then dull orange. In my unprofessional opinion it is almost certainly steel, likely mixed in with a little bit of remaining thermate.

What is interesting is that NIST actually tried to prove to Jones that the aluminum was glowing because it was "probably" mixed in with office materials (indicating that they know the aluminum would not have been heated even close to 1,800°F/980°C for it to start glowing a little bit). Jones and his team experimented with this. It turned out to be total bunk. Mixing office materials in with molten aluminum had absolutely zero effect. Half of the time the materials wouldn't even mix. [8]

Thermite_thermate_WTC

The basic problem with NIST is that they are covering things up. They don't even acknowledge the dozens of witness testimonies, combined with visual evidence, that there was heat intense enough to (partially) melt and fuse steel beams weighing many tons. This position was perfectly captured when Dr. John L. Gross, "responsible for the Structural Fire Response and Collapse aspects of the NIST World Trade Center Investigation", gave the following reply when questioned about the reports and evidence for molten steel at the World Trade Center site:

 
"First of all, let's go back to your basic premise that there was a pool of molten steel. I know of absolute no eyewitnesses who said so, nobody has produced it. I was on the site. I was on the steel yards. So I don't know that that's so. Steel melts around 2,600 degrees fahrenheit. I think it's probably pretty difficult to get those kind of temperatures in a fire."

Gross invited the person who asked the question to send him any information regarding the extreme heat and molten steel at the clean up site. However, after the speech Gross refused to provide his contact information to the person in question. What does this mean? It means that Gross is lying - and he knows it. As for NIST's official position, to be found in its online FAQ:

 
"[NIST] found no evidence that would support the melting of steel in a jet-fuel ignited fire in the towers prior to collapse."

This appears to carefully crafted lawyer-talk. They don't say: "We found no evidence of molten steel." Instead they argue that they found no evidence that burning jet fuel could have melted steel - implying they never had to look into reports of molten steel. NIST's FAQ goes on to explain that this has indeed been their policy:

 
"The condition of the steel in the wreckage of the WTC towers (i.e., whether it was in a molten state or not) was irrelevant to the investigation of the collapse since it does not provide any conclusive information on the condition of the steel when the WTC towers were standing.

"Under certain circumstances it is conceivable for some of the steel in the wreckage to have melted after the buildings collapsed. Any molten steel in the wreckage was more likely due to the high temperature resulting from long exposure to combustion within the pile than to short exposure to fires or explosions while the buildings were standing."

So not only didn't NIST investigate the claims and evidence for molten steel, they think it is irrelevant whether or not steel melted or came close to melting - because, apparently, "under certain circumstances", ordinary fires can melt steel. According to them, it is possible that fires which were not able to melt steel high up in the buildings, when the floors were saturated with jet fuel, would have been able to do so after the floors were disintegrated and mixed in with hundreds and hundreds of tons of (cold) steel of more than 200 additional floors. Does that sound logical? Not to me.

There is something else NIST refused to do, which may have proved the existence of thermate inside the building. FAQ:

 
"NIST did not test for the residue of these [thermite] compounds in the steel. ... [because] NIST [had already] concluded that there were no explosives or controlled demolition involved in the collapses of the WTC towers."

There is very good reason why NIST should have tested for these residues, because the initial 2002 World Trade Center Building Performance Study of FEMA actually provided a high degree of scientific evidence that the buildings had indeed been
Dissolved H beam
You're looking at what used to be a WTC 1 or 2 I-beam, which, looking at the design of the WTC, in all likelihood came from the core. Some mysterious sulfur-containing compound burning at high temperatures managed to quickly "liquefy" much of the steel. Was thermate placed against this beam? It's likely.
 
weakened by a thermate variant of thermite, despite the fact that investigators, for obvious reasons, didn't ponder this explanation. Appendix C of the report described the discovery of two pieces of structural steel in the rubble that had "unusual erosion patterns". The first piece "appeared" to belong to WTC 7 and the other to one of the two towers. The report described that the steel had been thinned "due to a combination of oxidation and sulfidation", resulting "in the formation of a eutectic mixture of iron, oxygen, and sulfur that liquefied the steel." The report goes on to describe that the "sulfidation attack of steel grain boundaries accelerated the corrosion and erosion of the steel" and concluded that this is "a very unusual event" where "no clear
explanation for the source of the sulfur has been identified." What is so very interesting about this is: A) that experts found no explanation for what they observed; and B) that the thermate variant of thermite includes sulfur in order to increase its ability to burn through steel. Sulfur causes the iron to become brittle. Together with oxygen, which is also released during the burning of thermite/thermate, it is a substance that is carefully removed from steel during the processing stages.

Despite the fact that NIST refused to look for molten steel or test for thermate compounds, they did find time to theorize a bit on how much of an ineffective substance thermite would have been for achieving a controlled demolition. From the NIST FAQ:

 
"Analysis of the WTC steel for the elements in thermite/thermate would not necessarily have been conclusive. The metal compounds also would have been present in the construction materials making up the WTC towers, and sulfur is present in the gypsum wallboard that was prevalent in the interior partitions."

So according to NIST, gypsum wallboard is the most likely reason that steel beams may have been liquefied. If that is a serious suspicion of them, maybe they should be ringing the alarm bells, because gypsum wallboard is extremely common in office buildings.

Here we actually enter the territory again of Dr. Steven Jones, the physicist who examined the World Trade Center dust. He claimed that there were unusual amounts of sulfur, tiny
Beam
Jonathan H. Cole, convincingly disproving here that gypsum wall board could have been responsible for any erosion of the WTC beams, even under the most extreme conditions.
 
iron spheres and the oxidizer potassium permanganate in them - all of them indicating thermate reactions. There seems to be virtually no one who is willing to challenge these claims, except for a few badly produced Youtube clips. In them the NIST claim is repeated that gypsum wallboard is the most likely source for the sulfur found in the world trade center dust, that paint and electronic devices have been responsible for the iron spheres and that potassium permanganate can be found in structural steel, paint, batteries and ceramics. Most of these arguments appear to be quite shaky and certainly always isolated from the bigger picture.

One person who actually went out and disproved the claim from NIST that gypsum wallboard could have
been responsible for the extreme degradation in the controversial FEMA debris pieces, is Jonathan H. Cole, a civil engineer by profession. In a December 2010 Youtube clip entitled 9/11 Experiments: The Mysterious Eutectic Steel, he wrapped gypsum wallboard all around a large I-beam, added diesel fuel, bound everything together with a steel net and left it out on a fire for 24 hours. After two days, when the pile had cooled down, he inspected the I-beam: no intergranular melting had taken place whatsoever and certainly no holes could be detected.

Cole convincingly debunked another claim that can be found in the FAQ on the NIST website:

 
"While a thermite reaction can cut through large steel columns, many thousands of pounds of thermite would need to have been placed inconspicuously ahead of time, remotely ignited, and somehow held in direct contact with the surface of hundreds of massive structural components to weaken the building. This makes it an unlikely substance for achieving a controlled demolition."

Information on thermate is so lacking that even today, anno 2012, it is still impossible to find much detail on its use in demolition work or even exactly how good it is in cutting steel.
Unsurprisingly, there have been at least two attempts by the mainstream media to help NIST in supporting the theory that thermite could not have been used to bring down the world trade center towers. National Geographic proudly demonstrated how 175 pounds of thermite stashed around a steel column in the open air was unable to melt it. Mythbusters then failed to melt a car in two pieces with half a ton of thermite. All of sudden it didn't matter anymore that the structural strength of the steel would have been severely compromised during these experiments. Weakening, not melting, had always been the major premise of the World Trade Center collapses. But that was put aside for a moment.

There's zero structure in the experiments done and the claims made by all these mainstream sources. This
 
Jonathan_H_Coleman_thermate_cutting
Jonathan H. Cole, proving here that thermate can easily be used as demolition compound. If the burning process is focused, it will cut through steel like butter. However, details of the WTC collapse indicate that thermate was actually used in huge quantities.
in contrast to other experiments done by Jonathan Cole. In his November 2010 Youtube clip 9/11 Experiments: The Great Thermate Debate, he set out to answer three basic questions: 1) Can thermate melt steel? 2) Can thermate cut steel horizontally or vertically? 3) Does it take massive quantities to do any real damage? He welded two large steel I-beams together in his backyard and began experimenting with a home-made thermate compound consisting of iron oxide, aluminum, barium nitrate and sulfur. His first experiment, in which he pressed five pounds of thermate to each side of a beam, failed; it didn't affect the construction at all. Then he began using a modified steel box tube with a slot milled along one edge, forcing the thermate out in one direction (similar to the idea behind a shaped charge). All of a sudden 1,5 pounds of thermate turned out to be enough to cut through the steel. In later set-ups he demolished large vertical beams, bolts and box columns, all of which were present at the World Trade Center. He also made his thermate deflagrate, causing the typical "pressure pulses" and "dust puffs" seen on various occasions on 9/11. For those thinking that there is a conventional explanation for this phenomenon, NIST actually claimed that "the sources for the pressure pulses … and/or dust puffs … are unknown". So who knows what they were, especially the ones that took place while the buildings were still standing.

Evidence for the use of massive amounts of thermate to simulate a collapse

The evidence for thermate is strong - ridiculously strong to be exact. Questions that remain at this point is how much thermate was actually used and where it was placed in the building. As for the latter question, the primary idea of Kevin Ryan, who investigated some of the steel of the World Trade Center, seems to be that there was thermite in or behind the fireproofing on some floors. It is indeed a fact that the floors from which the collapses were initiated, had received additional fireproofing in the years before 9/11. According to NIST:

 
"In the years between 1995 and 2001, thermal protection was upgraded in a number of the floors affected by the fires on September 11, 2001. Specifically, in WTC 1, floors 92 through 100 and 102 were upgraded; and in WTC 2, floors 77, 78, 88, 89, 92, 96 and 97 were upgraded." [9]

The WTC 1 impact floors were 94 to 98 and for WTC 2 they were 78 to 84. The primary floor to fail in the collapse of WTC 1 was clearly 98 (also according to NIST). In case of WTC 2 this appears to have been floors 77 and 78. And as the reader can see, these floors all had their fireproofing upgraded in the years before 9/11. One major problem, however, is the lack of details when these floors were actually upgraded. A list of modifications made to various World Trade Center floors, appearing in a different segment of the NIST report, fails to mention some of the floors where reportedly the fireproofing was upgraded. [10] There are also very few details as to what type of modifications were actually made, precisely when they were made and who carried them out. Basically, the theory that thermate was placed inside the buildings via fireproofing upgrades comes down to speculation, especially when these upgrades were done several years prior to 9/11. However, it does remain a viable theory.

Jonathan Cole, on the other hand, primarily focuses on the idea that small thermite charges were brought into the building and attached to I-beams and perimeter box columns. Unfortunately he doesn't focus on the core columns, which were (massive) box columns up until floor 85 of both buildings, with lighter I-beams being used above that.

WTC beams
1) WTC core columns being cut up and shipped off prematurely. 2) Crumpled I-beams. 3) Perimeter box columns, including a square hole used to tighten the bolts after the columns have been stacked on top of each other.

To me it does make sense that bolts of the perimeter box columns were attacked. The rather symmetrical smoke puffs along the corners of the building and at least one bright flash may even provide a degree of evidence for that. 60% of the weight of the building was carried by the core; 40% by the perimeter columns, with the towers having been designed five times stronger than they needed to be. Anybody interested in taking the buildings down, would probably not take any changes and just sever the perimeter box columns from each other in various places. The alternative is that the core may go down much faster than the outside of the building, making the pancake theory considerably harder to sell.

This information really makes one think. How is it even possible that in case of the north tower 9 floors fail (at floor 98) and manage to crash straight through 97 floors below it, 92 of which were fully intact. Central core columns used on lower floors were much bigger and stronger than the I-beams in use on the upper-most floors. How come that these 8 ton, 20 ton and 50 ton columns sticking straight up from the ground failed in a way like they weren't even there - often without any visible damage on them. How did this happen? And... at what point wouldn't the building have completely collapsed from top to bottom? If the hijackers had flown into the 100th to 104th floor of the North Tower, would the building still have collapsed to the ground in mere seconds? If the official version is true, it sounds as if the World Trade Center towers had a few serious design flaws in them.

These kind of theoretical questions really aren't necessary though. We have already found a ton of evidence that the collapses of the towers were aided by explosives and thermite. And it seems that heat played a major part in many of these beams failing. Below the reader can find two pictures of columns that were bent during the collapse.

bent_beams

In the 2002 Relics from the Rubble documentary on the History Channel the beam on the right was shown to two metal workers. This is what they had to say about it:

 
"[Narrator:] This eight-ton steel I-beam is six inches thick. It was selected to be preserved for future generations for the near perfect horseshoe-like bent, formed during the collapse. [Metalworker:] I found it hard to believe that it had actually bent because of the size of it and there are no cracks in the iron. It bent without almost a single crack in it. It takes thousands of degrees to bend steel like this. [A colleague of the metalworker:] Typically you have buckling and tearing on the tension side. There is no buckling at all."

Having so much evidence for the use of thermate and assuming that this wasn't the only beam (apparently) deformed by extreme heat, all of a sudden many other deformed columns look suspect. There were many beams in the World Trade Center rubble that were crumpled in very smooth ways, quite possibly indicating great heat. I would like to see a few experiments as to how steel bents under various temperatures, but for the time being I side with those people who think that deformations like the following suspect.

WTC bent

Even that one 8 ton beam just discussed presents us with a bit of a problem. It is actually NIST that has explained why:

 
"[Thermite] burns slowly relative to explosive materials and would require several minutes in contact with a massive steel section to heat it to a temperature that would result in substantial weakening. Separate from the WTC towers investigation, NIST researchers estimated that at least 0.13 pounds of thermite would be required to heat each pound of a steel section to approximately 700 degrees Celsius (the temperature at which steel weakens substantially)."

Having some limited experience with thermite, this seems to be quite a fair estimate. But that would mean that over 1,000 pounds of thermite had to be lighted inside the building to reach temperatures necessary for this one beam to bend in the way it did - and even that is on the assumption that burning jet fuel and office furniture would have extensively preheated the beam. Considering that this beam was at floor 98 and that there were 46 core columns in total, we are looking at a minimum of about 46,000 pounds of thermite that would have been necessary to heat all the steel to the point that the building would almost certainly collapse. If we assume that thermate was used, a few thousand pounds less may have done the job - it burns hotter and quicker through steel.

Possibly these estimates are overstated. Thermate placed against or inside a column would locally result in temperatures of 1,800°F/1,000°C or higher (as the FEMA study alone demonstrated). Still, evidence from ground zero shows that entire beams were heated to the point of glowing red hot, orange, yellow and even white - so 46,000 pounds, or 20 tons per building may not at all be an unrealistic estimate. Thermite is the only way to have made the collapses look natural and/or limit the amount of (noisy) explosives needed to bring the towers down. Whoever decided to put the material in there is unlikely to have been conservative with the amount used. An estimated amount of 20 tons or more also immediately explains the extreme heat underneath the World Trade Center clean up site which lasted for months. How likely is it that even 5 or 10 tons of thermate for both towers and WTC 7 - largely burned up by the time the towers collapsed - could produce temperatures of "more than 2,800 degrees F [1540°C]" [11] in such a giant pile of heat-conducting rubble? It's my personal estimate that probably a lot more than 5 or 10 tons of thermate was used in those buildings.

Let's say 50,000 pounds of thermate and explosives were brought into each building. Depending on the crew needed, it would take anywhere between 10 and 25 small moving
vans to transport the materials to the WTC's underground parking lot. From there everything would have been taken up the elevators and placed in predetermined positions. However it was done, security appears not to have paid much attention. Unfortunately we need unedited 24-hour-a-day security footage of the WTC to ever verify if suspicious activity was going on in the days and weeks before 9/11. Unlikely to happen.

One interesting question to ponder is why both thermate and explosives were used, as the latter largely ruined the chances of producing a natural, unsuspicious collapse. Most likely charges were used to control the collapse. The buildings had to collapse all the way to the ground for maximum dramatic effect and insure popular support for new, massive incursions into the Middle East. If the columns would have been weakened with thermate alone, most likely the towers would have been decapitated with the top portions falling over, but the remainder of the tower still standing erect. Blowing the charges allowed sudden, full-on
 
collapse_wtc_911
The more you think about it, the more ridiculous it becomes that relatively few and light weight floors, especially in case of the North Tower, were able to crash straight through the buildings without breaking apart or sliding off. At the bottom there were core columns of up to 50 tons. Going higher columns were 20 tons and closer to the top more like 8 tons. Talk about taking the path of maximum resistance.
collapses and made it possible to advance the pancaking theory. Thermate may just have been used to limit the amount of explosives needed and weaken the steel to a point that there's not too much resistance on the way down. None of this is certain, of course.

smoke_after_collapse
Smoke over Lower Manhattan after the South Tower collapse. Besides crushed concrete floors, might any of this be related to the white smoke thermate is known to produce?

9/11 timeline including evidence for explosions and thermate

Now that we have discussed all the evidence for explosives and thermate at the World Trade Center, it might be interesting to put together a brief timeline of events. The following timeline is completely based on the above eyewitnesses testimonies and some of the visual evidence. It's basically a summary of events for that day.

Brief timeline
September 8-9
According to Scott Forbes, senior database administrator at Fiduciary Trust, it was this weekend that power in the upper half of the South Tower was shut down. Three weeks' notice was given, considered by Forbes to be on relatively short notice. Apparently this had never happened since the period of the first WTC bombing in 1993. Forbes said that the Port Authority and 9/11 Commission were not interested in recording this information.
8:46 AM on 9/11
1) Flight 11 impact at the 94th to 98th floor of WTC 1, the North Tower, 33 minutes after the first signs of trouble with the airliner. All the floors are occupied by insurance firm Marsh and McLennan.

2) Reported explosion around the 43rd floor at the same time as the impact of Flight 11. It sends people flying on considerably lower floors. A water pipe breaks and patches of ceiling can be found on the floor. Explanation: this could well be an elevator crashing down to the sky lobby at the 44th floor.

3) Personnel in the Security Command Center at floor 22 of the North Tower is trapped immediately after the first impact when debris falls in front of the door. This appears to have been caused due to a fireball in the elevator shaft that blows out one of the walls around floors 22 to 25. The men are rescued by colleagues and firemen around 10:00 AM. Various witnesses report seeing the partial collapse on these floors as they go down. No one on these floors has reported explosions indications bombs, however.

3) Explosions in subbasement level B/C of both towers during plane impacts, which can be explained by 20-ton elevators with burning kerosene slamming into the loading docks.

4) An audio recording may have captured additional explosions or, maybe more likely, elevators coming down.
8:58 AM
A FBI recording made that day records how "a loud rumbling fills the air ... 12 minutes after American Airlines Flight 11 hit the first building." No fighter jets were in the area at this moment and Flight 175 was still five minutes out, leading to the obvious question what was being recorded on tape at this very moment. Possibly it's a honest mistake, but the article on the recording clearly states that Flight 175 impacted at 9:03 AM and appears to talk about the period between this noise and the impact of Flight 175. Possibly it was the explosion going off in WTC 7 that almost killed Barry Jennings and Michael Hess.
8:58 AM (possibly)
Barry Jennings and Michael Hess, a lawyer for Mayor Giuliani, go up the 23rd floor of WTC 7, to the Office of Emergency Management. Already on his way over to work did Jennings hear that a "small Cessna" just hit the World Trade Center. Jennings and Hess learn that building 7 was abandoned after the initial World Trade Center impact. The lights suddenly go out and they decide to take the stairs back down. After making it to about the 7th floor, there's a large explosion that wipes out the lobby and collapses the staircase, trapping them inside the building. They won't be saved until noon. Both Jennings and Hess provide their accounts to the media live on 9/11. Jennings later explained that he heard many other explosions during his involuntary stay at WTC 7, apparently coming from inside.
9:03 AM
1) Flight 175 impacts the 78th to 84th floor of WTC 2, the South Tower, 22 minutes after the first signs of trouble with the airplane. Baseline Financial Services and Fuji Bank are located here, both with very important connections that are very similar to those of Marsh and Mclennan.

2) A camera picks up strong vibrations about 15 seconds before impact, which may or may not be the result of explosions. Many spots with smoke puffs appear at the upper portion of the North Tower at the exact moment that Flight 175 impacts the South Tower - completely on the other side of the other building. This has been my own observation after theorizing that the impact of Flight 175 would be an ideal time to blow a few additional charges on the South Tower. If that has been the case, I can't say for sure, of course. Go look it up yourself.

3) People at the 67th floor think that an explosion below them has taken place when debris and smoke is coming up the staircase. The sky lobby is still 23 floors below them and firemen coming up the building report an explosion "near the the 60th floor". For what it's worth, Morgan Stanley's offices are located on the 59th to 74th floor.
9:37 AM
According to NIST: "The video shot from the WTC plaza captured an intriguing event at 9:37:04 a.m. A jet of air, dust, and a large piece of debris was ejected from a window, 77-355, on the 77th floor at an extremely high velocity. Longer distance videos show that puffs of smoke and or dust appeared simultaneously on the east face from several open windows near the center of the 78th floor and from open windows on the north side of the 79th floor." Actually, "pressure pulses" become visible at floor 80 about 1,7 seconds after the first "pressure pulse" on floor 77. They force a man to climb out of the window, causing him to fall down. These floors belong to Baseline Financial Services and Fuji Bank.
9:45 AM (approx.)
According to NYFD chief Albert Turi, an explosion is heard in one of the towers and he speculates that one bomb might have been on board the airplane and another planted inside the building. At this point his men are already evacuating the towers because it appears to them that a "secondary device" has gone off. The reporter interviewing Turi says they "are continuing to hear explosions", although fire officials explain that they might be exploding gas lines.
9:55 AM
Molten metal is first spotted coming down from one corner of the South Tower. Molten steel due to the use of thermate is a major suspect these days. At 9:57 AM the molten metal really breaks through the outside wall of the building, causing regular showers that are visible to people on the streets below.
9:59 AM
1) Sudden collapse of the South Tower, initiated by a loud rumble immediately followed by a huge boom. Virtually every witness on the ground talks about one or more explosions and how the collapse looks like a controlled demolition.

2) EMS worker Karin Deshore reports seeing flashes "around the middle" of the South Tower immediately prior to its collapse. She is clearly hinting at controlled demolition. The offices in this area are rented by Morgan Stanley (floor 56 and 59-74) and just below that, floors 47-55, by Guy Carpenter, owned for decades by Marsh and McLennan. Wedged in between the offices of Morgan Stanley, on floors 57 and 58, is Bridge Information Systems, at the time "the second-biggest dispenser of financial news and data in the world". The company is bought by Reuters a month after 9/11.

3) Two senior firefighters, Lieutenant Evangelista and assistant commissioner Stephen Gregory, see flashes around the first and second floor when the collapse begins. They are so flabbergasted by what they see that it takes a while before they dare to admit it to each other. Two mechanical floors of the WTC tower can be found at the location in question.

4) A less reliable reporter has quote a witness saying he also saw flashes immediately prior to the collapse, around floors 10 to 15.
10:28 AM
Collapse of the North Tower. The last people out of the building, including police officer Sue Keane and firefighter Louie Cacchioli, report being thrown around by explosions immediately prior to the collapse. Explosions are reported on the lower floors of 7 and 8 (possibly during the collapse of the other tower) and at at least two locations near the 24th floor.
10:38 AM
A huge explosion is heard in the vicinity of the World Trade Center complex. In total at least three are heard in the aftermath and some are recorded on tape.
5:21 AM
WTC 7 collapse. Virtually no witnesses about the collapse are cited in the media, but the few live reports that are available clearly indicate controlled demolition, as does the visual evidence.

Summary of part 1: controlled demolition: yes or no?

I still can't believe it myself, but the evidence discussed up until this point is really more or less conclusive: the World Trade Center was demolished by a combination of explosives and thermate. Maybe it will always be impossible for outsiders to say with certainty that the towers were brought down with explosives, but let's be realistic, it is irrational at this point to accept the official version of events with so much evidence pointing towards an entirely different direction. Scientific thinking is about picking the theory that fits all of the facts best, and for now, I'm sorry to say, that is controlled demolition. More evidence is absolutely welcome though.

Primary arguments for controlled demolition made in this article include:

  1. It's the only position that absolutely no one is allowed to take, certainly not in the media or in political circles.
  2. Just about every witness on the ground that day reported that the collapses were initiated by loud explosions. Virtually no one described a collapse in the traditional sense of the word: creaking and squeaking, visible signs of instability, partial collapse, full collapse. A traditional collapse would also have been more believable if the fires hadn't been diminishing as time went on.
  3. Loud booms were indeed caught on video, just as the witnesses have described. As this article has demonstrated, these booms definitely and conclusively were not the result of pancaking floors.
  4. Both towers collapsed with near free fall speed. This is especially peculiar with the North Tower: the 9 upper-most floors fail and the entire building comes crashing down to the ground within seconds. Keep in mind that the columns on lower floors were much thicker and much stronger than at the top of the building, but somehow got pushed out of the way like they weren't even there.
  5. Personnel working on ground zero in the aftermath of the attacks all describe extreme underground heat which lasted for months and in certain places melted their boots. Temperatures measured were high enough to melt steel, which was actually observed in many places. This is not even remotely possible with office fires, or even with smaller amounts of thermate. Tons of this incendiary material would have had to be present in the buildings to explain the extreme heat. NIST denies knowing anything about molten steel, despite all the publicly available evidence.
  6. FEMA found clear evidence that thermate had partially liquefied a steel I beam inside one of the World Trade Center towers. NIST refused to do any follow-up analysis, despite having been pressured over the issue by various private investigators.
  7. The clean up of steel from ground zero began immediately. No one tested the steel for traces of explosives, thermate or extreme heat. The vast majority of the steel was soon shipped off to China where it was smelted.
  8. The 9/11 Commission never looked into the question of controlled demolition. From the very beginning it had decided that Middle Eastern terrorists were to blame and primarily focused on the question why U.S. government agencies had been unable to prevent the attack.

Part 2: Who did it?

Important websites

As far as I'm still aware:

911Review.com
911Research.WTC7.net
Daniel Hopsicker

Notes

[1]
May 16, 2002, American Society of Safety Engineers, 'Members Recall Massive Devastation, Sorrow While Working at WTC': "Within hours of the 9/11 terrorist attacks the Safety, Health and Environmental (SH&E) professionals for the Bechtel Group found themselves at the door of hell, the World Trade Center (Ground Zero) ... Thermal measurements taken by helicopter each day showed underground temperatures ranging from 400 degrees F to more than 2,800 degrees F due to the ongoing underground fires."
[2]
June 22, 2010, CML Army Chemical Review, 'Dragons in flight: the common CBRN lineage of the Army and Air Force': "Another incendiary bomb procured by the CWS was the AN-M50 series, which was modified from a British incendiary bomb. This was a small, 4-pound, magnesium-cased bomblet with a thermite core and a fuze. The bomblet burned at extremely high temperatures for up to 7 minutes. The USAAF and U.S. allies dropped more than 30 million AN-M50s (which were normally dropped in 500-pound clusters) on Europe and more than 10 million on Japan."
[3]
Document on www.ammunitionpages.com, 'Incendiary bomb TH3 M50A3': "This small incendiary bomb was filled with thermate and it had a total weight of 1.6kg. Thermate is an incendiary pyrotechnic composition, a thermite-like compound used for military applications. Thermate, whose primary component is thermite, also contains sulfur and sometimes barium nitrate, both of which increase its thermal effect, create flame in burning, and significantly reduce the ignition temperature. Various mixtures of these compounds can be called thermate, but, to avoid confusion with Thermate-TH3, one can refer to them as thermite variants or analogs. The composition by weight of Thermate-TH3 (in military use) is: 68.7% thermite, 29.0% barium nitrate, 2.0% sulfur and 0.3% binder."
[4]
'Low-Cost Production of Nanostructured Super-Thermites'. Navy SBIR 2008.1 - Topic N08-020 NAVAIR - Mrs. Janet McGovern - navair.sbir@navy.mil Opens: December 10, 2007 - Closes: January 9, 2008: "OBJECTIVE: Develop a safe, low-cost, high performance, high production rate method of preparing nanostructured super-thermite materials."
www.navysbir.com/n08_1/n081-020.htm
[5]
The Open Chemical Physics Journal (Bentham Open), pp. 7-31, Steven E. Jones, Kevin R. Ryan a.o., 'Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe'.
www.benthamscience.com/open/tocpj/articles/V002/7TOCPJ.pdf
[6]
www.patentbuddy.com/Patent/5532449: "US Patent No: 5,532,449: Using plasma ARC and thermite to demolish concrete ... Issued date: Jul 1, 1996. Fling date: Aug 28, 1994. ... Status: Expired. ... A plasma arc can be employed to demolish a concrete structure at a high efficiency, while preventing a secondary problem due to noise, flying dust and chips, and the like. The concrete structure can be demolished by melting a surface of the concrete structure by generating a plasma arc from a plasma torch (15) of a plasma arc generator, mixing thermite powder (T) with a supply gas (Gc) for the plasma torch (15), directing the plasma arc at the surface of the concrete structure, and controlling the rate of supply of the thermite powder (T) to the plasma torch (15) in response to the operation of the plasma arc, including initiating and stopping the supply of the thermite powder (T) to the plasma torch (15) in a manner coordinated with the initiation and stoppage of the plasma arc, thereby controlling the heat generated by the thermite reaction, and melting the surface of the concrete structure. The plasma generator (1) can be provided with a feeder (20) for mixing the thermite powder (T) with the supply gas (Gc), and controller (30) for controlling the rate of supply of the thermite powder (T) or for stopping the supply of the thermite powder (T). ... Patent owner: KOMATSU LTD. ... Inventor name: Murakami, Taku ... Address: Irvine, CA."
[7]
April 14-15, 2007, Steven Jones, speech for Project for the New American Citizen, University of Austin Texas. Shows a slide with replies from NIST.
[8] Ibid.
[9] NIST report, NCSTAR1-6A, p. xxxvii.
[10] NIST report, NCSTAR1-1H, pp. 56-57. [copies: WTC1 and WTC2 alterations]
[11]
May 16, 2002, American Society of Safety Engineers, 'Members Recall Massive Devastation, Sorrow While Working at WTC': "Within hours of the 9/11 terrorist attacks the Safety, Health and Environmental (SH&E) professionals for the Bechtel Group found themselves at the door of hell, the World Trade Center (Ground Zero) ... Thermal measurements taken by helicopter each day showed underground temperatures ranging from 400 degrees F to more than 2,800 degrees F due to the ongoing underground fires."